Haplogroup Q-M25

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Haplogroup Q-M25
Possible time of origin Insufficient Data
Possible place of origin Asia
Ancestor Q-F1096
Defining mutations M25

Haplogroup Q-M25, also known as Q1a1b is a subclade or branch of human Y-DNA haplogroup Q-F1096 (Q1a1), which is, in turn, a subclade of Q-MEH2 (Q1a). In human genetics, each Y-DNA haplogroup consititutes a biological paternal lineages back to a shared common male ancestor.


Q-M25 has descendants in modern populations across all of Eurasia. Recent studies in the Turkmen of Iran and Afghanistan suggest, it is semi dominant in Turkmenistan. Only two detailed studies on the y-dna in Turkmenistan have taken place, one found that the Turkmenistan in Afghanistan have 33.78% Q-M35 [1], another study found that 42.6 percent of Iranian Turkmens have haplogroup Q-M25 (also known as Q1a2) [2]

The Americas[edit]

Q-M25 has not been detected in pre-Columbian populations in the Americas.


Q-M25 has been detected in the Northeast of East Asia, in South Asia, and across Central Asia.[1][2][3] Though present at low frequencies, it may be one of the more widely distributed branches of Q-M242 in Asia.

Population Paper N Percentage SNP Tested
Turkmen Iran Grugni 2012[4] 6/184 ~42.6% M25 & M143
Turkmen Afghanistan Cristofaro 2013[citation needed] 6/184 ~33.8% M25 & M143
Central Asia & Siberia Underhill 2000[2] 6/184 ~3.26% M25 & M143
Kalmyks Malyarchuk 2011[1] 1/60 ~1.70% M25
Han (Shanxi) Zhong 2010[3] 1/56 ~1.79% M25
Uygur (Xingjiang) Zhong 2010[3] 1/71 ~1.41% M25
Uygur (Xingjiang) Zhong 2010[3] 1/50 ~2.00% M25

West Asia[edit]

The frequency of Q-M25 varies greatly across West Asia. An extreme peak is seen in the Turkmen of Golestan.[4] Across the whole of Iran it varies from over 9 percent of the population in the north to only 2 to 3 percent of the population in the south.[5] The frequency of Q-M25 drops to only about 1 percent of the population of Lebanon's Muslims, and it is absent from the non-Muslim population there.[6] However, its presence in the Marsh Arabs of Iraq hints that Q-M25's West Asian history extends beyond a single localized recent founder.[7]

Population Paper N Percentage SNP Tested
Marsh Arabs Al-Zahery 2011[7] 1/143 ~0.70% M25
Iraqi Arabs Al-Zahery 2011[7] 0/154 ~0.00% M25
Iran (North) Regueiro 2006[5] 3/33 ~9.09% M25
Iran (South) Regueiro 2006[5] 3/117 ~2.56% M25
Iran (Azeri) Grugni 2012[4] 1/63 ~1.60% M25
Iran (Turkmen of Golestan) Grugni 2012[4] 29/68 ~42.6% M25
Lebanon (Non-Muslim) Zalloua 2008[6] 0/482 ~0.00% M25
Lebanon (Muslim) Zalloua 2008[6] 4/432 ~0.93% M25


Q-M25 is present across modern Turkey[8] and in Eastern Europe.

Population Paper N Percentage SNP Tested
East Anatolia Cinnioglu 2004[8] 1/82 ~1.20% M25

Associated SNP's[edit]

Haplogroup Q-M25 is defined by the presence of the M25 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) as well as the M143, L714, and L716 SNPs.

Phylogenetic Tree[edit]

This is Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center's Draft tree Proposed Tree for haplogroup Q-M25.

  • Q-M25 M25, M143, L714, L716
    • Q-L712 L712
      • Q-L713 L697.2, L713, L715, M365.3

See also[edit]

Y-DNA Q-M242 Subclades[edit]

Y-DNA Backbone Tree[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups [n 1] [n 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [n 3]
A0 A1[n 4]
A1* A1a A1b
A1b* A1b1 BT
I J LT (K1)  K2
L T MPS (K2b) NO (K2a) K2c K2d K2e [n 5]
  1. ^ van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as ex-K2a and/or "Haplogroup X".


  1. ^ a b Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Denisova, Galina; Maksimov, Arkady; Wozniak, Marcin; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Dambueva, Irina; Zakharov, Ilya (2011). "Ancient links between Siberians and Native Americans revealed by subtyping the Y chromosome haplogroup Q1a". Journal of Human Genetics 56 (8): 583–8. doi:10.1038/jhg.2011.64. PMID 21677663. 
  2. ^ a b Underhill, Peter A.; Shen, Peidong; Lin, Alice A.; Jin, Li; Passarino, Giuseppe; Yang, Wei H.; Kauffman, Erin; Bonné-Tamir, Batsheva et al. (2000). "Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations". Nature Genetics 26 (3): 358–61. doi:10.1038/81685. PMID 11062480. 
  3. ^ a b c d Zhong, H.; Shi, H.; Qi, X.-B.; Duan, Z.-Y.; Tan, P.-P.; Jin, L.; Su, B.; Ma, R. Z. (2010). "Extended Y Chromosome Investigation Suggests Postglacial Migrations of Modern Humans into 42.6East Asia via the Northern Route". Molecular Biology and Evolution 28 (1): 717–27. doi:10.1093/molbev/msq247. PMID 20837606. 
  4. ^ a b c d Grugni, Viola; Battaglia, Vincenza; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Parolo, Silvia; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Gandini, Francesca et al. (2012). Kivisild, Toomas, ed. "Ancient Migratory Events in the Middle East: New Clues from the Y-Chromosome Variation of Modern Iranians". PLoS ONE 7 (7): e41252. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041252. PMC 3399854. PMID 22815981. 
  5. ^ a b c Regueiro M, Cadenas AM, Gayden T, Underhill PA, Herrera RJ (2006). "Iran: tricontinental nexus for Y-chromosome driven migration". Hum. Hered. 61 (3): 132–43. doi:10.1159/000093774. PMID 16770078. 
  6. ^ a b c Zalloua, Pierre A.; Xue, Y; Khalife, J; Makhoul, N; Debiane, L; Platt, DE; Royyuru, AK; Herrera, RJ et al. (2008). "Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Lebanon Is Structured by Recent Historical Events". American Journal of Human Genetics 82 (4): 873–882. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.01.020. PMC 2427286. PMID 18374297. 
  7. ^ a b c Al-Zahery, Nadia; Pala, Maria; Battaglia, Vincenza; Grugni, Viola; Hamod, Mohammed A; Kashani, Baharak; Olivieri, Anna; Torroni, Antonio; Santachiara-Benerecetti, Augusta S; Semino, Ornella (2011). "In search of the genetic footprints of Sumerians: A survey of Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation in the Marsh Arabs of Iraq". BMC Evolutionary Biology 11: 288. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-288. PMC 3215667. PMID 21970613. 
  8. ^ a b Cinnioğlu C, King R, Kivisild T et al. (January 2004). "Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia". Hum. Genet. 114 (2): 127–48. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4. PMID 14586639. 

External links[edit]