Haplogroup GHIJK

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Haplogroup GHIJK
Possible time of originapprox. 45,000-50,000 BCE
(i.e. similar to estimates for F and G)
Possible place of originSouth West Asia
AncestorF (F-M89)
DescendantsG, HIJK
Defining mutationsM3658/F1329/PF2622/YSC0001299, CTS2254/M3680/PF2657, FGC2045/Z12203[1]

Haplogroup GHIJK, defined by the SNPs M3658, F1329, PF2622, and YSC0001299,[1] is a common Y-chromosome haplogroup. This macrohaplogroup and its subclades contain the vast majority of the world's existing male population.

Phylogeny[edit]

GHIJK is the major clade of Haplogroup F (F-M89). It branches subsequently into two direct descendants: Haplogroup G (M201/PF2957) and Haplogroup HIJK (F929/M578/PF3494/S6397). The other haplotypes of Haplogroup F are F1, F2, and F3.

Subclades of GHIJK, under the HIJK lineage, include: H (L901/M2939) and IJK (F-L15). The downstream descendants of Haplogroup IJK include the major haplogroups I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S and T.

Distribution[edit]

The basal paragroup GHIJK* has not been identified in living males or ancient remains.

Populations with high proportions of descendant haplogroups were predominant, before the modern era, in males across widely-dispersed areas and populations. These include:

Footnotes[edit]

See also[edit]

Genetics[edit]

Backbone Tree[edit]

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ K
I   J     LT [χ 5]       K2 [χ 6]
L     T    K2a [χ 7]        K2b [χ 8]     K2c     K2d K2e [χ 9]  
K-M2313 [χ 10]     K2b1 [χ 11] P [χ 12]
NO   S [χ 13]  M [χ 14]    P1     P2
N O Q R