Haplogroup P1 (Y-DNA)

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Haplogroup P1
(P-M45; K2b2a)
Possible place of origin South East Asia/East Asia [1][2][3]
Ancestor P* (P-P295)[4]
Descendants Q (Q-M242) and
R (R-M207).
Defining mutations M45/PF5962

Haplogroup P1 also known as P-M45 and K2b2a is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup in human genetics. Defined by the SNPs M45 and PF5962, P1 is a primary branch (subclade) of P* (P-P295; K2b2).

The only primary subclades of P1 are Haplogroup Q (Q-M242) and Haplogroup R (R-M207). These haplogroups now comprise most of the male lineages among Native Americans, Europeans, Central Asia and South Asia, among other parts of the world.

P1 (M45) likely originated in East Asia or South East Asia,[2][1] even though basal P1* (P1xQ,R) is now most common among individuals in Eastern Siberia and Central Asia. That is: both P* (or K2b2) and its precursor, K2b, reach their highest rates among members of the Aeta (or Agta) people of Luzon in the Philippines,[3][1] and; Luzon is also the only location at which P*, P1 and haplogroup P2 (P-B253; K2b2b), the only other primary subclade of P*, have been found together.[5][1] However, these matters are insufficiently researched. While it is possible that P1 (P-M45) originated in Island South East Asia or Sundaland, during the last major ice age, P1 may instead have arrived later in the Philippines as a result of back-migration.

Structure[edit]

The subclades of Haplogroup P1 with their defining mutation, according to the 2016 ISOGG tree:[5]

  • P1 (M45/PF5962)
    • Q (M242)
      • Q1 (L232/S432)
    • R (M207, P224, P227, P229, P232, P280, P285, L248.2, V45)
      • R1 (M173/P241/Page29)
      • R2 (M479/PF6107)

Modern distribution[edit]

P1* (P-M45*)[edit]

The modern populations with high frequencies of P1* (P1xQ,R) are located in Central Asia and Eastern Siberia:

Modern South Asian populations also feature P1 (M45) at low to moderate frequencies.[7] In South Asia, P-M45 is most frequent among the Muslims of Manipur (Pangal), 33%), but this may be due to a very small sample size (nine individuals). It is possible that many cases of P-M45* in South Asia and Central Asia are unresolved members of subclades such as Haplogroups R2 and Q.

Population group (with ethnolinguistic affiliation) Paper N Percentage SNPs Tested
Tuvinian (Turkic) Darenko 2005 113 35.40 P-M45
Nivkh (isolate) Lell 2001 17 35 P-M45
Altai-Kizhi (Altaians) (Turkic) Darenko 2005 92 28.3 P-M45
Todjin (Turkic) Darenko 2005 36 22.2 P-M45
Chukchi (Chukotkan) Lell 2001 24 20.8 P-M45
Koryak (Chukotkan) Lell 2001 27 18.5 P-M45
Yupik (Eskimo-Aleut) Lell 2001 33 18.2 P-M45
Uighur (Turkic) Xue 2006 70 17.1 P-M45
Kalmyk (Mongolic) Darenko 2005 68 11.8 P-M45
Turkmen (Turkic) Wells 2001 30 10 P-M45
Soyot (Turkic) Darenko 2005 34 8.8 P-M45
Uriankhai (Mongolic) Katoh 2004 60 8.3 P-M45
Khakas (Turkic) Darenko 2005 53 7.6 P-M45
Kazakh (Turkic) Wells 2001 54 5.6 P-M45
Uzbek (Turkic) Wells 2001 366 5.5 P-M45
Khasi-Khmuic (Austro-Asiatic) Reddy 2009 353 5.40 P-M45(xM173) §
Munda (Austro-Asiatic) Reddy 2009 64 10.90 P-M45(xM173) §
Nicobarese (Mon-Khmer) Reddy 2009 11 0.00 P-M45(xM173) §
Southeast Asia (Austro-Asiatic) Reddy 2009 257 1.60 P-M45(xM173) §
Garo (Tibeto-Burman) Reddy 2009 71 1.40 P-M45(xM173) §
India (Tibeto-Burman) Reddy 2009 226 3.10 P-M45(xM173) §
East Asia (Tibeto-Burman) Reddy 2009 214 0.00 P-M45(xM173) §
Eastern India (Indo-European) Reddy 2009 54 18.50 P-M45(xM173) §
Iran (Southern Talysh) Nasidze 2009 50 4.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Azerbaijan (Northern Talysh) Nasidze 2009 40 5.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Mazandarani (Iranian) Nasidze 2009 50 4.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Gilaki (Iranian) Nasidze 2009 50 0.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Tehran (Iranian) Nasidze 2004 80 4.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Isfahan (Iranian) Nasidze 2004 50 6.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Bakhtiari (Iranian) Nasidze 2008 53 2.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Iranian Arabs (Arabic) Nasidze 2008 47 2.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
North Iran (Iranian) Regueiro 2006 33 9.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
South Iran (Iranian) Regueiro 2006 117 3.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
South Caucacus (Georgian) Nasidze and Stoneking 2001 77 3.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
South Caucacus (Armenian) Nasidze and Stoneking 2001 100 2.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Hvar (Croatian) Barać et al. 2003 14
Korčula (Croatian) Barać et al. 2003 6

§ These may include members of haplogroup R2.

Population group N P (xQ,xR) Q R Paper
Count  % Count  % Count  %
Gope 16 1 6.4 Sahoo 2006
Oriya Brahmin 24 1 4.2 Sahoo 2006
Mahishya 17 3 17.6 Sahoo 2006
Bhumij 15 2 13.3 Sahoo 2006
Saora 13 3 23.1 Sahoo 2006
Nepali 7 2 28.6 Sahoo 2006
Muslims of Manipur 9 3 33.3 Sahoo 2006
Himachal Pradesh Rajput 15 1 6.7 Sahoo 2006
Lambadi 18 4 22.2 Sahoo 2006
Gujarati Patel 9 2 22.2 Sahoo 2006
Katkari 19 1 5.3 Sahoo 2006
Madia Gond 14 1 7.1 Sahoo 2006
Kamma Chowdary 15 0 0 1 6.7 12 80 Sahoo 2006

Q[edit]

Near universal in the Kets (95%) of Siberia. Very common in pre-modern Native American populations, except for the Na-Dene peoples, where it reaches 50-90%. Also common, at 25-50% in Siberian populations such as the Nivks, Selkups, Tuvans, Chukchi, Siberian Eskimos, Northern Altaians, and in 30% of Turkmens.

R[edit]

The only discovered case of basal R* (i.e. one that does not belong to R1 or R2) is the Mal'ta Boy.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Tumonggor, Karafet et al., 2014, "Isolation, contact and social behavior shaped genetic diversity in West Timor", Journal of Human Genetics Vol. 59, No. 9 (September), pp. 494–503.
  2. ^ a b E. Heyer et al., 2013, "Genetic Diversity of Four Filipino Negrito Populations from Luzon: Comparison of Male and Female Effective Population Sizes and Differential Integration of Immigrants into Aeta and Agta Communities", Human Biology, Vol. 85, Iss. 1, p. 201.
  3. ^ a b Tatiana M Karafet; et al. (2015). "Improved phylogenetic resolution and rapid diversification of Y-chromosome haplogroup K-M526 in Southeast Asia" (PDF). European Journal of Human Genetics. 23: 369–373. 
  4. ^ Gregory R Magoon; et al. (2013-11-22). "Generation of high-resolution a priori Y-chromosome phylogenies using “next-generation” sequencing data". bioRxiv 000802Freely accessible. 
  5. ^ a b ISOGG (2016). "Y-DNA Haplogroup P". Retrieved 2016-12-11. 
  6. ^ Miroslava Derenko et al 2005, Contrasting patterns of Y-chromosome variation in South Siberian populations from Baikal and Altai-Sayan regions Zgms.cm.umk.pl
  7. ^ Sahoo, S. (2006). "A prehistory of Indian Y chromosomes: Evaluating demic diffusion scenarios". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (4): 843. PMC 1347984Freely accessible. PMID 16415161. doi:10.1073/pnas.0507714103. 

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]


Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ   K
I J     LT [χ 5]  K2
L     T [χ 6] K2a [χ 7] K2b [χ 8]   K2c   K2d  K2e [χ 9]  
K2a1                    K2b1 [χ 10]    P [χ 11]
NO    S [χ 12]  M [χ 13]    P1     P2
NO1    Q   R
N O
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–91. PMID 24166809. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Between 2002 and 2008, Haplogroup T (M184) was known as "Haplogroup K2" – that name has since been re-assigned to K-M526, the sibling of Haplogroup LT.
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2a (M2308) and the new subclade K2a1 (M2313) were separated from Haplogroup NO (F549) in 2016. (This followed the publication of: Poznik GD, Xue Y, Mendez FL, et al. (2016). "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences". Nature Genetics. 48 (6): 593–9. PMC 4884158Freely accessible. PMID 27111036. doi:10.1038/ng.3559.  In the past, other haplogroups, including NO1 (M214) and K2e had also been identified with the name "K2a".
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a).
  10. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is also known as Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  11. ^ Haplogroup P (P295) is also klnown as K2b2.
  12. ^ Haplogroup S, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1a. (Previously the name Haplogroup S was assigned to K2b1a4.)
  13. ^ Haplogroup M, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1b. (Previously the name Haplogroup M was assigned to K2b1d.)