Haplogroup K-M9

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Haplogroup K
Possible time of origin 47,000 years BP[1]
Possible place of origin South or West Asia
Ancestor IJK
Descendants haplogroup K2,[2] and LT
Defining mutations M9, P128/PF5504, P131/PF5493, P132/PF5480

Haplogroup K or K-M9 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. A descendant of Haplogroup IJK, K-M9 and its descendant haplogroups comprise a populous geographically diverse haplogroup; they have long been found in men on every continent other than Antarctica.

The direct descendants of K-M9 are Haplogroup K2 (formerly KxLT; K-M526) and Haplogroup LT (L298 = P326).[2][3]

Origins and distribution[edit]

Y-DNA haplogroup K-M9 is an old lineage that arose approximately 47,000 years ago,[1] probably in South Asia or West Asia. It is very rare, although less than 1% in Europe it reaches 12% among Mongolians. In Europe it is very spotty, but is recorded in Norway, Sweden, the Faroe Islands and Shetland.[4] K-M9 is absent in Africa and is also very frequent among Japanese individuals (65.6%).[5]

The basal paragroup K* is exceptionally rare, although it has been reported at low frequencies in various parts of Eurasia, Oceania and Africa.[2]

The descendants of haplogroup K2 include:


Haplogroup K-M9 tree [7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][2][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]

Haplogroup LT (K1). Widely distributed at low concentrations. Haplogroup L is found at its highest frequency in Pakistan, western India and among the Balochs of Afghanistan. T is most common among: Wodaabe Fulanis (Sahelian Africans), Ethiopians, in Somalia, Djibouti, some alpine regions of Europe, the Aegean Islands and a few populations in India


K2* remains of Ust'-Ishim man, dating from approximately 45,000 BP and found in Omsk Oblast, Russia, appear to belong to the paragroup K2* (M526),[26]


N Found near Arctic Circle, Yakuts, Finno Ugrians (Ancient samples: most remains from the Yangshao, Hongshan, ancient Hungarians, Xiongnu and prehistoric Yakuts; some also in the Xiajiadian mixed between O3)

O Sino-Tibetans + modern Longshan and Daxi and Xiajiadian which was divided between N and O3 (Xiajiadian was mixed others were pure) (O3), Austronesians, Polynesians, Melanesians, Malaygasy and in modern Liangzhu to a very low extent (O1), and Austro-Asiatics (O2) dominant east Asian line (O) note O1 and O2 form a clade against O3 called O1'2


K2b1a (CTS5650/F3744/P405), found in Indonesia and Oceania; includes Haplogroup S (M230, P202, P204) a.k.a. K2b1a4 which, according to ISOGG, is: "a major haplogroup in the highlands of mainland Papua New Guinea where it is found at frequencies of around 50% in some populations and is also present at lower frequencies in adjacent islands of Indonesia and Melanesia."[27]

K2b1b (P336): Alor, Timor and Borneo.

K2b1c (P378): Aeta people of the Philippines.

M (P256, Page93/S322) a.k.a. K2b1d. The most common haplogroup in Papua New Guinea; also found in neighbouring parts of Melanesia and Polynesia.

P (K2b2)
P1 (M45/PF5962)

35.4 in Tuvans, 28.3% in Altaians-Kizhi, 28% of Aetas, 22.2% in Todjins, 11.8% in Kalmyks, 8.8% in Soyots, 7.6% in Khakas

10% of Timor rare in other parts of Indonesia

Q (M242) Kets, Selkups, Turkmen, Altai, Tuvans, Far East Siberia, Americas (ancient samples Anzick, Montana, prehistoric Alaskan, ancient Greenlander), Xirong, Mongolian Altai Kurgans (R1a/Z93 mixed with Q1a2a1/L54) and possibly Afantova.

R (extinct basal subclades found in remains from 24,000 years BP at Mal'ta' in Siberia)

R2 found in India, Sri Lanka, North Pakistan isolates

R1a found in East Europe, India, Central Asia, Altai, Scandinavia, Uighers Ancient samples include 10 out of 11 samples from Xiaohe Tomb complex, Andronovo, Pazyryk, Mongolian Altai Kurgans (R1a/Z93 mixed with Q1a2a1/L54), The Tagar Culture, Karasuk culture, Tashtyk culture, some Corded ware folk

R1b West Europe, Chadic Languages, Armenian Highlands (Found in several Bell Beakers from Germany and in late antique Basques of whom it is still common in as well as 13.3% (4):one P probably R1b2 (V88): of Guanches from the Canary Islands, (reports of King Tut belonging to R1b, by iGENEA belonging to R1b have not been verified.)

K2c (P261). Minor lineage of Bali.

K2d (P402). Minor lineage of Java

K2e (M147). Highly rare lineage; two cases in South Asia.[2]


  1. ^ a b Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, Hammer MF (May 2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Res. 18 (5): 830–8. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC 2336805. PMID 18385274. 
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  7. ^ Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Sudoyo H, Lansing JS, Hammer MF (June 2014). "Improved phylogenetic resolution and rapid diversification of Y-chromosome haplogroup K-M526 in Southeast Asia". European Journal of Human Genetics 23: 369–373. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.106. PMID 24896152. 
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  26. ^ [1]
  27. ^ http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpS.html

External links[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups [n 1] [n 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [n 3]
A0 A1[n 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
I J LT [n 5]  K2
L T NO [n 6] K2b [n 7]   K2c K2d K2e [n 8]
N O K2b1 [n 9]    P
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Haplogroup NO (M214) is also known as Haplogroup K2a (although the present K2e was also previously known as "K2a").
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) was previously known as Haplogroup MPS.
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as K2a and "Haplogroup X".
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) has a complex internal structure, which is broader than the former Haplogroup MS.