Haplogroup K-M9

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Haplogroup K
Possible place of origin South Asia or West Asia
Ancestor IJK
Descendants haplogroup K2,[1] and LT
Defining mutations M9, P128/PF5504, P131/PF5493, P132/PF5480

Haplogroup K or K-M9 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. A sublineage of haplogroup IJK, K-M9 and its descendant clades represent a geographically widespread and diverse haplogroup. The lineages have long been found among males on every continent.

The direct descendants of K-M9 are Haplogroup K2 (formerly KxLT; K-M526) and Haplogroup LT (L298 = P326).[1][2]

Origins and distribution[edit]

Y-DNA haplogroup K-M9 is an old lineage that arose approximately 47,000-50,000 years ago,[3] probably in South Asia or West Asia.

Basal K* is exceptionally rare and under-researched; while it has been reported at very low frequencies on many continents it is not always clear if the examples concerned have been screened for subclades.[1][4] Confirmed examples of K-M9* now appear to be most common amongst some populations in Island South East Asia and Melanesia.[5][6][7]

Primary descendants of haplogroup LT are L (M20), also known as K1a, and T (M184), also known as K1b.[8][2]

The descendants of haplogroup K2 include:

  • K2a (detected in paleolithic specimens Oase1 and Ust'-Ishim),[9] the subclades of which include the major haplogroups N and O,[10] and;
  • K2b – the ancestor of haplogroups M, P, Q, R, S.[11]

Structure[edit]

Haplogroup K-M9 tree [1][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30]


LT (L298; a.k.a. K1) has never been found in basal form (LT*). Subclades are widely distributed at low concentrations. Haplogroup L is found at its highest frequency in India, Pakistan and among the Balochs of Afghanistan. T is most common among: Fulanis, Toubou, Tuareg, Somalis, Egyptians, some Middle East,[31] the Aegean Islands and among Kurru, Bauris and Lodha in India.


K2


K2* (M526) has been found in an estimated 27% of indigenous Australians (based on large scale surveys in which 56% of the samples were assumed to be non-indigenous.) [32]


K2a (K-M2308)[9]


K2a* - found only in the remains of Ust'-Ishim man, dating from approximately 45,000 BP and found in
Omsk Oblast, Russia.[9] (These remains were initially classified, erroneously, as K2*.)


K2a1 (M2313)


K2a1* (M2313)[9] – so far found only in one Telugu male and one ethnic Malay, and ancient Oase-1.



NO (M214; a.k.a. K2a2) – The two primary branches of NO include the major
haplogroups:
N, which is found mainly in populations across Northern Eurasia (and at lower frequencies in regions including East Asia, Central Asia,
Southeast Asia, Anatolia, and Southeast Europe) and;
O, which is now numerically dominant among males from East Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands.




K2b (P331)

K2b1


S (B254) which is numerically dominant in the highlands of Papua New Guinea;[33] subclades of S1, such as S1a3 (P315) and S1a1a1 (P308),[34] have also been reported at levels of up to 27% among indigenous Australians, while[32] S1a (P405; previously K2b1a) has also been found at significant levels in other parts of Oceania. S2 (P336; previously K2b1b) has been found on Alor, Timor and Borneo and; S3 (P378; previously K2b1c) found among Aeta people of the Philippines.



M (P256, Page93/S322) a.k.a. K2b1b (previously K2b1d) is the most common haplogroup in both West Papua and Papua New Guinea; also found in Australia,[32] and neighbouring parts of Melanesia and Polynesia.



P (K2b2)

P* (K2b2*) 28% of Aeta (Philippines), 10% in Timor



 P1* (M45/PF5962) 22.2–35.4% in TuvansKizhi, and Todjins 


Q (M242) Native Americans and Siberia/Central Asia (Kets, Selkups, Turkmen, Altai, Tuvans, Xirong, Mongolian Altai Kurgans)




R* found only in remains from 24,000 years BP at Mal'ta' in Siberia




R2 found in India, Sri Lanka, North Pakistan isolates




R1a found in Eastern Europe, South Asia, Central Asia (especially Altai populations and Uighurs), and Scandinavia. Ancient samples include 10 out of 11 samples from Xiaohe Tomb complex, Andronovo, Pazyryk, Mongolian Altai Kurgans (R1a/Z93 mixed with Q1a2a1/L54), The Tagar Culture, Karasuk culture, Tashtyk culture, some Corded ware folk



R1b West Europe, Chadic Languages, Armenian Highlands (Found in several Bell Beakers from Germany and in late antique Basques of whom it is still common in as well as 13.3% (4):one P probably R1b2 (V88): of Guanches from the Canary Islands, (reports of King Tut belonging to R1b, by iGENEA belonging to R1b have not been verified.)









K2c (P261). Minor lineage of Bali.



K2d (P402). Minor lineage of Java



K2e (M147). Highly rare lineage; two cases in South Asia.[1]



References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e International Society of Genetic Genealogy, 2015 Y-DNA Haplogroup K and its Subclades – 2015 (5 April 2015).
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  10. ^ Rootsi, Siiri; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Baldovič, Marian; Kayser, Manfred; Kutuev, Ildus A; Khusainova, Rita; Bermisheva, Marina A; Gubina, Marina; Fedorova, Sardana A; Ilumäe, Anne-Mai; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Voevoda, Mikhail I; Osipova, Ludmila P; Stoneking, Mark; Lin, Alice A; Ferak, Vladimir; Parik, Jüri; Kivisild, Toomas; Underhill, Peter A; Villems, Richard; et al. (2007). "A counter-clockwise northern route of the Y-chromosome haplogroup N from Southeast Asia towards Europe". European Journal of Human Genetics. 15 (2): 204–211. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201748. PMID 17149388. 
  11. ^ Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, Hammer MF (May 2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Research. 18 (5): 830–8. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC 2336805Freely accessible. PMID 18385274. 
  12. ^ Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Sudoyo H, Lansing JS, Hammer MF (June 2014). "Improved phylogenetic resolution and rapid diversification of Y-chromosome haplogroup K-M526 in Southeast Asia". European Journal of Human Genetics. 23: 369–373. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.106. PMC 4326703Freely accessible. PMID 24896152. 
  13. ^ Raghavan M, Skoglund P, Graf KE, et al. (January 2014). "Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans". Nature. 505 (7481): 87–91. Bibcode:2014Natur.505...87R. doi:10.1038/nature12736. PMC 4105016Freely accessible. PMID 24256729. 
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  33. ^ http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpS.html
  34. ^ As of 2017, S1a1a1 (P308) – formerly K2b1a1 – included an unnamed subclade, identified by the SNP P60 (and previously by P304, which has been removed by ISOGG as unreliable). S1a1a1 and any sublades have only been found among indigenous Australians.

External links[edit]

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ K
I   J     LT [χ 5]       K2 [χ 6]
L     T    K2a [χ 7]        K2b [χ 8]     K2c     K2d K2e [χ 9]  
K-M2313 [χ 10]     K2b1 [χ 11] P [χ 12]
NO   S [χ 13]  M [χ 14]    P1     P2
N O Q R