Haplogroup K-M9

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Haplogroup K
Possible time of origin 47,000 years BP[1]
Possible place of origin South or West Asia
Ancestor IJK
Descendants haplogroup K2,[2] and LT
Defining mutations M9, P128/PF5504, P131/PF5493, P132/PF5480

Haplogroup K or K-M9 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. A descendant of Haplogroup IJK, K-M9 and its descendant haplogroups comprise a populous geographically diverse haplogroup; they have long been found in men on every continent other than Antarctica.

The direct descendants of K-M9 are Haplogroup K2 (formerly KxLT; K-M526) and Haplogroup LT (L298 = P326).[2][3]

Origins and distribution[edit]

Y-DNA haplogroup K-M9 is an old lineage that arose approximately 47,000 years ago,[1] probably in South Asia or West Asia.

The basal paragroup K* is exceptionally rare, although it has been reported at low frequencies in various parts of Eurasia, Oceania and Africa.[2] In Europe it is typically found at levels of less than 1.0%; examples have been recorded in Norway, Sweden, the Faroe Islands and Shetland.[4]

The descendants of haplogroup K2 include:

Structure[edit]

Haplogroup K-M9 tree [6][2][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]

LT (K1). Widely distributed at low concentrations. Haplogroup L is found at its highest frequency in Pakistan, western India and among the Balochs of Afghanistan. T is most common among: Wodaabe Fulanis (Sahelian Africans), Ethiopians, in Somalia, Djibouti, some alpine regions of Europe, the Aegean Islands and a few populations in India


K2

K2* (M526) has been found in an estimated 27% of indigenous Australians (based on large scale surveys in which 56% of the samples were assumed to be non-indigenous.) [25] Also reported for the remains of Ust'-Ishim man, dating from approximately 45,000 BP and found in Omsk Oblast, Russia.[26]


NO (K2a)

N Found near Arctic Circle, Yakuts, Finno Ugrians (Ancient samples: most remains from the Yangshao, Hongshan, ancient Hungarians, Xiongnu and prehistoric Yakuts; some also in the Xiajiadian mixed between O3)



O Sino-Tibetans + modern Longshan and Daxi and Xiajiadian which was divided between N and O3 (Xiajiadian was mixed others were pure) (O3), Austronesians, Polynesians, Melanesians, Malaygasy and in modern Liangzhu to a very low extent (O1), and Austro-Asiatics (O2) dominant east Asian line (O) note O1 and O2 form a clade against O3 called O1'2




K2b
K2b1

K2b1a (CTS5650/F3744/P405), includes Haplogroup S (M230, P202, P204) a.k.a. K2b1a4 which, according to ISOGG, is: "a major haplogroup in the highlands of mainland Papua New Guinea where it is found at frequencies of around 50% in some populations and is also present at lower frequencies in adjacent islands of Indonesia and Melanesia."[27] The subclade K2b1a1 has been reported at levels of up to 27% among indigenous Australians.[25] Other subclades of K2b1a have been reported in other parts of Oceania and Indonesia;



K2b1b (P336): Alor, Timor and Borneo.



K2b1c (P378): Aeta people of the Philippines.



M (P256, Page93/S322) a.k.a. K2b1d. The most common haplogroup in Papua New Guinea; also found in Australia,[25] and neighbouring parts of Melanesia and Polynesia.



P (K2b2)
P* (K2b2*) 28% of Aeta (Philippines), 10% in Timor



 P1* (M45/PF5962) 22.2–35.4% in Tuvans, Kizhi, and Todjins 

Q (M242) Native Americans and Siberia/Central Asia (Kets, Selkups, Turkmen, Altai, Tuvans, Xirong, Mongolian Altai Kurgans)




R* found only in remains from 24,000 years BP at Mal'ta' in Siberia




R2 found in India, Sri Lanka, North Pakistan isolates




R1a found in Eastern Europe, India, Central Asia (especially Altai populations and Uighurs), and Scandinavia. Ancient samples include 10 out of 11 samples from Xiaohe Tomb complex, Andronovo, Pazyryk, Mongolian Altai Kurgans (R1a/Z93 mixed with Q1a2a1/L54), The Tagar Culture, Karasuk culture, Tashtyk culture, some Corded ware folk



R1b West Europe, Chadic Languages, Armenian Highlands (Found in several Bell Beakers from Germany and in late antique Basques of whom it is still common in as well as 13.3% (4):one P probably R1b2 (V88): of Guanches from the Canary Islands, (reports of King Tut belonging to R1b, by iGENEA belonging to R1b have not been verified.)









K2c (P261). Minor lineage of Bali.



K2d (P402). Minor lineage of Java



K2e (M147). Highly rare lineage; two cases in South Asia.[2]


References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, Hammer MF (May 2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Res. 18 (5): 830–8. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC 2336805. PMID 18385274. 
  2. ^ a b c d e International Society of Genetic Genealogy, 2015 Y-DNA Haplogroup K and its Subclades – 2015 (5 April 2015).
  3. ^ Chiaroni, J.; Underhill, P. A.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. (December 2009). "Y chromosome diversity, human expansion, drift, and cultural evolution". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106 (48): 20174–9. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10620174C. doi:10.1073/pnas.0910803106. JSTOR 25593348. PMC 2787129. PMID 19920170. 
  4. ^ David Faux. GENEALOGY-DNA-L Archives - Origins of R1a, Q and K in Scandanavia - Part 1
  5. ^ Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, Hammer MF (May 2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Research 18 (5): 830–8. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC 2336805. PMID 18385274. 
  6. ^ Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Sudoyo H, Lansing JS, Hammer MF (June 2014). "Improved phylogenetic resolution and rapid diversification of Y-chromosome haplogroup K-M526 in Southeast Asia". European Journal of Human Genetics 23: 369–373. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.106. PMID 24896152. 
  7. ^ Raghavan M, Skoglund P, Graf KE, et al. (January 2014). "Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans". Nature 505 (7481): 87–91. doi:10.1038/nature12736. PMC 4105016. PMID 24256729. 
  8. ^ Rasmussen M, Anzick SL, Waters MR, et al. (February 2014). "The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana". Nature 506 (7487): 225–9. doi:10.1038/nature13025. PMID 24522598. 
  9. ^ Hollard C, Keyser C, Giscard PH, et al. (September 2014). "Strong genetic admixture in the Altai at the Middle Bronze Age revealed by uniparental and ancestry informative markers". Forensic Science International: Genetics 12: 199–207. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2014.05.012. PMID 25016250. 
  10. ^ Fregel R, Gomes V, Gusmão L, et al. (2009). "Demographic history of Canary Islands male gene-pool: replacement of native lineages by European". BMC Evolutionary Biology 9: 181. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-181. PMC 2728732. PMID 19650893. 
  11. ^ Grugni V, Battaglia V, Hooshiar Kashani B, et al. (2012). "Ancient migratory events in the Middle East: new clues from the Y-chromosome variation of modern Iranians". PLOS ONE 7 (7): e41252. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041252. PMC 3399854. PMID 22815981. 
  12. ^ Haber M, Platt DE, Ashrafian Bonab M, et al. (2012). "Afghanistan's ethnic groups share a Y-chromosomal heritage structured by historical events". PLOS ONE 7 (3): e34288. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034288. PMC 3314501. PMID 22470552. 
  13. ^ Bekada A, Fregel R, Cabrera VM, et al. (2013). "Introducing the Algerian mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome profiles into the North African landscape". PLOS ONE 8 (2): e56775. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056775. PMC 3576335. PMID 23431392. 
  14. ^ Rosser ZH, Zerjal T, Hurles ME, et al. (December 2000). "Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language". American Journal of Human Genetics 67 (6): 1526–43. doi:10.1086/316890. PMC 1287948. PMID 11078479. 
  15. ^ Pichler I, Mueller JC, Stefanov SA, et al. (August 2006). "Genetic structure in contemporary south Tyrolean isolated populations revealed by analysis of Y-chromosome, mtDNA, and Alu polymorphisms". Human Biology 78 (4): 441–64. doi:10.1353/hub.2006.0057. PMID 17278620. 
  16. ^ Robino C, Varacalli S, Gino S, et al. (October 2004). "Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a population sample from continental Greece, and the islands of Crete and Chios". Forensic Science International 145 (1): 61–4. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.02.026. PMID 15374596. 
  17. ^ Trivedi, R.; Sahoo, Sanghamitra; Singh, Anamika; Bindu, G. Hima; Banerjee, Jheelam; Tandon, Manuj; Gaikwad, Sonali; Rajkumar, Revathi; Sitalaximi, T; Ashma, Richa; Chainy, G. B. N.; Kashyap, V. K. (2007). "High Resolution Phylogeographic Map of Y-Chromosomes Reveal the Genetic Signatures of Pleistocene Origin of Indian Populations" (PDF). Anthropology Today: Trends, Scope and Applications. 
  18. ^ Hirbo, Jibril Boru (2011). Complex Genetic History of East African Human Populations (PhD Thesis). hdl:1903/11443. [page needed]
  19. ^ http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0531513103016352[full citation needed]
  20. ^ Cruciani F, Trombetta B, Sellitto D, et al. (July 2010). "Human Y chromosome haplogroup R-V88: a paternal genetic record of early mid Holocene trans-Saharan connections and the spread of Chadic languages". European Journal of Human Genetics 18 (7): 800–7. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.231. PMC 2987365. PMID 20051990. 
  21. ^ yhrd.org[full citation needed]
  22. ^ Zhong, Hua; Shi, Hong; Qi, Xue-Bin; Duan, Zi-Yuan; Tan, Ping-Ping; Jin, Li; Su, Bing; Ma, Runlin Z. (2010). "Extended Y Chromosome Investigation Suggests Postglacial Migrations of Modern Humans into East Asia via the Northern Route". Molecular Biology and Evolution 28 (1): 717–27. doi:10.1093/molbev/msq247. PMID 20837606. 
  23. ^ http://www.phylotree.org/Y/tree/index.htm[full citation needed]
  24. ^ Magoon, Gregory R; Banks, Raymond H; Rottensteiner, Christian; Schrack, Bonnie E; Tilroe, Vincent O; Robb, Terry; Grierson, Andrew J (2013). "Generation of high-resolution a priori Y-chromosome phylogenies using 'next-generation' sequencing data". bioRxiv. doi:10.1101/000802. 
  25. ^ a b c Nagle, N. et al., 2015, "Antiquity and diversity of aboriginal Australian Y-chromosomes", American Journal of Physical Anthropology (epub ahead of print version; abstract).
  26. ^ [1]
  27. ^ http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpS.html

External links[edit]


Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1[χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1 F2 F3 GHIJK
G HIJK
H IJK
IJ K
I J LT [χ 5]  K2
L T NO [χ 6] K2b [χ 7]   K2c K2d K2e [χ 8]
N O K2b1 [χ 9]    P
M S [χ 10] Q R
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Haplogroup NO (M214) is also known as Haplogroup K2a (although the present Haplogroup K2e was also previously known as "K2a").
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a, also known as Haplogroup NO).
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is similiar to the former Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  10. ^ Haplogroup S (S-M230) was previously known as Haplogroup K5.