|Possible time of origin||36,800 [95% CI 34,300–39,300] years before present (YFull)
41,900 [95% CI 31,294–51,202] years ago
|Possible place of origin||East Asia|
|Coalescence age||22,100 [95% CI 19,800–24,400] ybp (YFull)
19,153 [95% CI 13,677–24,422] years ago
about 21,000 years ago
|Highest frequencies||Nganassan 92%, Yakuts 75%, Nenets 75%, Finns 60%, Baltic States 45% (McDonald 2005), Saami 40%|
- 1 Origins
- 2 Distribution
- 3 Phylogenetics
- 4 References
- 5 External links
Haplogroup N-M231 is a descendant haplogroup of Haplogroup NO1-M214. Its most recent common ancestor with its nearest outgroup, haplogroup O-M175, is estimated to have lived about 36,800 or 41,900 years ago. However, extant haplogroup N-M231 is considered to be relatively young, having populated the north of Eurasia after the last Ice Age. Males carrying the marker apparently moved northwards as the climate warmed in the Holocene.
It is suggested that N-M231 arose in Southeast Asia 19.4±4.8 ky years ago, and then migrated in a counter-clockwise path from modern day regions of Mongolia and northern China to as far as northeastern Europe (Rootsi 2006).
Haplogroup N has a wide geographic distribution throughout northern Eurasia, and it also has been observed occasionally in other areas, including Southeast Asia, the Pacific, Southwest Asia and Southern Europe.
Its highest frequency occurs among the Finnic and Baltic peoples of northern Europe, the Ob-Ugric and Northern Samoyedic peoples of western Siberia, and the Siberian Turkic-speaking Yakuts (McDonald 2005).
Y-chromosomes that display the M231 mutation that defines Haplogroup N-M231, but do not display the CTS11499, L735, M2291 mutations that define Haplogroup N1 are said to belong to paragroup N-M231*. (A "Haplogroup N2" has also been mooted, defined by F3373, M2283, Page56, and/or S323.)
N-M231* has been found at low levels in China and Cambodia. Out of a sample of 165 Han males from China, two individuals (1.2%) were found to belong to N*.(Karafet 2010).[Footnote 1] One originated from Guangdong and one from Shaanxi.
|Possible place of origin||Asia|
|Defining mutations||CTS11499/L735/M2291 (previously LLY22g)|
In 2014, LLY22g was retired as a defining SNP for Haplogroup N1; it was replaced by CTS11499/L735/M2291. According to ISOGG, LLY22g is problematic because it is a "palindromic marker and can easily be misinterpreted". Consequently, the position of many previously examples of "N-LLY22g", within N-M231 has become unclear.
N1* has been reported to reach a frequency of up to 30% (13/43) among the Yi people of Butuo County, Sichuan in Southwest China (Hammer 2005, Karafet 2001, and Wen2004b). It is also found in 34.6% of Lhoba people (Wen 2004, Bo Wen 2004).
Paragroup N-LLY22g* also has been found in samples of Han Chinese, but with widely varying frequency:
- 15.0% (6/40) Guangdong Han (Hammer 2005 and Karafet 2001)
- 6.8% (3/44) Shaanxi Han (Hammer 2005 and Karafet 2001)
- 6.7% (2/30) Han from Lanzhou (Xue 2006)
- 3.6% (3/84) Taiwanese Han (Hammer 2005)
- 2.9% (1/34) Han from Chengdu (Xue 2006)
- 2.9% (1/35) Han from Harbin (Xue 2006)
- 2.9% (1/35) Han from Meixian District (Xue 2006)
- 0% (0/32) Han from Yining City (Xue 2006)
Other populations in which representatives of N1 * have been found include:
- Hani people (4/34 = 11.8%) (Xue 2006)
- Sibe people (4/41 = 9.8%) (Xue 2006)
- Tujia people (2/49 = 4.1%) (Hammer 2005)
- Manchu people (2/52 = 3.8% (Hammer 2005) to 2/35 = 5.7% (Xue 2006)
- Bit people (1/28 = 3.6%) (Cai 2011)
- Uyghurs (2/70 = 2.9% (Xue 2006) to 2/67 = 3.0%) (Hammer 2005)
- Tibetan people (3/105 = 2.9%(Hammer 2005) to 3/35 = 8.6% (Xue 2006))
- Koreans (0/106 = 0.0% – 2/25 = 8% (Rootsi 2006, Xue 2006, and Kim 2007)
- Vietnamese people (2/70 = 2.9%) (Hammer 2005)
- Japanese people (0/70 Tokushima – 2/26 = 7.7% Aomori) (Hammer 2005)
- Manchurian Evenks (0/26 = 0.0% (Xue 2006) to 1/41 = 2.4%(Hammer 2005))
- Altai people (0/50 Northern to 5/96 = 5.2% Southern, or 0/43 Beshpeltir to 5/46 = 10.9% Kulada),(Hammer 2005)(Kharkov 2007)
- Shors (2/23 = 8.7%) (Rootsi 2006)
- Khakas people (5/181 = 2.8%) (Rootsi 2006)
- Tuvans (5/311 = 1.6%) (Rootsi 2006)
- Southern Borneo (1/40 = 2.5%) (Rootsi 2006)
- Forest Nenets (1/89 = 1.1%) (Rootsi 2006)
- Yakuts (0/215 – 1/121 = 0.8%) (Rootsi 2006)
- Turkish people (1/523 = 0.2%) (Rootsi 2006) In Turkey, the total of subclades of haplogroup N-M231 amounts to 4% of the male population. One individual who belongs either to N* or N1* has been found in a sample of 77 males from Kathmandu, Nepal (1/77 = 1.3% N-M231(xM128,P43,Tat)) (Gayden 2007).
- Niuheliang (Hongshan Culture, 6500–5000 BP) 66.7%(=4/6)
- Halahaigou (Xiaoheyan Culture, 5000–4200 BP) 100.0%(=12/12)
- Dadianzi (Lower Xiajiadian culture, 4200–3600 BP) 60.0%(=3/5)
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2016)
N1a1 (M46/Page70/Tat, L395/M2080)
The mutations that define the subclade N-M46[Phylogenetics 2] are M46/Tat and P105. This is the most frequent subclade of N. It arose probably in the region of present-day China, and subsequently experienced serial bottlenecks in Siberia and secondary expansions in eastern Europe (Rootsi 2006). Haplogroup N-M46 is approximately 14,000 years old.
In Siberia, haplogroup N-M46 reaches a maximum frequency of approximately 90% among the Yakuts, a Turkic people who live mainly in the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. However, N-M46 is absent or present with much lower frequency among many of the Yakuts' neighbors, such as Evenks and Evens. It also has been detected in 5.9% (3/51) of a sample of Hmong Daw from Laos (Cai 2011), 2.4% (2/85) of a sample from Seoul, South Korea (Katoh 2004), and in 1.4% (1/70) of a sample from Tokushima, Japan (Hammer 2005).
The haplogroup N-M46 has a low diversity among Yakuts suggestive of a population bottleneck or founder effect ( & Pakendorf 2002). This was confirmed by a study of ancient DNA which traced the origins of the male Yakut lineages to a small group of horse-riders from the Cis-Baikal area (Crubézy 2010).
The subclade N-M178[Phylogenetics 3] is defined by the presence of markers M178 and P298. N-M178* has higher average frequency in Northern Europe than in Siberia, reaching frequencies of approximately 60% among Finns and approximately 40% among Latvians, Lithuanians & 35% among Estonians (Derenko 2007 and Lappalainen 2008).
Miroslava Derenko and her colleagues noted that there are two subclusters within this haplogroup, both present in Siberia and Northern Europe, with different histories. The one that they labelled N3a1 first expanded in south Siberia (approximately 10,000 years ago on their calculated by the Zhivotovsky method) and spread into Northern Europe where its age they calculated as around 8,000 years ago. Meanwhile, the younger subcluster, which they labelled N3a2, originated in south Siberia (probably in the Baikal region) approximately 4,000 years ago (Derenko 2007).
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2016)
|Possible place of origin||Asia|
This subclade is defined by the presence of the marker M128.[Phylogenetics 4] N-M128 was first identified in a sample from Japan (1/23 = 4.3%) and in a sample from Central Asia and Siberia (1/184 = 0.5%) in a preliminary survey of worldwide Y-DNA variation. Subsequently, it has been found with low frequency in some samples of the Manchu people, Sibe people, Evenks, Koreans, northern Han Chinese, Bouyei people, and some Turkic peoples of Central Asia.
Haplogroup N-P43[Phylogenetics 5] is defined by the presence of the marker P43. It is a significantly younger[compared to?] subclade, perhaps only 6,000 to 8,000 years old, with a probable origin in Siberia (Derenko 2007). It is found frequently among Northern Samoyedic peoples; also found at low to moderate frequency among some other Uralic peoples, Turkic peoples, Mongolic peoples, Tungusic peoples, and Siberian Yupik people.
The highest frequencies of N-P43 are observed among north-west Siberian populations: 92% in the Nganassan, 78% in the Enets and 74% in the Tundra Nenets. In Europe, the N-P43 types have their highest frequency of 20% among Volga-Uralic populations. The extreme western border of the spread of N-P43 is Finland, where this haplogroup occurs only at marginal frequency – 0.4%. Yet interestingly, N-P43 is quite frequent among Vepsas (17.9%), a small Finnic population living in immediate proximity to Finns, Karelians and Estonians.
Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.
|YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand)||(α)||(β)||(γ)||(δ)||(ε)||(ζ)||(η)||YCC 2002 (Longhand)||YCC 2005 (Longhand)||YCC 2008 (Longhand)||YCC 2010r (Longhand)||ISOGG 2006||ISOGG 2007||ISOGG 2008||ISOGG 2009||ISOGG 2010||ISOGG 2011||ISOGG 2012|
Original research publications
The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.
Associated mutations (SNPs and UEPs)
B1/B3 The b2/b3 deletion in the AZFc region of the Y-chromosome. This deletion appears to have occurred independently on at least four different occasions. Therefore, this deletion should not be taken as a unique event polymorphism defining this branch of the Y-chromosome tree (ISOGG 2012).
In the following tree the nomenclature of 3 sources is separated by slashes: ISOGG Tree 10 December 2017 (ver.12.317)
- N M231/Page91, M232/M2188
- N M231/Page91, M232/M2188
- genetic genealogy
- Genetic history of Europe
- Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup
- molecular phylogeny
- Y-chromosome haplogroups in populations of the world
- Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of Europe
- Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of East and Southeast Asia
- Y-DNA haplogroups by ethnic group
Y-DNA N subclades
Y-DNA backbone tree
|Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]|
|A00||A0-T [χ 3]|
|A0||A1 [χ 4]|
|I||J||LT [χ 5]||K2|
|L||T [χ 6]||K2a [χ 7]||K2b [χ 8]||K2c||K2d||K2e [χ 9]|
|K-M2313||K2b1 [χ 10]||P [χ 11]|
|NO||S [χ 12]||M [χ 13]||P1||P2|
- In Karafet 2010
- YFull Haplogroup YTree v5.04 at 16 May 2017
- Karmin, Monika; Saag, Lauri; Vicente, Mário; et al. (2015). "A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture". Genome Research. 25 (4): 459–466. doi:10.1101/gr.186684.114.
- ISOGG, 2016, Y-DNA Haplogroup N and its Subclades – 2016 22 August 2016).
- (Rootsi 2006)
- Shi, H; Qi, X; Zhong, H; Peng, Y; Zhang, X; et al. (2013). "Genetic Evidence of an East Asian Origin and Paleolithic Northward Migration of Y-chromosome Haplogroup N". PLoS ONE. 8 (6): e66102. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...866102S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066102. PMC . PMID 23840409.
- Bo Wen 2004, Analyses of Genetic Structure of Tibeto-Burman Populations Reveals Sex-Biased Admixture in Southern Tibeto-Burmans
- Yinqiu Cui, Hongjie Li, Chao Ning, Ye Zhang, Lu Chen, Xin Zhao, Erika Hagelberg and Hui Zhou (2013）"Y Chromosome analysis of prehistoric human populations in the West Liao River Valley, Northeast China. " BMC 13:216
- Duggan, AT; Whitten, M; Wiebe, V; Crawford, M; Butthof, A; et al. (2013). "Investigating the Prehistory of Tungusic Peoples of Siberia and the Amur-Ussuri Region with Complete mtDNA Genome Sequences and Y-chromosomal Markers". PLoS ONE. 8 (12): e83570. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...883570D. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083570.
- Peter A. Underhill, Peidong Shen, Alice A. Lin et al., "Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations," Nature Genetics • Volume 26 • November 2000
- Kang Hu (2015)
- Cai, Xiaoyun; Qin, Zhendong; Wen, Bo; Xu, Shuhua; Wang, Yi; Lu, Yan; Wei, Lanhai; Wang, Chuanchao; et al. (2011). O'Rourke, Dennis, ed. "Human Migration through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum Revealed by Y Chromosomes". PLoS ONE. 6 (8): e24282. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...624282C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024282. PMC . PMID 21904623.
- Chiaroni, Jacques; Underhill, Peter A.; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca L. (2009). "Y chromosome diversity, human expansion, drift, and cultural evolution". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 (48): 20174–79. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10620174C. doi:10.1073/pnas.0910803106. PMC . PMID 19920170.
- Crubézy, Eric; Amory, Sylvain; Keyser, Christine; Bouakaze, Caroline; Bodner, Martin; Gibert, Morgane; Röck, Alexander; Parson, Walther; Alexeev, Anatoly; Ludes, Bertrand (2010). "Human evolution in Siberia: From frozen bodies to ancient DNA". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 10: 25. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-25. PMC . PMID 20100333.
- Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Denisova, Galina; Wozniak, Marcin; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Dambueva, Irina; Zakharov, Ilia (2007). "Y-chromosome haplogroup N dispersals from south Siberia to Europe". Journal of Human Genetics. 52 (9): 763–70. doi:10.1007/s10038-007-0179-5. PMID 17703276.
- Gayden, Tenzin; Cadenas, Alicia M.; Regueiro, Maria; Singh, Nanda B.; Zhivotovsky, Lev A.; Underhill, Peter A.; Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi L.; Herrera, Rene J. (2007). "The Himalayas as a Directional Barrier to Gene Flow". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 80 (5): 884–94. doi:10.1086/516757. PMC . PMID 17436243.
- Hammer, Michael F.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Park, Hwayong; Omoto, Keiichi; Harihara, Shinji; Stoneking, Mark; Horai, Satoshi (2005). "Dual origins of the Japanese: Common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes". Journal of Human Genetics. 51 (1): 47–58. doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0322-0. PMID 16328082.
- Ilumäe (2016). "Human Y Chromosome Haplogroup N: A Non-trivial Time-Resolved Phylogeography that Cuts across Language Families". American Journal of Human Genetics. 99 (1): 163–73. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2016.05.025. PMC . PMID 27392075.
- Kang Hu (2015). "The dichotomy structure of Haplogroup N". arXiv: [q-bio.PE].
- Karafet, Tatiana; Xu, Liping; Du, Ruofu; Wang, William; Feng, Shi; Wells, R.S.; Redd, Alan J.; Zegura, Stephen L.; Hammer, Michael F. (2001). "Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Microevolutionary Processes". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 69 (3): 615–28. doi:10.1086/323299. PMC . PMID 11481588. In this article, the "Southern Han" sample of Karafet and Hammer's research group is described as originating from Guangdong, and the "Northern Han" sample is described as originating from Shaanxi.
- Karafet, T. M.; Mendez, F. L.; Meilerman, M. B.; Underhill, P. A.; Zegura, S. L.; Hammer, M. F. (2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Research. 18 (5): 830–38. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC . PMID 18385274.
- Karafet, T. M.; Hallmark, B.; Cox, M. P.; Sudoyo, H.; Downey, S.; Lansing, J. S.; Hammer, M. F. (2010). "Major East-West Division Underlies Y Chromosome Stratification across Indonesia". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 27 (8): 1833–44. doi:10.1093/molbev/msq063. PMID 20207712.
- Katoh, Toru; Munkhbat, Batmunkh; Tounai, Kenichi; Mano, Shuhei; Ando, Harue; Oyungerel, Ganjuur; Chae, Gue-Tae; Han, Huun; Jia, Guan-Jun; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Munkhtuvshin, Namid; Tamiya, Gen; Inoko, Hidetoshi (2005). "Genetic features of Mongolian ethnic groups revealed by Y-chromosomal analysis". Gene. 346: 63–70. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2004.10.023. PMID 15716011.
- Kharkov, V. N.; Stepanov, V. A.; Medvedeva, O. F.; Spiridonova, M. G.; Voevoda, M. I.; Tadinova, V. N.; Puzyrev, V. P. (2007). "Gene pool differences between Northern and Southern Altaians inferred from the data on Y-chromosomal haplogroups". Russian Journal of Genetics. 43 (5): 551–62. doi:10.1134/S1022795407050110.
- Kim, Wook; Yoo, Tag-Keun; Kim, Sung-Joo; Shin, Dong-Jik; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Jin, Han-Jun; Kwak, Kyoung-Don; Kim, Eun-Tak; Bae, Yoon-Sun (2007). Blagosklonny, Mikhail, ed. "Lack of Association between Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups and Prostate Cancer in the Korean Population". PLoS ONE. 2 (1): e172. Bibcode:2007PLoSO...2..172K. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000172. PMC . PMID 17245448.
- Lappalainen, T.; Laitinen, V.; Salmela, E.; Andersen, P.; Huoponen, K.; Savontaus, M.-L.; Lahermo, P. (2008). "Migration Waves to the Baltic Sea Region". Annals of Human Genetics. 72 (3): 337–48. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00429.x. PMID 18294359.
- Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Lunkina, Arina; Czarny, Jakub; Rychkov, Serge; Morozova, Irina; Denisova, Galina; Miscicka-Sliwka, Danuta (2004). "Differentiation of Mitochondrial DNA and Y Chromosomes in Russian Populations". Human Biology. 76 (6): 877–900. doi:10.1353/hub.2005.0021. PMID 15974299.
- Pakendorf, Brigitte; Morar, Bharti; Tarskaia, Larissa; Kayser, Manfred; Soodyall, Himla; Rodewald, Alexander; Stoneking, Mark (2002). "Y-chromosomal evidence for a strong reduction in male population size of Yakuts". Human Genetics. 110 (2): 198–200. doi:10.1007/s00439-001-0664-4. PMID 11935328.
- Rootsi, Siiri; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Baldovič, Marian; Kayser, Manfred; Kutuev, Ildus A; Khusainova, Rita; Bermisheva, Marina A; Gubina, Marina; et al. (2006). "A counter-clockwise northern route of the Y-chromosome haplogroup N from Southeast Asia towards Europe". European Journal of Human Genetics. 15 (2): 204–11. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201748. PMID 17149388.
- Wen, Bo; Xie, Xuanhua; Gao, Song; Li, Hui; Shi, Hong; Song, Xiufeng; Qian, Tingzhi; Xiao, Chunjie; et al. (2004b). "Analyses of Genetic Structure of Tibeto-Burman Populations Reveals Sex-Biased Admixture in Southern Tibeto-Burmans". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 74 (5): 856–65. doi:10.1086/386292. PMC . PMID 15042512.
- Xue, Y.; Zerjal, T; Bao, W; Zhu, S; Shu, Q; Xu, J; Du, R; Fu, S; et al. (2005). "Male Demography in East Asia: A North-South Contrast in Human Population Expansion Times". Genetics. 172 (4): 2431–39. doi:10.1534/genetics.105.054270. PMC . PMID 16489223.
- ISOGG (2012). "Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2012".
- McDonald, Doug. "Macdonald Y Haplogroups of the World" (PDF).
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2012)
- ISOGG (2006). "Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2006".
- ISOGG (2007). "Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2007".
- ISOGG (2008). "Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2008".
- ISOGG (2009). "Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2009".
- ISOGG (2010). "Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2010".
- ISOGG (2011). "Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2011".
- ISOGG (2014). "Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2014".
- YFull. "YFull Experimental YTree".
- The b2/b3 deletion in the AZFc region of the human Y-chromosome is a characteristic of Haplogroup N-M231 haplotypes. This deletion, however, appears to have occurred independently on four different occasions. Therefore this deletion should not be thought as a unique event polymorphism contributing to the definition of this branch of the Y-chromosome tree (ISOGG 2012).
- This table shows historic names for N-M46 (AKA N-Tat) from peer reviewed literature.
YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) N-M46/N-TAT Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 12 Underhill 2000 VIII Hammer 2001 1I Karafet 2001 26 Semino 2000 Eu13 Su 1999 H5 Capelli 2001 F YCC 2002 (Longhand) N3* YCC 2005 (Longhand) N3 YCC 2008 (Longhand) N1c YCC 2010r (Longhand) N1c
- This table shows historic names for N-M178 from peer reviewed literature.
YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) N-M178 Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 16 Underhill 2000 VIII Hammer 2001 1I Karafet 2001 26 Semino 2000 Eu14 Su 1999 H5 Capelli 2001 F YCC 2002 (Longhand) N3a* YCC 2005 (Longhand) M178 YCC 2008 (Longhand) N1c1 YCC 2010r (Longhand) N1c1
- This table shows historic names for N-M128 from peer reviewed literature.
YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) N-M128 Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 12 Underhill 2000 VIII Hammer 2001 1U Karafet 2001 25 Semino 2000 Eu16 Su 1999 H5 Capelli 2001 F YCC 2002 (Longhand) N1 YCC 2005 (Longhand) N1 YCC 2008 (Longhand) N1a YCC 2010r (Longhand) N1a
- This branch is sometimes called N1b in early trees.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Haplogroup N of Y-DNA.|
- Spread of Haplogroup N, from The Genographic Project, National Geographic
- N North Eurasian YDNA Project at FamilyTreeDNA
- N Y-DNA Haplogroup Project at FamilyTreeDNA
- N1c1 Y-DNA Haplogroup Project at FamilyTreeDNA
- Y-chromosome haplogroup N dispersals from south Siberia to Europe
- Rurikid Dynasty DNA Project at FamilyTreeDNA
- Russian Nobility DNA Project at FamilyTreeDNA