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barley + wild barley
Hordeum distichon0.jpg
Hordeum vulgare f. distichon
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Pooideae
Tribe: Triticeae
Genus: Hordeum
Type species
Hordeum vulgare
  • Zeocriton Wolf
  • Critesion Raf.
  • Critho E.Mey.

Hordeum is a genus of annual and perennial plants in the grass family. They are native throughout the temperate regions of Africa, Eurasia, and the Americas.[5][6][7][8][9]

One species, H. vulgare (barley), is of major commercial importance as a cereal grain, used as fodder crop and for malting in beer and whiskey production. Some species are nuisance weeds introduced worldwide by human activities others endangered due to habitat loss.

Hordeum species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the flame, rustic shoulder-knot and setaceous Hebrew character.

The name comes from the Latin for bristle, and is akin to horror.

  1. Hordeum aegiceras – Mongolia, China including Tibet
  2. Hordeum arizonicum US (CA AZ NV NM), Mexico (Baja California, Sonora, Durango)
  3. Hordeum bogdanii – from Turkey and European Russia to Mongolia
  4. Hordeum brachyantherum – Russia (Kuril, Kamchatka), Alaska, Canada including Yukon, US (mostly in the West but also scattered locales in the East), Baja California
  5. Hordeum brachyatherum – Chile
  6. Hordeum brevisubulatum – European Russia; temperate and subarctic Asia from Turkey and the Urals to China and Magadan
  7. Hordeum bulbosum – Mediterranean, Central Asia
  8. Hordeum californicum – US (CA OR NV)
  9. Hordeum capense – South Africa, Lesotho
  10. Hordeum chilense – Argentina, Chile including Juan Fernández Is
  11. Hordeum comosum – Argentina, Chile
  12. Hordeum cordobense – northern Argentina
  13. Hordeum depressum – US (CA OR WA ID NV), British Columbia, Baja California
  14. Hordeum distichon – Iraq
  15. Hordeum erectifolium – northern Argentina
  16. Hordeum euclaston – Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina
  17. Hordeum flexuosum – Uruguay, Argentina
  18. Hordeum fuegianum – Tierra del Fuego
  19. Hordeum guatemalense – Guatemala
  20. Hordeum halophilum – Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Peru
  21. Hordeum intercedens (bobtail barley) – California, Baja California
  22. Hordeum jubatum (foxtail barley) – widespread in US and Canada; Asiatic Russia, Inner Mongolia, Central Asia, Caucasus
  23. Hordeum × lagunculciforme – Iraq, Turkmenistan, Himalayas, western China
  24. Hordeum lechleri – Argentina, Chile
  25. Hordeum marinum (sea barley) – Europe, North Africa, southwestern and central Asia
  26. Hordeum murinum (wall barley) – Canary Islands, Europe, North Africa, southwestern and central Asia
  27. Hordeum muticum – Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Peru
  28. Hordeum parodii – Argentina
  29. Hordeum patagonicum – Argentina, Chile
  30. Hordeum × pavisii – France
  31. Hordeum procerum – Argentina
  32. Hordeum pubiflorum – Argentina, Chile
  33. Hordeum pusillum (little barley) – widespread in Canada and US; northern Mexico, Bermuda, Argentina
  34. Hordeum roshevitzii – China, Korea, Primorye, Mongolia, Siberia, Kazakhstan
  35. Hordeum secalinum – Europe, Mediterranean, Caucasus
  36. Hordeum spontaneum – from Greece and Egypt to central China
  37. Hordeum stenostachys – Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, South Africa
  38. Hordeum tetraploidum – Argentina, Chile
  39. Hordeum vulgare (barley) – native to Middle East, now cultivated in many countries
formerly included[4]

Many species now regarded as better suited to other genera: Arrhenatherum, Crithopsis, Dasypyrum, Elymus, Eremopyrum, Hordelymus, Leymus, Psathyrostachys, and Taeniatherum


  1. ^ Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 84–85
  2. ^ lectotype designated by Bowden, Canadian Journal of Botany 37: 679 (1959)
  3. ^ Tropicos, Hordeum L.
  4. ^ a b c Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  5. ^ Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 395 大麦属 da mai shu Hordeum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 84. 1753.
  6. ^ Flora of Pakistan
  7. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana genere Hordeum includes photos + distribution maps of several species
  8. ^ Cabi, E. & M. Doğan. 2012. Poaceae. 690–756. In A. Güner, S. Aslan, T. Ekim, M. Vural & M. T. Babaç (eds.) Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi. Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanik Bahçesi ve Flora Araştırmaları Derneği Yayını, Istanbul
  9. ^ Pohl, R. W. & G. Davidse. 1994. 60. Hordeum L. 6: 247. In G. Davidse, M. Sousa Sánchez & A.O. Chater (eds.) Flora Mesoamericana. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F..
  10. ^ Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution maps
  11. ^ The Plant List search for Hordeum
  12. ^ Atlas of Living Australia

External links[edit]