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Hordeum distichon0.jpg
Hordeum vulgare f. distichon
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Pooideae
Supertribe: Triticodae
Tribe: Triticeae
Genus: Hordeum
Type species
Hordeum vulgare
  • Critesion Raf.
  • Critho E.Mey.
  • Zeocriton Wolf

Hordeum is a genus of annual and perennial plants in the grass family. They are native throughout the temperate regions of Africa, Eurasia, and the Americas.[5][6][7][8][9]

One species, Hordeum vulgare (barley), has become of major commercial importance as a cereal grain, used as fodder crop and for malting in the production of beer and whiskey. Some species are nuisance weeds introduced worldwide by human activities, others have become endangered due to habitat loss.

Hordeum species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the flame, rustic shoulder-knot and setaceous Hebrew character.

The name Hordeum comes from the Latin word for "to bristle" (horreō, horrēre), and is akin to the word "horror".


Species include:[4][10][11][12]

Formerly included species[edit]

Botanists now regard many species as better suited to other genera:[4] Arrhenatherum, Crithopsis, Dasypyrum, Elymus, Eremopyrum, Hordelymus, Leymus, Psathyrostachys, and Taeniatherum.


  1. ^ Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 84–85
  2. ^ lectotype designated by Bowden, Canadian Journal of Botany 37: 679 (1959)
  3. ^ Tropicos, Hordeum L.
  4. ^ a b c Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  5. ^ Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 395 大麦属 da mai shu Hordeum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 84. 1753.
  6. ^ Flora of Pakistan
  7. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana genere Hordeum includes photos + distribution maps of several species
  8. ^ Cabi, E. & M. Doğan. 2012. Poaceae. 690–756. In A. Güner, S. Aslan, T. Ekim, M. Vural & M. T. Babaç (eds.) Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi. Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanik Bahçesi ve Flora Araştırmaları Derneği Yayını, Istanbul
  9. ^ Pohl, R. W. & G. Davidse. 1994. 60. Hordeum L. 6: 247. In G. Davidse, M. Sousa Sánchez & A.O. Chater (eds.) Flora Mesoamericana. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F..
  10. ^ Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution maps
  11. ^ The Plant List search for Hordeum
  12. ^ "Atlas of Living Australia". Archived from the original on 2015-02-01. Retrieved 2015-02-01.

External links[edit]