Hoshū jugyō kō
Hoshū jugyō kō (補習授業校), or hoshūkō (補習校) are supplementary Japanese schools located in foreign countries for students living abroad with their families. Hoshū jugyō kō educate Japanese-born children who attend local day schools. They generally operate on weekends, after school, and other times not during the hours of operation of the day schools.
The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT), as of 1985, encouraged the opening of hoshū jugyō kō in developed countries. It encouraged the development of full-time Japanese ("person," not "language") day schools, in Japanese nihonjin gakkō, in developing countries. In 1971 there were 22 supplementary Japanese schools worldwide.
By May 1986 Japan operated 112 supplementary schools worldwide, having a total of 1,144 teachers, most of them Japanese nationals, and 15,086 students. The number of supplementary schools increased to 120 by 1987. As of April 15, 2010, there are 201 Japanese supplementary schools in 56 countries.
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These schools, which usually hold classes on weekends, are primarily designed to serve the children of Japanese residents temporarily residing in foreign countries so that, upon returning to their home country, they can easily re-adapt to the Japanese educational system. As a consequence, students at these schools, whether they are Japanese nationals and/or permanent residents of the host country, are generally taught in the age-appropriate Japanese curriculum specified by MEXT. Article 26 of the Constitution of Japan guarantees compulsory education for Japanese children in grades one through nine, so many weekend schools opened to serve students in those grades. Some weekend schools also serve high school and preschool/kindergarten. Several Japanese weekend schools operate in facilities rented from other educational institutions.
The majority of the instruction is kokugo (Japanese language instruction, primarily from a racialized perspective founded on the notion that "Japanese" is a unique race). The remainder of the curriculum consists of other academic subjects, including mathematics, social studies, and sciences. In order to cover all of the material mandated by the government of Japan in a timely fashion, each school assigns a portion of the curriculum as homework, because it is not possible to cover all material during class hours. Naomi Kano (加納 なおみ, Kanō Naomi), author of "Japanese Community Schools: New Pedagogy for a Changing Population," stated in 2011 that the supplementary schools were dominated by "a monoglossic ideology of protecting the Japanese language from English".
The Japanese government sends full-time teachers to supplementary schools that offer lessons that are similar to those of nihonjin gakkō, and/or those which have student bodies of 100 students each or greater. The number of teachers sent depends upon the enrollment: one teacher is sent for a student enrollment of 100 or more, two for 200 or more students, three for 800 or more students, four for 1,200 or more students, and five for 1,600 or more students. MEXT also subsidizes those weekend schools that each have over 100 students.
In North America, the hoshūkō are usually operated by the local Japanese communities. They are equivalent to hagwon in ethnic Korean communities and Chinese schools in ethnic Chinese communities. These Japanese schools primarily serve Japanese nationals from families temporarily in the United States, or kikokushijo, and second-generation Japanese Americans. The latter may be U.S. citizens or they may have dual U.S.-Japanese citizenship. Because few Japanese children with Japanese as a first language in North America attend full-time Japanese schools, the majority of these children receive their primary education in English, their second language. These supplementary schools exist to provide their Japanese-language education.
Rachel Endo of Hamline University, the author of "Realities, Rewards, and Risks of Heritage-Language Education: Perspectives from Japanese Immigrant Parents in a Midwestern Community," wrote that these schools "have rigorous academic expectations and structured content".
As of 2012 the most common education option for Japanese families resident in the United States, especially those living in major metropolitan areas, is to send children to American schools during the week and use weekend Japanese schools to supplement their education. As of 2007 there were 85 Japanese supplementary schools in the United States. Some 12,500 children of Japanese nationality living in the United States attended both Japanese weekend schools and American day schools. They make up more than 60% of the total number of children of Japanese nationality resident in the United States.
In the 1990s, weekend schools began creating keishōgo, or "heritage education," classes for permanent residents of the U.S. The administrators and teachers of each weekend school that offers "heritage classes" develop their own curriculum. In the years prior to 2012, there was an increase in the number of students who were permanent residents of the United States and did not plan to go back to Japan. Instead, they attended the schools "to maintain their ethnic identity." By that year, the majority of students in the Japanese weekend schools in the United States were permanent residents of the United States. Kano argued that the MEXT curriculum for many of these permanent residents is unnecessary and out of touch.
The oldest U.S. Japanese weekend school with Japanese government sponsorship is the Washington Japanese Language School (ワシントン日本語学校, Washinton Nihongo Gakkō), founded in 1958 and serving the Washington, DC metropolitan area.
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In 2003, 51.7% of pupils of Japanese nationality in North America attended both hoshūkō and local North American day schools.
As of 2013, in Asia 3.4% of children of Japanese nationality and speaking Japanese as a first language attend Japanese weekend schools in addition to their local schools. In North America that year, 45% of children of Japanese nationality and speaking Japanese as a first language attend Japanese weekend schools in addition to their local schools.
List of schools
- Doerr, Musha Neriko (Brookdale Community College) and Kiri Lee (Lehigh University). "Contesting heritage: language, legitimacy, and schooling at a weekend Japanese-language school in the United States" (Archive). Language and Education. Vol. 23, No. 5, September 2009, 425–441.
- Note: p. 426 states that the "all the names in this article are aliases": It is a common practice in ethnography to use aliases for actual names in order to protect privacy of the students, parents, teachers, as well as the school.
- Kano, Naomi. "Japanese Community Schools: New Pedagogy for a Changing Population" (Chapter 6). In: García, Ofelia, Zeena Zakharia, and Bahar Otcu (editors). Bilingual Community Education and Multilingualism: Beyond Heritage Languages in a Global City (Volume 89 of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism). Multilingual Matters, 2012. ISBN 184769800X, 9781847698001. START: p. 99.
- Mori, Yoshiko (森 美子 Mori Yoshiko; Georgetown University) and Toshiko M. Calder (カルダー淑子 Karudā Toshiko; Princeton Community Japanese Language School). "Bilingual Vocabulary Knowledge and Arrival Age Among Japanese Heritage Language Students at Hoshuukoo." Foreign Language Annals. American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Volume 46, Issue 2, pages 290–310, June 2013. First published online on 22 May 2013. DOI 10.1111/flan.12027.
- Ishikawa, Kiyoko. Japanese families in the American wonderland: transformation of self-identity and culture. University of Michigan, 1998. p. 221. "It means the JSM, Hoshu-jugyo-ko (its abbreviation is Hoshuko), in Japanese."
- Mizukami, Tetsuo (水上 徹男 Mizukami Tetsuo). The sojourner community [electronic resource]: Japanese migration and residency in Australia (Volume 10 of Social sciences in Asia, v. 10). BRILL, 2007. ISBN 9004154795, 9789004154797. p. 136.
- Goodman, Roger. "The changing perception and status of kikokushijo." In: Goodman, Roger, Ceri Peach, Ayumi Takenaka, and Paul White (editors). Global Japan: The Experience of Japan's New Immigrant and Overseas Communities. Routledge, June 27, 2005. p. 179. "Official policy (see Monbusho, 1985) was that Nihonjingakko should be set up in developing countries, hoshuko in the developed world."
- "Section 4. Well-Being of Japanese Nationals Overseas" (Archive). Diplomatic Bluebook 1987 Japan's Diplomatic Activities. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved on March 8, 2015.
- "English" (Archive). Penang Japanese (Supplementary) Saturday School. Retrieved on June 22, 2014.
- Mori and Calder, p. 292 (PDF p. 3/21).
- Kano, p. 104.
- Doerr and Lee, p. 426.
- Maguire, Mary H. (McGill University). "Identity and Agency in Primary Trilingual Children’s Multiple Cultural Worlds: Third Space and Heritage Languages" (Archive). In: Cohen, James, Kara T. McAlister, Kellie Rolstad, and Jeff MacSwan (editors). ISB4: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism. p. 1423-1445. CITED: p. 1432 (PDF p. 10/24). "The other two schools, the Chinese Shonguo and Japanese Hoshuko are privately funded, rent space for their Saturday schools from mainstream educational institutions, and thus have no visible identifiable logo or physical presence as a particular ”heritage language school”."
- "Archived copy" 研究者詳細 - 加納 なおみ. Ochanomizu University. Archived from the original on 30 March 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)()
- Kano, p. 106.
- Kano, p. 103.
- Hirvela, Alan. "Diverse Literacy Practices among Asian Populations: Implications for Theory and Pedagogy" (Chapter 5). In: Farr, Marcia, Lisya Seloni, and Juyoung Song (editors). Ethnolinguistic Diversity and Education: Language, Literacy and Culture. Routledge, January 25, 2011. Start page 99. ISBN 1135183708, 9781135183707. - Cited: p. 103. "These, too, exist as a result of efforts made by local ethnic communities. Chinese (buxiban) and Korean (hagwon) schools are the most dominant of these learning environments, while Japanese heritage schools (hoshuko) also exist in certain communities," and "Japanese schools, like the Chinese schools, are usually community-based."
- Endo, R. (Hamline University). "Realities, Rewards, and Risks of Heritage-Language Education: Perspectives from Japanese Immigrant Parents in a Midwestern Community." Bilingual Research Journal, 2013, Vol. 36(3), p.278-294. CITED: p. 281.
- Mori and Calder, p. 291 (PDF 2/21).
- "Endo Presents and Leads at Conference" (Archive). Hamline University. April 20, 2012. Retrieved on March 4, 2015.
- Endo, R. (Hamline University). "Realities, Rewards, and Risks of Heritage-Language Education: Perspectives from Japanese Immigrant Parents in a Midwestern Community." Bilingual Research Journal, 2013, Vol.36(3), p.278-294. CITED: p. 282.
- Mizukami, Tetsuo. The sojourner community [electronic resource]: Japanese migration and residency in Australia (Volume 10 of Social sciences in Asia, v. 10). BRILL, 2007. ISBN 9004154795, 9789004154797. p. 139.
- Doerr and Lee, p. 427.
- "Andrew M. Saidel". Japan-America Society of Greater Philadelphia. 16 April 2015. Archived from the original on 15 April 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2015.().
- "English Archived 2014-05-02 at the Wayback Machine." Washington Japanese Language School. Retrieved on April 30, 2014. "Washington Japanese Language School c/o Holy Cross Church, Quinn Hall, 4900 Strathmore Avenue, Garrett Park, MD 20896"
- Mizukami, Tetsuo. The sojourner community [electronic resource]: Japanese migration and residency in Australia (Volume 10 of Social sciences in Asia, v. 10). BRILL, 2007. ISBN 9004154795, 9789004154797. p. 138.
(in Japanese) Articles available online
- Chinen, Kiyomi (知念 聖美; University of California, Irvine) and Richard G. Tucker (リチャード・G・タッカー; Carnegie Mellon University). "The Acquisition of Heritage Japanese Language in the United States : Relationship between Ethnic Identity and Hoshuu-jugyoko(Japanese Language Schools for Supplementary Studies)[permanent dead link]" (米国における継承日本語習得 : エスニックアイデンティティーと補習授業校との関係; Archive). 母語・継承語・バイリンガル教育(MHB)研究 (2), 82-104, 2006-03-31. 母語・継承語・バイリンガル教育(MHB)研究会. See profile at CiNii. See profile at Osaka University Knowledge Archive. Alternate link (Archive).
- Okumura, Minako (奥村 三菜子; University of Bonn and Japanische Schule Bonn e.V. (ボン日本語補習授業校)). "Situations, Approaches and a Review for the Kindergarten/Preschool at the Japanese School (Nihongohoshûkô) in Germany[permanent dead link]" (ドイツの日本語補習校幼児部における現状・実践・考察; Archive). 母語・継承語・バイリンガル教育(MHB)研究 (6), 80-95, 2010-03-31. Mother Tongue, Heritage Language, and Bilingual Education (MHB) Research Association (母語・継承語・バイリンガル教育研究会（MHB研究会）). See profile #1 and profile #2 at CiNii. See profile at Osaka University Knowledge Archive (OUKA; 大阪大学機関リポジトリ). Alternate link (Archive).
- Ozawa, Michimasa. (小澤 至賢; 国立特別支援教育総合研究所教育 Department of Educational Support (支援部)). "Situation of Support for Japanese Students with Disabilities in Full-day and Supplementary Schools for the Japanese in the Eastern United States" (アメリカ東部地区の日本人学校及び補習授業校における障害のある日本人児童生徒への支援状況 (<特集>米国における障害のある子どもへの教育的支援の実際; Archive). Special Needs Education of the World (世界の特別支援教育) 23, 43-55, 2009-03. National Institute of Special Needs Education (独立行政法人国立特別支援教育総合研究所). See profile at CiNii. English abstract available.
- Suzuki, Kazuyo (鈴木 一代; Faculty of Humanities (人間学部), Saitama Gakuen University). "Japanese Language and Culture Acquisition of Intercultural Children with Japanese Ancestry : From the Perspective of Teachers at Part-time Japanese Schools" (日系国際児の日本語・日本文化習得とその支援 : 補習授業校講師の視点から; Archive). Bulletin of Saitama Gakuen University (埼玉学園大学紀要). Faculty of Humanities 7, 103-113, 2007-12. Saitama Gakuen University. See profile at CiNii. English abstract available.
- 奥村 三菜子. "補習授業校における国際児にとっての日本語教育のあり方を考える : ドイツの補習授業校での実践から (第31回日本言語文化学研究会) -- (発表要旨)" (Archive). 言語文化と日本語教育 (31), 82-85, 2006-06. お茶の水女子大学日本言語文化学研究会. See profile at CiNii. See profile at Ochanomizu University Teapot (Institutional Repository).
- 横尾 俊 (国立特別支援教育総合研究所教育相談部). "平成20年度日本人学校及び補習授業校に対するアンケート結果について" (Archive). 国立特別支援教育総合研究所教育相談年報 30, 33-45, 2009-06. National Institute of Special Needs Education (独立行政法人国立特別支援教育総合研究所). See profile at CiNii.
- 大浜 幾久子 (University of Tokyo). "236 海外日本語補習授業校児童・生徒の日本語語彙理解力(発達4,発達)[permanent dead link]" (Archive). Annual Convention of the Japanese Association of Educational Psychology (日本教育心理学会総会発表論文集) (22), 228-229, 1980-10-05. The Japanese Association of Educational Psychology (日本教育心理学会). See profile at CiNii.
Articles not available online