|Regions with significant populations|
|Brazil||600,000–1.6 million (estimated)|
^ note: The population of naturalized Japanese people and their descendants is unknown. Only the number of the permanent residents with Japanese nationality is shown.
The Japanese diaspora, and its individual members known as nikkei (日系?), are Japanese emigrants from Japan and their descendants that reside in a foreign country. Emigration from Japan first happened and was recorded as early as the 12th century to the Philippines, but did not become a mass phenomenon until the Meiji Era, when Japanese began to go to the Philippines, North America, and beginning in 1897 with 35 emigrants to Mexico; and later to Peru, beginning in 1899 with 790 emigrants. There was also significant emigration to the territories of the Empire of Japan during the colonial period; however, most such emigrants repatriated to Japan after the end of World War II in Asia.
According to the Association of Nikkei and Japanese Abroad, there are about 2.5 million nikkei living in their adopted countries. The largest of these foreign communities are in Brazil, the United States, Peru and the Philippines. Descendants of emigrants from the Meiji Era still hold recognizable communities in those countries, forming separate ethnic groups from Japanese peoples in Japan.
Nikkei is derived from the term nikkeijin (日系人?) in Japanese, used to refer to Japanese people who emigrated from Japan and their descendants. Emigration refers to permanent settlers, excluding transient Japanese abroad. These groups were historically differentiated by the terms issei (first-generation nikkeijin), nisei (second-generation nikkeijin), sansei (third-generation nikkeijin), and yonsei (fourth-generation nikkeijin). The term Nikkeijin may or may not apply to those Japanese who still hold Japanese citizenship. Usages of the term may depend on perspective. For example, the Japanese government defines them according to (foreign) citizenship and the ability to provide proof of Japanese lineage up to the third generation - legally the fourth generation has no legal standing in Japan that is any different from another "foreigner." On the other hand, in the U.S. or other places where Nikkeijin have developed their own communities and identities, first-generation Japanese immigrants tend to be included; citizenship is less relevant and a commitment to the local community becomes more important.
Discover Nikkei, a project of the Japanese American National Museum, defined nikkei as follows:
We are talking about Nikkei people - Japanese emigrants and their descendants who have created communities throughout the world.
The term nikkei has multiple and diverse meanings depending on situations, places, and environments. Nikkei also include people of mixed racial descent who identify themselves as Nikkei. Native Japanese also use the term nikkei for the emigrants and their descendants who return to Japan. Many of these nikkei live in close communities and retain identities separate from the native Japanese.
The definition was derived from The International Nikkei Research Project, a three-year collaborative project involving more than 100 scholars from 10 countries and 14 participating institutions.
Overseas Japanese have existed since the 15th century.
After the Portuguese first made contact with Japan in 1543, a large scale slave trade developed in which Portuguese purchased Japanese as slaves in Japan and sold them to various locations overseas, including Portugal itself, throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Many documents mention the large slave trade along with protests against the enslavement of Japanese. Japanese slaves are believed to be the first of their nation to end up in Europe, and the Portuguese purchased large amounts of Japanese slave girls to bring to Portugal for sexual purposes, as noted by the Church in 1555. King Sebastian feared that it was having a negative effect on Catholic proselytization since the slave trade in Japanese was growing to massive proportions, so he commanded that it be banned in 1571
Japanese slave women were even sold as concubines to black African crewmembers, along with their European counterparts serving on Portuguese ships trading in Japan, mentioned by Luis Cerqueira, a Portuguese Jesuit, in a 1598 document. Japanese slaves were brought by the Portuguese to Macau, where some of them not only ended up being enslaved to Portuguese, but as slaves to other slaves, with the Portuguese owning Malay and African slaves, who in turn owned Japanese slaves of their own.
Hideyoshi was so disgusted that his own Japanese people were being sold en masse into slavery on Kyushu, that he wrote a letter to Jesuit Vice-Provincial Gaspar Coelho on 24 July 1587 to demand the Portuguese, Siamese (Thai), and Cambodians stop purchasing and enslaving Japanese and return Japanese slaves who ended up as far as India. Hideyoshi blamed the Portuguese and Jesuits for this slave trade and banned Christian proselytizing as a result.
Some Korean slaves were bought by the Portuguese and brought back to Portugal from Japan, where they had been among the tens of thousands of Korean prisoners of war transported to Japan during the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98). Historians pointed out that at the same time Hideyoshi expressed his indignation and outrage at the Portuguese trade in Japanese slaves, he himself was engaging in a mass slave trade of Korean prisoners of war in Japan.
The Portuguese "highly regarded" Asian slaves like Chinese and Japanese, much more "than slaves from sub-Saharan Africa". The Portuguese attributed qualities like intelligence and industriousness to Chinese and Japanese slaves which is why they favored them more.
In 1595 a law was passed by Portugal banning the selling and buying of Chinese and Japanese slaves.
From the 15th through the early 17th century, Japanese seafarers traveled to China and Southeast Asia, in some cases establishing early Japantowns. This activity ended in the 1640s, when the Tokugawa shogunate imposed maritime restrictions which forbade Japanese from leaving the country, and from returning if they were already abroad. This policy would not be lifted for over two hundred years. Travel restrictions were eased once Japan opened diplomatic relations with western nations. In 1867, the bakufu began issuing travel documents for overseas travel and emigration.
Before 1885, relatively few people emigrated from Japan, in part because the Meiji government was reluctant to allow emigration, both because it lacked the political power to adequately protect Japanese emigrants, and because it believed that the presence of Japanese as unskilled laborers in foreign countries would hamper its ability to revise the unequal treaties. A notable exception to this trend was a group of 153 contract laborers who immigrated—without official passports—to Hawai'i and Guam in 1868. A portion of this group stayed on after the expiration of the initial labor contract, forming the nucleus of the nikkei community in Hawai'i. In 1885, the Meiji government began to turn to officially sponsored emigration programs to alleviate pressure from overpopulation and the effects of the Matsukata deflation in rural areas. For the next decade, the government was closely involved in the selection and pre-departure instruction of emigrants. The Japanese government was keen on keeping Japanese emigrants well-mannered while abroad in order to show the West that Japan was a dignified society, worthy of respect. By the mid-1890s, immigration companies (imin-kaisha 移民会社), not sponsored by the government, began to dominate the process of recruiting emigrants, but government-sanctioned ideology continued to influence emigration patterns.
Asia (except Japan)
Japanese emigration to the rest of Asia was noted as early as the 12th century to the Philippines; early Japanese settlements included those in Lingayen Gulf, Manila, the coasts of Ilocos and in the Visayas when the Philippines was under the Srivijaya and Majapahit Empire. In the 16th century the Japanese settlement was established in Ayutthaya, Thailand., and in early 17th century Japanese settlers was first recorded to stay in Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). A larger wave came in the 17th century, when Red seal ships traded in Southeast Asia, and Japanese Catholics fled from the religious persecution imposed by the shoguns, and settled in the Philippines, among other destinations. Many of them also intermarried with the local Filipina women (including those of pure or mixed Spanish and Chinese descent), thus forming the new Japanese-Mestizo community. In the 16th and 17th centuries, thousands of Japanese people traders from Japan also migrated to the Philippines and assimilated into the local population. pp. 52–3
In 1898 the Dutch East Indies colonial government statistics showed 614 Japanese in the Dutch East Indies (166 men, 448 women). During the American colonial era in the Philippines, the number of Japanese laborers working in plantations rose so high that in the 20th century, Davao City soon became dubbed as a Ko Nippon Koku ("Little Japan" in Japanese) with a Japanese school, a Shinto shrine and a diplomatic mission from Japan. There is even a popular restaurant called "The Japanese Tunnel", which includes an actual tunnel made by the Japanese in time of the war.
There was also a significant level of emigration to the overseas territories of the Empire of Japan during the Japanese colonial period, including Korea, Taiwan, Manchuria, and Karafuto. Unlike emigrants to the Americas, Japanese going to the colonies occupied a higher rather than lower social niche upon their arrival.
In 1938 about 309,000 Japanese lived in Taiwan. By the end of World War II, there were over 850,000 Japanese in Korea and more than 2 million in China, most of them farmers in Manchukuo (the Japanese had a plan to bring in 5 million Japanese settlers into Manchukuo).
In the census of December 1939, the total population of the South Pacific Mandate was 129,104, of which 77,257 were Japanese. By December 1941, Saipan had a population of more than 30,000 people, including 25,000 Japanese. Over 400,000 people lived on Karafuto (southern Sakhalin) when the Soviet offensive began in early August 1945. Most were of Japanese or Korean descent. When Japan lost the Kuril Islands, 17,000 Japanese were expelled, most from the southern islands.
After World War II, most of these overseas Japanese repatriated to Japan. The Allied powers repatriated over 6 million Japanese nationals from colonies and battlefields throughout Asia. Only a few remained overseas, often involuntarily, as in the case of orphans in China or prisoners of war captured by the Red Army and forced to work in Siberia. During the 1950s and 1960s, an estimated 6,000 Japanese accompanied Zainichi Korean spouses repatriating to North Korea, while another 27,000 prisoners-of-war are estimated to have been sent there by the Soviet Union; see Japanese people in North Korea.
There is a community of Japanese people in Hong Kong largely made up of expatriate businessmen. There are about 4,018 Japanese people living in India who are mostly expatriate engineers and company executives and they are based mainly in Haldia, Bangalore and Kolkata. Additionally, there are 903 Japanese expatriates in Pakistan based mostly in the cities of Islamabad and Karachi.
People from Japan began migrating to the U.S. and Canada in significant numbers following the political, cultural, and social changes stemming from the 1868 Meiji Restoration. (See Japanese American and Japanese Canadians).
In Canada, small multi-generational communities of Japanese immigrants developed and adapted to life in outside Japan.
In the United States, particularly after the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, Japanese immigrants were sought by industrialists to replace the Chinese immigrants. In 1907, the "Gentlemen's Agreement" between the governments of Japan and the U.S. ended immigration of Japanese workers (i.e., men), but permitted the immigration of spouses of Japanese immigrants already in the U.S. The Immigration Act of 1924 banned the immigration of all but a token few Japanese, until the Immigration Act of 1965, there was very little further Japanese immigration. That which occurred was mostly in the form of war brides. The majority of Japanese settled in Hawaii where today a third of the state's population are of Japanese descent, and the rest in the West Coast (California, Washington and Oregon), but other significant communities are found in the Northeast and Midwest states.
The Japanese diaspora has been unique in the absence of new emigration flows in the second half of the 20th century. However, research reports that during the post-war many Japanese migrated individually to join existing communities abroad.
With the restrictions on entering the United States, the level of Japanese immigration to Latin America began to increase. Mexico was the first Latin American country to receive Japanese immigrants in 1897, when the first thirty five arrived in Chiapas to work on coffee farms. Japanese immigrants (particularly from the Okinawa Prefecture, including Okinawans) arrived in small numbers during the early 20th century. Japanese Brazilians are the largest ethnic Japanese community outside Japan (numbering about 1.5 million, compared to about 1.2 million in the United States), and São Paulo contains the largest concentration of Japanese outside Japan. The first Japanese immigrants (791 people, mostly farmers) came to Brazil in 1908 on the Kasato Maru from the Japanese port of Kobe, moving to Brazil in search of better living conditions. Many of them ended up as laborers on coffee farms. (see also Shindo Renmei)
Japanese Peruvians form another notable ethnic Japanese community with an extimated of 6,000 Iseei, and 100,000 Japanese descendants (Nissei,Sansei,Yonsei) with a former Peruvian president Alberto Fujimori as one of the most recognisable faces, also Japanese Food known as Nikkei cuisine is part of the richness of Peruvian-Japanese culinary.
See also Japanese Paraguayan.
There was a small amount of Japanese settlement in the Dominican Republic between 1956 and 1961, in a programme initiated by Dominican Republic leader Rafael Trujillo. Protests over the extreme hardships and broken government promises faced by the initial group of migrants set the stage for the end of state-supported labour emigration in Japan.
The Japanese Colombian colony migrated between 1929 and 1935 in three waves. Their community is unique in terms of their resistance against the internal conflict occurring in Colombia during the decade of the 1950s, a period known as La Violencia.
The Japanese in Britain form the largest Japanese community in Europe with well over 100,000 living all over the United Kingdom (the majority being in London). In recent years, many young Japanese have been migrating from Japan to Britain to engage in cultural production and to become successful artists in London. There are also small numbers of Japanese people in Russia some whose heritage date back to the times when both countries shared the territories of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands; some Japanese communists settled in the Soviet Union, including Mutsuo Hakamada, the brother of former Japanese Communist Party chairman Satomi Hakamada whose daughter Irina Hakamada is a notable Russian political figure. The 2002 Russian census showed 835 people claiming Japanese ethnicity (nationality).
|This section requires expansion. (June 2008)|
In recent years, Japanese migration to Australia, largely consisting of younger age females, has been on the rise.
Return migration to Japan
In the 1980s, with Japan's growing economy facing a shortage of workers willing to do so-called three 'K' jobs (きつい kitsui [difficult], 汚い kitanai [dirty], and 危険 kiken [dangerous]), Japan's Ministry of Labor began to grant visas to ethnic Japanese from South America to come to Japan and work in factories. The vast majority — estimated at roughly 300,000 — were from Brazil, but there is also a large population from Peru and smaller populations from Argentina and other Latin American countries.
In response to the recession as of 2009, the Japanese government has offered ¥300,000 ($3,300) for unemployed Japanese from Latin America to return to their country of origin with the stated goal of alleviating the country's soaring unemployment. Another ¥200,000 ($2,200) is offered for each additional family member to leave. Emigrants who take this offer are not allowed to return to Japan with the same privileged visa with which they entered the country. Arudou Debito, columnist for the Japan Times, an English language newspaper in Japan, denounced the policy as "racist" as it only offered Japanese-blooded foreigners who possessed the special "person of Japanese ancestry" visa the option to receive money in return for repatriation to their home countries. Some commentators also accused it of being exploitative since most nikkei had been offered incentives to immigrate to Japan in 1990, were regularly reported to work 60+ hours per week, and were finally asked to return home when the Japanese became unemployed in large numbers. 
In popular culture
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Japanese diaspora.|
- Lizcano Fernández, Francisco (May–August 2005). "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI" (PDF). Revista Convergencia (in Spanish) (Toluca, Mexico: Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México) 12 (38): 201. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- "Centenário da Imigração Japonesa - Reportagens - Nipo-brasileiros estão mais presentes no Norte e no Centro-Oeste do Brasil". japao100.com.br.
- "ブラジル基礎データ ｜ 外務省". 外務省.
- Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder - Results". census.gov.
- "Japanese Diasporas". google.com.
- "Japanese Filipinos - Ethnic Groups of the Philippines". ethnicgroupsphilippines.com.
- "File not found - Fichier non trouvé". statcan.gc.ca.
- "Japan-Peru Relations". mofa.go.jp. 2012-11-27. Archived from the original on April 28, 2014. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
- Itoh, p. 7.
- "통계 - 국내 체류외국인 140만명으로 다문화사회 진입 가속화". dmcnews.kr.
- "3412.0 - Migration, Australia, 2013-14". abs.gov.au.
- "Bevölkerung und Erwerbstätigkeit. Ausländische Bevölkerung" (PDF). Statistisches Bundesamt.
- "MOFA Japan". 3 December 2014.
- "Japan-Argentine Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan.
- Consulate-General of Japan in Hong Kong. Hk.emb-japan.go.jp. Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
- "マレーシア基礎データ ｜ 外務省". 外務省.
- "インドネシア基礎データ ｜ 外務省". 外務省.
- "5. – Japanese – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand". teara.govt.nz.
- "ボリビア基礎データ ｜ 外務省". 外務省.
- "Tourism New Caledonia - Prepare your trip in New Caledonia" (PDF). newcaledonia.co.nz.
- "外務省: ご案内- ご利用のページが見つかりません" (PDF). mofa.go.jp.
- "Japan-Paraguay Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan.
- Rachel Pritchett. "Pacific Islands President, Bainbridge Lawmakers Find Common Ground". BSUN.
- See also Japanese people in India
- "ウルグアイ基礎データ ｜ 外務省". 外務省.
- "コロンビア基礎データ ｜ 外務省". 外務省.
- "Philippines History, Culture, Civilization and Technology, Filipino". asiapacificuniverse.com.
- "The Japanese in Colonial Southeast Asia". google.com.
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA), Japan: Japan-Mexico relations
- Palm, Hugo. "Desafíos que nos acercan," El Comercio (Lima, Peru). March 12, 2008.
- Azuma, Eiichiro (2005). "Brief Historical Overview of Japanese Emigration". International Nikkei Research Project. Retrieved 2007-02-02.
- Shoji, Rafael (2005). "Book Review" (PDF). Journal of Global Buddhism 6. Retrieved 2007-02-02.
- International Nikkei Research Project (2007). "International Nikkei Research Project". Japanese American National Museum. Retrieved 2007-02-02.
- Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1) (2007). "nikkei". Random House, Inc. Retrieved 2007-02-02.
- Komai, Hiroshi (2007). "Japanese Policies and Realities" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 2007-02-02.
- Discover Nikkei (2007). "What is Nikkei?". Japanese American National Museum. Retrieved 2007-01-19.
- HOFFMAN, MICHAEL (May 26, 2013). "The rarely, if ever, told story of Japanese sold as slaves by Portuguese traders". The Japan Times. Retrieved 2014-03-02.
- "Europeans had Japanese slaves, in case you didn't know ...". Japan Probe. May 10, 2007. Retrieved 2014-03-02.
- Nelson, Thomas (Winter 2004). "Monumenta Nipponica (Slavery in Medieval Japan)". Vol. 59 (No. 4). Sophia University. p. 463. JSTOR 25066328.
- Monumenta Nipponica: Studies on Japanese Culture, Past and Present, Volume 59, Issues 3-4. Jōchi Daigaku. Sophia University. 2004. p. 463. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- Michael Weiner, ed. (2004). Race, Ethnicity and Migration in Modern Japan: Imagined and imaginary minorites (illustrated ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 408. ISBN 0-415-20857-2. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- Kwame Anthony Appiah, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., eds. (2005). Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 479. ISBN 0-19-517055-5. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- Anthony Appiah, Henry Louis Gates, eds. (2010). Encyclopedia of Africa, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 187. ISBN 0-19-533770-0. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- Monumenta Nipponica. Jōchi Daigaku. Sophia University. 2004. p. 465. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- Joseph Mitsuo Kitagawa (2013). Religion in Japanese History (illustrated, reprint ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 144. ISBN 0-231-51509-X. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- Donald Calman (2013). Nature and Origins of Japanese Imperialism. Routledge. p. 37. ISBN 1-134-91843-7. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- Gopal Kshetry (2008). FOREIGNERS IN JAPAN: A Historical Perspective. Xlibris Corporation. ISBN 1-4691-0244-7. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- J F Moran, J. F. Moran (2012). Japanese and the Jesuits. Routledge. ISBN 1-134-88112-6. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- Robert Gellately, Ben Kiernan, eds. (2003). The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective (reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 277. ISBN 0-521-52750-3. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- Gavan McCormack (2001). Reflections on Modern Japanese History in the Context of the Concept of "genocide" (Issue 2001, Part 1 of Occasional papers in Japanese studies). Edwin O. Reischauer Institute of Japanese Studies. Harvard University, Edwin O. Reischauer Institute of Japanese Studies. p. 18. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- Olof G. Lidin (2002). Tanegashima - The Arrival of Europe in Japan. Routledge. p. 170. ISBN 1-135-78871-5. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- Amy Stanley (2012). Selling Women: Prostitution, Markets, and the Household in Early Modern Japan. Volume 21 of Asia: Local Studies / Global Themes. Matthew H. Sommer. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-95238-3. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- Jonathan D. Spence (1985). The memory palace of Matteo Ricci (illustrated, reprint ed.). Penguin Books. p. 208. ISBN 0-14-008098-8. Retrieved 2012-05-05.
countryside.16 Slaves were everywhere in Lisbon, according to the Florentine merchant Filippo Sassetti, who was also living in the city during 1578. Black slaves were the most numerous, but there were also a scattering of Chinese
- José Roberto Teixeira Leite (1999). A China no Brasil: influências, marcas, ecos e sobrevivências chinesas na sociedade e na arte brasileiras (in Portuguese). UNICAMP. Universidade Estadual de Campinas. p. 19. ISBN 85-268-0436-7. Retrieved 2012-05-05.
Idéias e costumes da China podem ter-nos chegado também através de escravos chineses, de uns poucos dos quais sabe-se da presença no Brasil de começos do Setecentos.17 Mas não deve ter sido através desses raros infelizes que a influência chinesa nos atingiu, mesmo porque escravos chineses (e também japoneses) já existiam aos montes em Lisboa por volta de 1578, quando Filippo Sassetti visitou a cidade,18 apenas suplantados em número pelos africanos. Parece aliás que aos últimos cabia o trabalho pesado, ficando reservadas aos chins tarefas e funções mais amenas, inclusive a de em certos casos secretariar autoridades civis, religiosas e militares.
- Jeanette Pinto (1992). Slavery in Portuguese India, 1510–1842. Himalaya Pub. House. p. 18. Retrieved 2012-05-05.
ing Chinese as slaves, since they are found to be very loyal, intelligent and hard working' ... their culinary bent was also evidently appreciated. The Florentine traveller Fillippo Sassetti, recording his impressions of Lisbon's enormous slave population circa 1580, states that the majority of the Chinese there were employed as cooks.
- Charles Ralph Boxer (1968). Fidalgos in the Far East 1550–1770 (2, illustrated, reprint ed.). 2, illustrated, reprint. p. 225. Retrieved 2012-05-05.
be very loyal, intelligent, and hard-working. Their culinary bent (not for nothing is Chinese cooking regarded as the Asiatic equivalent to French cooking in Europe) was evidently appreciated. The Florentine traveller Filipe Sassetti recording his impressions of Lisbon's enormous slave population circa 1580, states that the majority of the Chinese there were employed as cooks. Dr. John Fryer, who gives us an interesting ...
- José Roberto Teixeira Leite (1999). A China No Brasil: Influencias, Marcas, Ecos E Sobrevivencias Chinesas Na Sociedade E Na Arte Brasileiras (in Portuguese). UNICAMP. Universidade Estadual de Campinas. p. 19. ISBN 85-268-0436-7. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- Paul Finkelman (1998). Paul Finkelman, Joseph Calder Miller, ed. Macmillan encyclopedia of world slavery, Volume 2. Macmillan Reference USA, Simon & Schuster Macmillan. p. 737. ISBN 0-02-864781-5. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- Finkelman & Miller 1998, p. 737
- Duarte de Sande (2012). Derek Massarella, ed. Japanese Travellers in Sixteenth-century Europe: A Dialogue Concerning the Mission of the Japanese Ambassadors to the Roman Curia (1590). Volume 25 of 3: Works, Hakluyt Society Hakluyt Society (Issue 25 of Works issued by the Hakluyt Society). Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 1-4094-7223-X. ISSN 0072-9396. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- A. C. de C. M. Saunders (1982). A Social History of Black Slaves and Freedmen in Portugal, 1441–1555. Volume 25 of 3: Works, Hakluyt Society Hakluyt Society (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 168. ISBN 0-521-23150-7. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- Jeanette Pinto (1992). Slavery in Portuguese India, 1510–1842. Himalaya Pub. House. p. 18. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- Charles Ralph Boxer (1968). Fidalgos in the Far East 1550–1770 (2, illustrated, reprint ed.). Oxford U.P. p. 225. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- Dias 2007, p. 71
- "JANM/INRP - Harumi Befu". janm.org.
- For more on the history of travel documents and passports in modern Japan, see "外交史料 Q&A その他" (Diplomatic Historical Materials Q&A, misc.). 外務省 (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) .
- Known as the Gannen-mono (元年者), or "first year people" because they left Japan in the first year of the Meiji Era. Jonathan Dresner, "Instructions to Emigrant Laborers, 1885–1894: "Return in Triumph" or 'Wander on the Verge of Starvation,"" In Japanese Diasporas: Unsung Pasts, Conflicting Presents, and Uncertain Futures, ed. Nobuko Adachi (London: Routledge, 2006), 53.
- Dresner, 52-68.
- Philippines History, Culture, Civilization and Technology, Filipino. Asiapacificuniverse.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
- "Village Ayutthaya". thailandsworld.com.
- [dead link]
- "Interracial Intimacy in Japan". google.com.
- Shiraishi & Shiraishi 1993, p. 8
- "A Little Tokyo Rooted in the Philippines". Philippines: Pacific Citizen. April 2007. Archived from the original on 22 February 2008.
- "Japanese Periodicals in Colonial Korea". columbia.edu.
- Japanese Immigration Statistics, DiscoverNikkei.org
- Lankov, Andrei (2006-03-23). "The Dawn of Modern Korea (360): Settling Down". The Korea Times. Retrieved 2006-12-18.
- Formosa (Taiwan) Under Japanese Rule
- "Monograph Paper 3. Section 13". usc.edu.
- Killing of Chinese in Japan concerned, China Daily
- Prasenjit Duara: The New Imperialism and the Post-Colonial Developmental State: Manchukuo in comparative perspective
- A Go: Another Battle for Sapian
- The Kurile Islands Dispute
- When Empire Comes Home : Repatriation and Reintegration in Postwar Japan by Lori Watt, Harvard University Press
- "Russia Acknowledges Sending Japanese Prisoners of War to North Korea". Mosnews.com. 2005-04-01. Retrieved 2007-02-23.
- Morris-Suzuki, Tessa (2007-03-13). "The Forgotten Victims of the North Korean Crisis". Nautilus Institute. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-03-15.
- "パキスタン・イスラム共和国基礎データ". 各国・地域情勢. Tokyo, Japan: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. July 2009. Retrieved 2010-05-28.
- Ikawa, Fumiko. "Reviews: Umi o Watatta Nippon no Mura by Masao Gamo and "Steveston Monogatari: Sekai no Naka no Nipponjin" by Kazuko Tsurumi, American Anthropologist (US). New Series, Vol. 65, No. 1 (Feb., 1963), pp. 152–156.
- Maidment, Richard et all. (1998). Culture and Society in the Asia-Pacific, p. 80.
- A. Diaz Collazos. "The Colombian Nikkei and the Narration of Selves". academia.edu.
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (2012). "Japan-Mexico foreign relations". MOFA. Retrieved October 28, 2014.
- Japan-Brazil Relations. MOFA. Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
- Horst, Oscar H.; Asagiri, Katsuhiro (July 2000). "The Odyssey of Japanese Colonists in the Dominican Republic". Geographical Review (American Geographical Society) 90 (3): 335–358. doi:10.2307/3250857. JSTOR 3250857.
- Azuma, Eiichiro (2002). "Historical Overview of Japanese Emigration, 1868–2000". In Kikumura-Yano, Akemi. Encyclopedia of Japanese Descendants in the Americas: An Illustrated History of the Nikkei. Rowman Altamira. pp. 32–48. ISBN 978-0-7591-0149-4.
- A. Diaz Collazos. "Spanish indefinite articles in the Nikkei as Colombian-Japanese community". academia.edu.
- Fujita, Yuiko (2009). Cultural Migrants from Japan: Youth, Media, and Migration in New York and London. MD, United States: Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-2891-4.
- Mitrokhin, Vasili; Christopher, Andrew (2005). The World Was Going Our Way: The KGB and the Battle for the Third World. Tennessee, United States: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-00311-2.
- Владение языками (кроме русского) населением отдельных национальностей по республикам, автономной области и автономным округам Российской Федерации (Microsoft Excel) (in Russian). Федеральная служба государственной статистики. Retrieved 2006-12-01.
- Website of the Japanese Generalkonsulat: Japaner in Düsseldorf. 27 May 2009
- Deborah McNamara and James E. Coughlan (1992). "Recent Trends in Japanese Migration to Australia and the Characteristics of Recent Japanese Immigrants Settling in Australia". Faculty of Arts, Education, and Social Sciences, James Cook University. Retrieved 2006-12-21.
- Perry, Joellen. "The Czech Republic Pays for Immigrants to Go Home Unemployed Guest Workers and Their Kids Receive Cash and a One-Way Ticket as the Country Fights Joblessness," Wall Street Journal. April 28, 2009.
- Arudou, Debito (7 April 2009). "Golden parachutes' mark failure of race-based policy". The Japan Times. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
- Coco Masters/Tokyo (20 April 2009). "Japan to Immigrants: Thanks, But You Can Go Home Now". Time. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
- [dead link]
- Dias, Maria Suzette Fernandes (2007), Legacies of slavery: comparative perspectives, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, p. 238, ISBN 1-84718-111-2
- Maidment, Richard A. and Colin Mackerras. (1998). Culture and Society in the Asia-Pacific. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-17278-3
- Sakai, Junko. (2000). Japanese Bankers in the City of London: Language, Culture and Identity in the Japanese Diaspora. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-19601-7
- Fujita, Yuiko (2009) Cultural Migrants from Japan: Youth, Media, and Migration in New York and London. MD: Lexington Books, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 978-0-7391-2891-6
- Masterson, Daniel M. and Sayaka Funada-Classen. (2004), The Japanese in Latin America: The Asian American Experience. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-07144-7; OCLC 253466232
- Discover Nikkei, A site co-ordinated with the Japanese American National Museum and affiliated with academic, community programs, and scholars.
- Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA): Future Policy Regarding Cooperation with Overseas Communities of Nikkei
- APJ, A non-profit organization representing Japanese Citizens living in Peru and their descendants.
- NikkeiCity, Information of the nikkei in Peru.
- Nikkei Youth Network, A network of nikkei leaders around the world.
- Japanese Canadians Photograph Collection – A photo album from the UBC Library Digital Collections depicting the life of Japanese Canadians in British Columbia during World War II
- ハルとナツ, a TV drama based on historical events aired by NHK on October 2005.