|Assiniboin, Hohe, Nakota, Nakoda, Nakon, Nakona, or Stoney|
|Native to||Canada, United States|
|Region||Montana, United States|
|Ethnicity||3,500 Assiniboine (2007)|
|150, 4.3% of ethnic population (2007)|
The Assiniboine language (also known as Assiniboin, Hohe, or Nakota, Nakoda, Nakon or Nakona, or Stoney) is a Nakotan Siouan language of the Northern Plains. The name Assiniboine comes from the term Asiniibwaan, from Ojibwe, meaning "Stone Siouans". The reason they were called this was that Assiniboine people used heated stone to boil their food. In Canada, Assiniboine people are known as Stoney Indians, while they called themselves Nakota or Nakoda, meaning "allies".
- 1 Classification
- 2 Sounds/Phonology
- 3 Grammar
- 4 Vocabulary/lexis
- 5 Writing system
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
- 8 Bibliography
- 9 External links
The Dakotan group of the Siouan family has five main divisions: Dakota (Santee-Sisseton), Dakota (Yankton-Yanktonai), Lakota (Teton), Nakoda (Assiniboine) and Nakoda (Stoney). Along with the closely related Stoney, Assiniboine is an n variety of the Dakotan languages, meaning its autonym is pronounced with an initial n (thus: Nakʰóta as opposed to Dakʰóta or Lakʰóta, and Nakʰóda or Nakʰóna as opposed to Dakʰód or Lakʰól). The Assiniboine language is also closely related to the Sioux language and to the Stoney language (likewise called Nakoda or Nakota), although they are hardly mutually intelligible.
The Assiniboine language is not an government-recognized official language of any state or region where Assiniboine people live. There are two Reservations located in Montana, but the official language of the state is English. An estimate of native speakers ranges from less than 50, to about 100, to about 150 Assiniboine people, most of them elderly.
Sioux, Assiniboine, and Stoney are closely related languages of the Dakota family. Many linguists consider Assiniboine and Stoney to be dialects. However, they are mutually unintelligible. Parks and DeMallie report that they are not variant forms of a single dialect, but that Assiniboine is closer to the Sioux dialects than it is to Stoney. The exact number of interrelationships among the subdialects and dialects comprising this continuum is unknown.
|DIALECT GROUP||SELF-DESIGNATION||POLITICAL DESIGNATION|
The languages of the Dakotan group are spoken in the following regions:
- United States
|RESERVATION OR RESERVE||DIALECT|
|Carry the Kettle||Assiniboine|
|Moose Woods (White Cap)||Sioux (Sisseton, Yanktonai)|
|Mosquito-Grizzly Bear's Head||Assiniboine|
|Sioux Wahpeton (Round Plain)||Sioux (Sisseton, Yanktonai)|
|Standing Buffalo||Sioux (Sisseton, Yanktonai)|
|Wood Mountain||Sioux (Teton)|
|Oak Lake||Sioux (Santee)|
|Sioux Valley||Sioux (Santee)|
|Sioux Village-Long Plain||Sioux (Santee)|
|Devil's Lake||Sioux (Sisseton, Yanktonai)|
|Standing Rock||Sioux (Yanktonai)|
|Cheyenne River||Sioux (Teton)|
|Crow Creek||Sioux (Yanktonai)|
|Lower Brule||Sioux (Teton)|
|Pine Ridge||Sioux (Teton)|
|Standing Rock||Sioux (Teton)|
|Lower Sioux||Sioux (Santee)|
|Prairie Island||Sioux (Santee)|
|Prior Lake||Sioux (Santee)|
|Upper Sioux||Sioux (Santee)|
|Fort Peck||Assiniboine, Sioux (Yanktonai, Sisseton)|
D-N-L Classification System
The Assiniboine language(Nakota), the Dakota language and the Lakota language are usually classified into a group with D-N-L subgroup classification. As suggested by the name of the system, the variation in pronunciations of certain words follows the D-N-L rule. A typical example is given below:
Santee-Sisseton and Yankton-Yanktonai are languages that belong to the Dakotan group and Teton is a language in the Lakotan group. The table above illustrates a typical variation amongst these three languages. Just as the name of these three tribes suggest, the Dakota language, the Lakota language and the Nakota (Assiniboine) language have respective inclinations towards /d/, /l/, and /n/ in some substitutable consonants.
Arguments against the Classification System
Some scholars argue that the D-N-L classification system may not be totally accurate due to the non-rigidness of the substitution form. Siouan Indians live on an expansive continuum such that the distinction between different languages does not manifest in a rigid, clear-cutting criterion. Historically, linguists have debated on Yankton-Yanktonai languages and their proper positions into the D-N-L classification system, but the coexistence of /d/ and /n/ phonemes made such classification doubtful. This example of lexical difference between the languages of the Siouan group illustrates another possible distinction besides the D-N-L variations.
The phonemic inventory has 27 consonants, which includes aspirated, plain, and ejective stops. In addition to this, it has five oral vowels and three nasal vowels. It is a structure-preserving language. Assiniboine has no definite or indefinite articles, no nominal case system, and no verbal tense marking. Clauses unmarked are "realized," while clauses marked as "potential" by means of verbal enclitic, which is successful in producing a future/non-future distinction. The verbal system is split into active and stative (split-intransitive). The active object pronominal affixes coincide with the stative verbs of the subject pronominal affixes.
The stops (and affricates) of Assiniboine are often described as voiced rather than plain, due to intervocalic voicing rules which result in surface voiced forms. Nonetheless, these should be analyzed as plain.
|Character we use:||IPA Symbol||Assiniboine Pronunciation|
|i||i||i as in police|
|u||u||u as in flute|
|e||e||e as in a in mate|
|o||o||o as in vote|
|a||a||a as in father|
|Character we use:||IPA Symbol||Also used as|
|ą||ã||an, an, aη, aN|
|į||ĩ||in, in, iη, iN|
|ų||ũ||un, on, un, uη, uN|
Words that follow above rules
- /bahá/ hill
- /pahá/ hair
- /čupó/ fog
- /ptą/ otter
- /pka/ heavy
- /psi/ rice
- /pša/to sneeze
Syllables are primarily of CV structure. While codas are possible, they are restricted and uncommon, often becoming restructured as the onset of the following syllable. Onsets may include up to two consonants but codas must be simplex. Possible onset clusters are given in the following table:
have a sore
Morphological processes for Assiniboine language are primarily agglutinating. In addition, the character of morpheme alternation in Assiniboine may be classified in terms of phoneme loss, phoneme shift, contraction, nasalization loss , syllable loss , syntactic contraction, and syntactic alternation. 
Examples from Levin (1964). Contraction->When two syllabics come into contact they contract as in:
- /a/+/i/ > /i/
- Ex1) ápa “morning” + íyapi “they go” > ápayapi “they stayed awake until morning"
- Ex2) nakóta “ally” + iápi “they speak” > nakótiapi “a little Indian (to speak)”
- /i/+/i/ > /i/ Ex) ohómini “circle” + íyapi “they go” > (a) óhominiyapi “they circle”
- /a/+/u/ > /u/ Ex) wicá “them” + úkkupica “we give” > wicúkkupica “we give them”
Phoneme loss: Syllabics
when /a/ is in medial position between /k/ and /h/:
- /a/> /Φ/ Ex) waníyaka "to see you" + hi "he comes" > waníyakshi "he came to see you"
when /o/ is in the medial position between /i/ and/k/:
- /o/>/Φ/ Ex) ukíce “we ourselves” + okáxniga “to understand” > ukícaxnigapi “we understand each other”
when /e/ is in medial position between /p/ and /k/:
- /e/>/Φ/ Ex) napé “hand” + kóza “to wave” > napkóza “to beckon”
Phoneme loss: semi syllabics
- /y/ > /Φ/ when:
- /y/ follows /n/ Ex)mn “I” + yuhá “to have” > mnuhá “I have”
Phoneme loss:non syllanics
/k/ is in medial position between/u/ and/k/ or /u/ and /h/ or /u/ and /n/ or /u/ and /y/
- /k/ > /Φ/
- Ex1) uk “we” + kágapi “they make” > ukágapi “we make”
- Ex2) uk “we” + ya “you” + naxú “to hear” > nauyaxúpi “you hear us”
- /i/ > /a/ before /n/ Ex) awáci "to think" + ni "you" > awácani "you think"
Phoneme shift: non syllabics
When /a/--/e/ is in medial position between/g/ and /š/
- /g/ > /x/ Ex) okáxnige “to understand” + -ši(negative suffix) > owákaxnixeši “I don’t understand”
When /a/--/e/ is in medial position between/g/ and /c/
- /g/ > /x/ Ex) okáxniga “to understand” + -ce(iterative suffix) + wa “I” > owákaxnixace “I understand”
When /g/ is in medial position between /a/ and /y/
- /g/ > /x/ Ex) icáge “to grow” + -ya(causative suffix) > icáxya “to cause to grow”
Nasalization loss exists as follows:
- /ą/ > /a/ Ex) mázą "iron" + ska "white" > mazáska "money"
Syllable loss occurs as follows:
- /ye/ > /Φ/ Ex) iyópe... ye "to pay" so, iyópe + wa + ye > iyópewa "I pay"
Syntactic contraction: personal inflectional morphemes
- wa "I" + ni "you" > ci "I...you"; Ex) kku "to give" + ci "I... you" + -kta(future suffix) > cicúta "I will give you"
Syntactic contraction with verbal themes occurs as follows
- /i/ + /k/ - /kk/ > c; Ex) i "with something" + kahíta "to sweep" > icáhita "broom"
- /a/ > /e/ in verbal theme Ex) wamnáka "I saw" > wamnáke "I saw"
- /a/>/e/ in nomial theme Ex) skúya "sweet" > skúye "sweet"
- /a/>/e/ with the future suffix; wicákkupikta "they will be given" > wicákkupikte "they will be given"
Assiniboine is SOV word order. Elements order might be different from the canonical SOV, this is not free nor scrambling word order, but instead, the result of topicalization or other movements. Out of context sentences are always interpreted as SOV order even if it sounds odd. For example, 'the man bit the dog', unless an element is moved into a focus position. Focused element sentences are highly marked, and practically, a strange semantic reading is preferred over an interpretation of OSV. For example, the following sentence was interpreted as 'A banana ate the boy' by a native speaker, and to get the OSV reading out of it the object must be stressed, for example if the sentence was given as a reply to the question 'What did the boy eat?'.
škóškobena wãži hokšína že yúda.
banana a boy DET ate
'A banana ate the boy.' (or 'The boy ate a banana.')
- wąži - one
- nųba - two
- yamni - three
- tópa - four
- záptą - five
- šákpe - six
- iyušna - seven
- šaknoğą - eight
- napcuwąga - nine
- wikcémna - ten
- saba - black
- ska - white
- ša - red
- to - blue
More words can be found in the Dakota-English Dictionary 
- Pronunciation may be learned at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q7o1X1tBgaw by Fred Spyglass
wa- 1st person+singular
ya- 2nd person
ma- 1st person+singular
ni- 2nd person
For both class 1 and 2
ũ- 1st person-singular
o- 3rd person
wica- 3rd person
ci- 1st person + singular subject/ 2nd person object
- Cumberland (2005) includes /h/ as a glide rather than fricative due to its frequent place assimilation to the following vowel.
- Assiniboine at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Assiniboine". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- For the usage of the term “nakona” by Fort Peck's Assiniboine, cf. Fort Peck Community College and NHE
- Parks & DeMallie 1992.
- Miller, D., Smith, D., McGeshick, J. R., Shanley, J., & Shields, C. (2008). The History of the Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Montana, 1800-2000. Montana: Montana Historical Society Press.
- West 2003.
- Services, Dale Matheson, Montana Legislative. "1-1-510. English as official and primary language of state and local governments". leg.mt.gov. Retrieved 2017-09-26.
- Cumberland 2005.
- Ethnologue (cf. above).
- Hollow, R. C.. (1970). A Note on Assiniboine Phonology. International Journal of American Linguistics, 36(4), 296–298. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/1264256
- Reproduced from Cumberland (2005).
- Levin, N. B. (1964).The Assiniboine language. Bloomington: Indiana University.
- West 2003, pp. 48–49.
- Riggs, S. R. (1892). A Dakota-English Dictionary. Washington: US Government Printing
- Cumberland, Linda (2005). A grammar of Assiniboine: a Siouan language of the Northern Plains (Ph.D. Thesis). Indiana University.
- Parks, Douglas R.; DeMallie, Raymond J. (1992). "Sioux, Assiniboine, and Stoney Dialects: A Classification". Anthropological Linguistics. 34 (1/4): 233–255. doi:10.2307/30028376. JSTOR 30028376.
- West, Shannon L. (2003). Subjects and Objects in Assiniboine Nakoda (Doctoral dissertation). University of Victoria.
|Assiniboine language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|
- A video of Fred Spyglass (Mosquito First Nation) counting
- Video on Assiniboine history
- Language Geek:Assiniboine
- Native Languages: Assiniboine
- Online dictionary of Assniboine, American Indian Studies Research Institute