Isotopes of polonium

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Main isotopes of polonium (84Po)
Iso­tope Decay
abun­dance half-life (t1/2) mode pro­duct
208Po syn 2.898 y α 204Pb
β+ 208Bi
209Po syn (125.2±3.3) y[1] α 205Pb
β+ 209Bi
210Po trace 138.376 d α 206Pb

Polonium (84Po) has 42 isotopes, all of which are radioactive, with between 186 and 227 nucleons. 210Po with a half-life of 138.376 days has the longest half-life of naturally occurring polonium. 209Po, with a half-life of 125 years, has the longest half-life of all isotopes of polonium. 209Po and 208Po (half-life 2.9 years) can be made through proton bombardment of bismuth in a cyclotron.[2]

List of isotopes[edit]

Nuclide
[n 1]
Historic
name
Z N Isotopic mass (u)
[n 2][n 3]
Half-life
Decay
mode

Daughter
isotope

[n 4][n 5]
Spin and
parity
[n 6][n 7]
Isotopic
abundance
Excitation energy[n 7]
186Po 84 102 186.0044(18) 34(12) µs
α 182Pb 0+
187Po 84 103 187.00304(30) 1.40(0.25) ms
α 183Pb (1/2-), (5/2-)
187mPo 4(27) keV 0.5 ms 13/2+#
188Po 84 104 187.999422(21) 430(180) µs
[0.40(+20−15) ms]
α 184Pb 0+
189Po 84 105 188.998481(24) 5(1) ms α 185Pb 3/2−#
190Po 84 106 189.995101(14) 2.46(5) ms α (99.9%) 186Pb 0+
β+ (.1%) 190Bi
191Po 84 107 190.994574(12) 22(1) ms α 187Pb 3/2−#
β+ (rare) 191Bi
191mPo 130(21) keV 93(3) ms (13/2+)
192Po 84 108 191.991335(13) 32.2(3) ms α (99%) 188Pb 0+
β+ (1%) 192Bi
192mPo 2600(500)# keV ~1 µs 12+#
193Po 84 109 192.99103(4) 420(40) ms
[370(+46−40) ms]
α 189Pb 3/2−#
β+ (rare) 193Bi
193mPo 100(30)# keV 240(10) ms
[243(+11−10) ms]
α 189Pb (13/2+)
β+ (rare) 193Bi
194Po 84 110 193.988186(13) 0.392(4) s α 190Pb 0+
β+ (rare) 194Bi
194mPo 2525(2) keV 15(2) µs (11−)
195Po 84 111 194.98811(4) 4.64(9) s α (75%) 191Pb 3/2−#
β+ (25%) 195Bi
195mPo 110(50) keV 1.92(2) s α (90%) 191Pb 13/2+#
β+ (10%) 195Bi
IT (.01%) 195Po
196Po 84 112 195.985535(14) 5.56(12) s α (94%) 192Pb 0+
β+ (6%) 196Bi
196mPo 2490.5(17) keV 850(90) ns (11−)
197Po 84 113 196.98566(5) 53.6(10) s β+ (54%) 197Bi (3/2−)
α (44%) 193Pb
197mPo 230(80)# keV 25.8(1) s α (84%) 193Pb (13/2+)
β+ (16%) 197Bi
IT (.01%) 197Po
198Po 84 114 197.983389(19) 1.77(3) min α (57%) 194Pb 0+
β+ (43%) 198Bi
198m1Po 2565.92(20) keV 200(20) ns 11−
198m2Po 2691.86(20) keV 750(50) ns 12+
199Po 84 115 198.983666(25) 5.48(16) min β+ (92.5%) 199Bi (3/2−)
α (7.5%) 195Pb
199mPo 312.0(28) keV 4.17(4) min β+ (73.5%) 199Bi 13/2+
α (24%) 195Pb
IT (2.5%) 199Po
200Po 84 116 199.981799(15) 11.5(1) min β+ (88.8%) 200Bi 0+
α (11.1%) 196Pb
201Po 84 117 200.982260(6) 15.3(2) min β+ (98.4%) 201Bi 3/2−
α (1.6%) 197Pb
201mPo 424.1(24) keV 8.9(2) min IT (56%) 201Po 13/2+
EC (41%) 201Bi
α (2.9%) 197Pb
202Po 84 118 201.980758(16) 44.7(5) min β+ (98%) 202Bi 0+
α (2%) 198Pb
202mPo 2626.7(7) keV >200 ns 11−
203Po 84 119 202.981420(28) 36.7(5) min β+ (99.89%) 203Bi 5/2−
α (.11%) 199Pb
203m1Po 641.49(17) keV 45(2) s IT (99.96%) 203Po 13/2+
α (.04%) 199Pb
203m2Po 2158.5(6) keV >200 ns
204Po 84 120 203.980318(12) 3.53(2) h β+ (99.33%) 204Bi 0+
α (.66%) 200Pb
205Po 84 121 204.981203(21) 1.66(2) h β+ (99.96%) 205Bi 5/2−
α (.04%) 201Pb
205m1Po 143.166(17) keV 310(60) ns 1/2−
205m2Po 880.30(4) keV 645 µs 13/2+
205m3Po 1461.21(21) keV 57.4(9) ms IT 205Po 19/2−
205m4Po 3087.2(4) keV 115(10) ns 29/2−
206Po 84 122 205.980481(9) 8.8(1) d β+ (94.55%) 206Bi 0+
α (5.45%) 202Pb
206m1Po 1585.85(11) keV 222(10) ns (8+)#
206m2Po 2262.22(14) keV 1.05(6) µs (9−)#
207Po 84 123 206.981593(7) 5.80(2) h β+ (99.97%) 207Bi 5/2−
α (.021%) 203Pb
207m1Po 68.573(14) keV 205(10) ns 1/2−
207m2Po 1115.073(16) keV 49(4) µs 13/2+
207m3Po 1383.15(6) keV 2.79(8) s IT 207Po 19/2−
208Po 84 124 207.9812457(19) 2.898(2) y α (99.99%) 204Pb 0+
β+ (.00277%) 208Bi
209Po 84 125 208.9824304(20) 125.2(3.3) y[3] α (99.52%) 205Pb 1/2−
β+ (.48%) 209Bi
210Po Radium F 84 126 209.9828737(13) 138.376(2) d α 206Pb 0+ Trace[n 8]
210mPo 5057.61(4) keV 263(5) ns 16+
211Po Actinium C' 84 127 210.9866532(14) 0.516(3) s α 207Pb 9/2+ Trace[n 9]
211m1Po 1462(5) keV 25.2(6) s α (99.98%) 207Pb (25/2+)
IT (.016%) 211Po
211m2Po 2135.7(9) keV 243(21) ns (31/2−)
211m3Po 4873.3(17) keV 2.8(7) µs (43/2+)
212Po Thorium C' 84 128 211.9888680(13) 299(2) ns α 208Pb 0+ Trace[n 10]
212mPo 2911(12) keV 45.1(6) s α (99.93%) 208Pb (18+)
IT (.07%) 212Po
213Po 84 129 212.992857(3) 3.65(4) µs α 209Pb 9/2+ Trace[n 11]
214Po Radium C' 84 130 213.9952014(16) 164.3(20) µs α 210Pb 0+ Trace[n 8]
215Po Actinium A 84 131 214.9994200(27) 1.781(4) ms α (99.99%) 211Pb 9/2+ Trace[n 9]
β (2.3×10−4%) 215At
216Po Thorium A 84 132 216.0019150(24) 0.145(2) s α 212Pb 0+ Trace[n 10]
ββ (rare) 216Rn
217Po 84 133 217.006335(7) 1.47(5) s α (95%) 213Pb 5/2+#
β (5%) 217At
218Po Radium A 84 134 218.0089730(26) 3.10(1) min α (99.98%) 214Pb 0+ Trace[n 8]
β (.02%) 218At
219Po 84 135 219.01361(16) 10.3(1) min α (28.2%) 215Pb 9/2+#
β (71.8%) 219At
220Po 84 136 220.0164(18) 40# s
[>300 ns]
β 220At 0+
221Po 84 137 221.02123(20) 2.2(0.7) min β 221At 9/2+#
222Po 84 138 222.024144(40) 9.1(7.2) min β 222At 0+
  1. ^ mPo – Excited nuclear isomer.
  2. ^ ( ) – Uncertainty (1σ) is given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits.
  3. ^ # – Atomic mass marked #: value and uncertainty derived not from purely experimental data, but at least partly from trends from the Mass Surface (TMS).
  4. ^ Bold italics symbol as daughter – Daughter product is nearly stable.
  5. ^ Bold symbol as daughter – Daughter product is stable.
  6. ^ ( ) spin value – Indicates spin with weak assignment arguments.
  7. ^ a b # – Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from trends of neighboring nuclides (TNN).
  8. ^ a b c Intermediate decay product of Uranium-238
  9. ^ a b Intermediate decay product of Uranium-235
  10. ^ a b Intermediate decay product of Thorium-232
  11. ^ Intermediate decay product of 237Np

References[edit]

  1. ^ Boutin, Chad. "Polonium's Most Stable Isotope Gets Revised Half-Life Measurement". nist.gov. NIST Tech Beat. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
  2. ^ Carvalho, F.; Fernandes, S.; Fesenko, S.; Holm, E.; Howard, B.; Martin, P.; Phaneuf, P.; Porcelli, D.; Pröhl, G.; Twining, J. (2017). The Environmental Behaviour of Polonium. Technical reports series. 484. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency. p. 22. ISBN 978-92-0-112116-5. ISSN 0074-1914.
  3. ^ Boutin, Chad (2014-09-09). "Polonium's Most Stable Isotope Gets Revised Half-Life Measurement". nist.gov. NIST Tech Beat. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
Generenal references

Isotope data is sourced in:

  • Atomic weights of the elements:
de Laeter, John Robert; Böhlke, John Karl; De Bièvre, Paul; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Peiser, H. Steffen; Rosman, Kevin J. R.; Taylor, Philip D. P. (2003). "Atomic weights of the elements. Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 75 (6): 683–800. doi:10.1351/pac200375060683.
Wieser, Michael E. (2006). "Atomic weights of the elements 2005 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 78 (11): 2051–2066. doi:10.1351/pac200678112051. Lay summary.
  • Isotopic mass, spin and parity
Audi, Georges; Bersillon, Olivier; Blachot, Jean; Wapstra, Aaldert Hendrik (2003), "The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties", Nuclear Physics A, 729: 3–128, Bibcode:2003NuPhA.729....3A, doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001
Holden, Norman E. (2004). "11. Table of the Isotopes". In Lide, David R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (85th ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-0485-9.
National Nuclear Data Center. "NuDat 2.x database". Brookhaven National Laboratory.
  • Half-life
Audi, Georges; Kondev, Filip G.; Wang, Meng; Huang, Wen Jia; Naimi, Sarah (2017), "The NUBASE2016 evaluation of nuclear properties" (PDF), Chinese Physics C, 41 (3): 030001–1—030001–138, Bibcode:2017ChPhC..41c0001A, doi:10.1088/1674-1137/41/3/030001
National Nuclear Data Center. "NuDat 2.x database". Brookhaven National Laboratory.
Holden, Norman E. (2004). "11. Table of the Isotopes". In Lide, David R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (85th ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-0485-9.

See also[edit]