|Name, symbol||bohrium, Bh|
|Bohrium in the periodic table|
|Standard atomic weight (Ar)|||
|Element category||transition metal|
|Group, block||group 7, d-block|
|Electron configuration||[Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s2 (calculated)|
|per shell||2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 13, 2 (predicted)|
|Density near r.t.||37.1 g·cm−3 (predicted)|
|Oxidation states||7, (5), (4), (3) (parenthesized oxidation states are predictions)|
|Ionization energies||1st: 742.9 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1688.5 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2566.5 kJ·mol−1
(more) (all estimated)
|Atomic radius||empirical: 128 pm (predicted)|
|Covalent radius||141 pm (estimated)|
|Crystal structure||hexagonal close-packed (hcp)
|CAS Registry Number||54037-14-8|
|Naming||after Niels Bohr|
|Discovery||Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (1981)|
|Most stable isotopes|
Bohrium is a chemical element with symbol Bh and atomic number 107. It is named after Danish physicist Niels Bohr. It is a synthetic element (an element that can be created in a laboratory but is not found in nature) and radioactive; the most stable known isotope, 270Bh, has a half-life of approximately 61 seconds.
In the periodic table of the elements, it is a d-block transactinide element. It is a member of the 7th period and belongs to the group 7 elements. Chemistry experiments have confirmed that bohrium behaves as the heavier homologue to rhenium in group 7. The chemical properties of bohrium are characterized only partly, but they compare well with the chemistry of the other group 7 elements.
Bohrium was first convincingly synthesized in 1976 by a Russian research team led by Yuri Oganessian. The team bombarded a target of bismuth-209 with accelerated nuclei of chromium-54 to produce 5 atoms of the isotope bohrium-262:
The IUPAC/IUPAP Transfermium Working Group (TWG) recognised the GSI collaboration as official discoverers in their 1992 report.
The German group suggested the name nielsbohrium with symbol Ns to honor the Danish physicist Niels Bohr. The Soviet scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia had suggested this name be given to element 105 (which was finally called dubnium) and the German team wished to recognise both Bohr and the fact that the Dubna team had been the first to propose the cold fusion reaction to solve the controversial problem of the naming of element 105. The Dubna team agreed with the German group's naming proposal for element 107.
There was an element naming controversy as to what the elements from 104 to 106 were to be called; the IUPAC adopted unnilseptium (symbol Uns) as a temporary, systematic element name for this element. In 1994 a committee of IUPAC recommended that element 107 be named bohrium, not nielsbohrium, since there was no precedence for using a scientist's complete name in the naming of an element. This was opposed by the discoverers as there was some concern that the name might be confused with boron and in particular the distinguishing of the names of their respective oxyanions, bohrate and borate. The matter was handed to the Danish branch of IUPAC which, despite this, voted in favour of the name bohrium, and thus the name bohrium for element 107 was recognized internationally in 1997. The IUPAC subsequently decided that bohrium salts should be called bohriates instead of bohrates.
|263Bh||0.2? ms||α ?||unknown||—|
|268Bh||25? s||α, SF?||unknown||—|
|269Bh||25? s||α ?||unknown||—|
|273Bh||90? min||α, SF ?||unknown||—|
|275Bh||40? min||SF ?||unknown||—|
Bohrium has no stable or naturally-occurring isotopes. Several radioactive isotopes have been synthesized in the laboratory, either by fusing two atoms or by observing the decay of heavier elements. Eleven different isotopes of bohrium have been reported with atomic masses 260–262, 264–267, 270–272, 274, one of which, bohrium-262, has a known metastable state. All of these decay only through alpha decay, although some unknown bohrium isotopes are predicted to undergo spontaneous fission.
Stability and half-lives
The lighter isotopes usually have shorter half-lives; half-lives of under 100 ms for 260Bh, 261Bh, 262Bh, and 262mBh were observed. 264Bh, 265Bh, 266Bh, and 271Bh are more stable at around 1 s, and 267Bh and 272Bh have half-lives of about 10 s. The heaviest isotopes are the most stable, with 270Bh and 274Bh having measured half-lives of about 61 s and 54 s respectively. The unknown isotopes 273Bh and 275Bh are predicted to have even longer half-lives of around 90 minutes and 40 minutes respectively. Before its discovery, 274Bh was also predicted to have a long half-life of 90 minutes, but it was found to have a shorter half-life of only about 54 seconds.
The proton-rich isotopes with masses 260, 261, and 262 were directly produced by cold fusion, those with mass 262 and 264 were reported in the decay chains of meitnerium and roentgenium, while the neutron-rich isotopes with masses 265, 266, 267 were created in irradiations of actinide targets. The four most neutron-rich ones with masses 270, 271, 272, and 274 appear in the decay chains of 282113, 287115, 288115, and 294117 respectively. These eleven isotopes have half-lives ranging from 8 miliseconds to 1 minute.
Bohrium is the fourth member of the 6d series of transition metals and the heaviest member of group VII in the Periodic Table, below manganese, technetium and rhenium. All the members of the group readily portray their group oxidation state of +7 and the state becomes more stable as the group is descended. Thus bohrium is expected to form a stable +7 state. Technetium also shows a stable +4 state whilst rhenium exhibits stable +4 and +3 states. Bohrium may therefore show these lower states as well.
The heavier members of the group are known to form volatile heptoxides M2O7 (M = metal), so bohrium should also form the volatile oxide Bh2O7. The oxide should dissolve in water to form perbohric acid, HBhO4. Rhenium and technetium form a range of oxyhalides from the halogenation of the oxide. The chlorination of the oxide forms the oxychlorides MO3Cl, so BhO3Cl should be formed in this reaction. Fluorination results in MO3F and MO2F3 for the heavier elements in addition to the rhenium compounds ReOF5 and ReF7. Therefore, oxyfluoride formation for bohrium may help to indicate eka-rhenium properties.
In 1995, the first report on attempted isolation of the element was unsuccessful.
In 2000, a team at the PSI conducted a chemistry reaction using atoms of 267Bh produced in the reaction between 249Bk and 22Ne ions. The resulting atoms were thermalised and reacted with a HCl/O2 mixture to form a volatile oxychloride. The reaction also produced isotopes of its lighter homologues, technetium (as 108Tc) and rhenium (as 169Re). The isothermal adsorption curves were measured and gave strong evidence for the formation of a volatile oxychloride with properties similar to that of rhenium oxychloride. This placed bohrium as a typical member of group 7.
- 2 Bh + 3 O
2 + 2 HCl → 2 BhO
3Cl + H
|BhO3Cl||bohrium oxychloride ; bohrium(VII) chloride trioxide|
- Johnson, E.; Fricke, B.; Jacob, T.; Dong, C. Z.; Fritzsche, S.; Pershina, V. (2002). "Ionization potentials and radii of neutral and ionized species of elements 107 (bohrium) and 108 (hassium) from extended multiconfiguration Dirac–Fock calculations". The Journal of Chemical Physics 116: 1862. Bibcode:2002JChPh.116.1862J. doi:10.1063/1.1430256.
- Haire, Richard G. (2006). "Transactinides and the future elements". In Morss; Edelstein, Norman M.; Fuger, Jean. The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements (3rd ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Science+Business Media. ISBN 1-4020-3555-1.
- Östlin, A.; Vitos, L. (2011). "First-principles calculation of the structural stability of 6d transition metals". Physical Review B 84 (11). Bibcode:2011PhRvB..84k3104O. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.84.113104.
- Fricke, Burkhard (1975). "Superheavy elements: a prediction of their chemical and physical properties". Recent Impact of Physics on Inorganic Chemistry 21: 89–144. doi:10.1007/BFb0116498. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- Chemical Data. Bohrium - Bh, Royal Chemical Society
- Oganessian, Yuri Ts.; Abdullin, F. Sh.; Bailey, P. D. et al. (2010-04-09). "Synthesis of a New Element with Atomic Number Z=117". Physical Review Letters (American Physical Society) 104 (142502). Bibcode:2010PhRvL.104n2502O. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.142502. PMID 20481935. (gives life-time of 1.3 min based on a single event; conversion to half-life is done by multiplying with ln(2).)
- FUSHE (2012). "Synthesis of SH-nuclei" (PDF). Retrieved September 2012.
- Yu. Ts. Oganessian et al. On spontaneous fission of neutron-deficient isotopes of elements 103, 105 and 107 // Nuclear Physics A. — 1976. — Т. 273. — № 2. — С. 505-522.
- Münzenberg, G.; Hofmann, S.; Heßberger, F.P.; Reisdorf, W.; Schmidt, K.H.; Schneider, J.H.R.; Armbruster, P.; Sahm, C.C.; Thuma, B. (1981). "Identification of element 107 by α correlation chains" (PDF). Zeitschrift für Physik a Atoms and Nuclei 300 (1): 107–8. Bibcode:1981ZPhyA.300..107M. doi:10.1007/BF01412623. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- Barber, R. C.; Greenwood, N.N.; Hrynkiewicz, A.Z.; Jeannin, Y.P.; Lefort, M.; Sakai, M.; Ulehla, I.; Wapstra, A.P.; Wilkinson, D.H. (1993). "Discovery of the transfermium elements. Part II: Introduction to discovery profiles. Part III: Discovery profiles of the transfermium elements". Pure and Applied Chemistry 65 (8): 1757. doi:10.1351/pac199365081757.
- Ghiorso, A.; Seaborg, G.T.; Organessian, Yu. Ts.; Zvara, I.; Armbruster, P.; Hessberger, F.P.; Hofmann, S.; Leino, M.; Munzenberg, G.; Reisdorf, W.; Schmidt, K.-H. (1993). "Responses on 'Discovery of the transfermium elements' by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, California; Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna; and Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt followed by reply to responses by the Transfermium Working Group". Pure and Applied Chemistry 65 (8): 1815–1824. doi:10.1351/pac199365081815.
- "Names and symbols of transfermium elements (IUPAC Recommendations 1997)". Pure and Applied Chemistry 69 (12): 2471. 1997. doi:10.1351/pac199769122471.
- "Names and symbols of transfermium elements (IUPAC Recommendations 1994)". Pure and Applied Chemistry 66 (12): 2419. 1994. doi:10.1351/pac199466122419.
- Sonzogni, Alejandro. "Interactive Chart of Nuclides". National Nuclear Data Center: Brookhaven National Laboratory. Retrieved 2008-06-06.
- Gray, Theodore (2002–2010). "The Photographic Periodic Table of the Elements". periodictable.com. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- Nelson, S.; Gregorich, K.; Dragojević, I.; Garcia, M.; Gates, J.; Sudowe, R.; Nitsche, H. (2008). "Lightest Isotope of Bh Produced via the Bi209(Cr52,n)Bh260 Reaction". Physical Review Letters 100 (2). Bibcode:2008PhRvL.100b2501N. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.022501.
- Münzenberg, G.; Armbruster, P.; Hofmann, S.; Heßberger, F. P.; Folger, H.; Keller, J. G.; Ninov, V.; Poppensieker, K. et al. (1989). "Element 107". Zeitschrift für Physik A 333 (2): 163. Bibcode:1989ZPhyA.333..163M. doi:10.1007/BF01565147.
- Hofmann, S.; Ninov, V.; Heßberger, F. P.; Armbruster, P.; Folger, H.; Münzenberg, G.; Schött, H. J.; Popeko, A. G.; Yeremin, A. V.; Andreyev, A. N.; Saro, S.; Janik, R.; Leino, M. (1995). "The new element 111" (PDF). Zeitschrift für Physik A 350 (4): 281. Bibcode:1995ZPhyA.350..281H. doi:10.1007/BF01291182.
- Gan, Z.G.; Guo, J.S.; Wu, X. L.; Qin, Z.; Fan, H.M.; Lei, X.G.; Liu, H.Y.; Guo, B. et al. (2004). "New isotope 265Bh". The European Physical Journal A 20 (3): 385. Bibcode:2004EPJA...20..385G. doi:10.1140/epja/i2004-10020-2.
- Wilk, P. A.; Gregorich, KE; Turler, A; Laue, CA; Eichler, R; Ninov V, V; Adams, JL; Kirbach, UW et al. (2000). "Evidence for New Isotopes of Element 107: 266Bh and 267Bh". Physical Review Letters 85 (13): 2697–700. Bibcode:2000PhRvL..85.2697W. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.85.2697. PMID 10991211.
- Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.; Cherepanov, E. A. (2007). "AIP Conference Proceedings" 912. p. 235. doi:10.1063/1.2746600.
- Münzenberg, G.; Gupta, M. (2011). "Handbook of Nuclear Chemistry". p. 877. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-0720-2_19. ISBN 978-1-4419-0719-6.
- Malmbeck, R.; Skarnemark, G.; Alstad, J.; Fure, K.; Johansson, M.; Omtvedt, J. P. (2000). "Chemical Separation Procedure Proposed for Studies of Bohrium". Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 246 (2): 349. doi:10.1023/A:1006791027906.
- Gäggeler, H. W.; Eichler, R.; Brüchle, W.; Dressler, R.; Düllmann, Ch.E.; Eichler, B.; Gregorich, K. E.; Hoffman, D. C. et al. (2000). "Chemical characterization of bohrium (element 107)". Nature 407 (6800): 63–5. doi:10.1038/35024044. PMID 10993071.
- "Gas chemical investigation of bohrium (Bh, element 107)", Eichler et al., GSI Annual Report 2000. Retrieved on 2008-02-29
- Los Alamos National Laboratory – Bohrium
- Properties of BhO3Cl
- Bohrium at The Periodic Table of Videos (University of Nottingham)
- WebElements.com – Bohrium
|Periodic table (Large cells)|