Jump to content

Jackie Gleason

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jackie Gleason
Gleason in the 1940s
Herbert Walton Gleason Jr.

(1916-02-26)February 26, 1916
DiedJune 24, 1987(1987-06-24) (aged 71)
Burial placeOur Lady of Mercy Catholic Cemetery
Doral, Florida, U.S.
  • Actor
  • comedian
  • musician
  • writer
  • composer
  • conductor
Years active1937–1986
Political partyRepublican
  • Genevieve Halford
    (m. 1936; div. 1970)
  • Beverly McKittrick
    (m. 1970; div. 1975)
  • Marilyn Taylor
    (m. 1975⁠–⁠1987)
Children2, including Linda Miller
RelativesJason Patric (grandson)

John Herbert Gleason (February 26, 1916 – June 24, 1987), known as Jackie Gleason, was an American actor, comedian, writer, and composer also known as "The Great One".[1][2][3] He developed a style and characters from growing up in Brooklyn, New York, and was known for his brash visual and verbal comedy, exemplified by his city bus driver character Ralph Kramden in the television series The Honeymooners. He also developed The Jackie Gleason Show, which maintained high ratings from the mid-1950s through 1970. The series originated in New York City, but filming moved to Miami Beach, Florida, in 1964 after Gleason took up permanent residence there.

Among his notable film roles were Minnesota Fats in 1961's The Hustler (co-starring with Paul Newman) and Buford T. Justice in the Smokey and the Bandit trilogy from 1977 to 1983 (co-starring Burt Reynolds).

Gleason enjoyed a prominent secondary music career during the 1950s and 1960s, producing a series of bestselling "mood music" albums. His first album Music for Lovers Only still holds the record for the longest stay on the Billboard Top Ten Charts (153 weeks), and his first ten albums sold over a million copies each.[4] His output includes more than 20 singles, nearly 60 long-playing record albums, and more than 40 CDs.

Early life[edit]

Gleason was born on February 26, 1916, at 364 Chauncey Street in the Stuyvesant Heights (now Bedford–Stuyvesant) section of Brooklyn.[5] Named Herbert Walton Gleason Jr. at birth, he was baptized John Herbert Gleason[6] and grew up at 328 Chauncey Street, Apartment 1A (an address he later used for Ralph and Alice Kramden on The Honeymooners).[7] His parents were Herbert Walton "Herb" Gleason (1883–1964), born in New York City, and Mae Agnes "Maisie" (née Kelly; 1886–1935). Most sources indicate his mother was originally from Farranree, County Cork, Ireland.[8][9][10][11] Gleason was the younger of two children; his elder brother, Clement, died of meningitis at age 14 in 1919.[8]

Gleason remembered Clement and his father having "beautiful handwriting". He used to watch his father work at the family's kitchen table, writing insurance policies in the evenings. On the night of December 14, 1925, Gleason's father disposed of any family photos in which he appeared; just after noon on December 15, he collected his hat, coat, and paycheck, and permanently left his family and job at the insurance company. Once it became evident that he was not coming back, Mae went to work as a subway attendant for the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation (BMT).[12]

After his father abandoned the family, young Gleason began hanging around with a local gang, hustling pool.[12] He attended P.S. 73 Elementary School in Brooklyn, John Adams High School in Queens, and Bushwick High School in Brooklyn. Gleason became interested in performing after being part of a class play; he quit school before graduating and got a job that paid $4 per night (equivalent to $94 in 2023) as master of ceremonies at a theater. Other jobs he held at that time included pool hall worker, stunt driver, and carnival barker.[12][13] Gleason and his friends made the rounds of the local theaters; he put an act together with one of his friends, and the pair performed on amateur night at the Halsey Theater, where Gleason replaced his friend Sammy Birch as master of ceremonies. He performed the same duties twice a week at the Folly Theater.[12]

Gleason was 19 when his mother died in 1935 of sepsis from a large neck carbuncle that young Jackie had tried to lance.[6] He had nowhere to go, and 36 cents to his name. The family of his first girlfriend, Julie Dennehy, offered to take him in; Gleason, however, was headstrong and insisted that he was going into the heart of the city.[12] His friend Birch made room for him in the hotel room he shared with another comedian. Birch also told him of a week-long gig in Reading, Pennsylvania, which would pay $19—more money than Gleason could imagine (equivalent to $422 in 2023). The booking agent advanced his bus fare for the trip against his salary, granting Gleason his first job as a professional comedian. Following this, he would always have regular work in small clubs.[14]


Gleason worked his way up to a job at New York's Club 18, where insulting its patrons was the order of the day. Gleason greeted noted skater Sonja Henie by handing her an ice cube and saying, "Okay, now do something."[15] It was here that Jack L. Warner first saw Gleason, signing him to a film contract for $250 a week.[12]

By age 24, Gleason was appearing in films: first for Warner Brothers (as Jackie C. Gleason) in such films as Navy Blues (1941) with Ann Sheridan and Martha Raye and All Through the Night (1941) with Humphrey Bogart; then for Columbia Pictures for the B military comedy Tramp, Tramp, Tramp; and finally for Twentieth Century-Fox, where Gleason played Glenn Miller Orchestra bassist Ben Beck in Orchestra Wives (1942). He also had a small part as a soda shop clerk in Larceny, Inc. (1942), with Edward G. Robinson and a modest part as an actor's agent in the 1942 Betty GrableHarry James musical Springtime in the Rockies.

During World War II, Gleason was initially exempt from military service, since he was a father of two. However, in 1943 the US started drafting men with children. When Gleason reported to his induction, doctors discovered that his broken left arm had healed crooked (the area between his thumb and forefinger was nerveless and numb), that a pilonidal cyst existed at the end of his coccyx, and that he was 100 pounds overweight. Gleason was therefore classified 4-F and rejected for military service.[16]

Gleason did not make a strong impression on Hollywood at first; at the time, he developed a nightclub act that included comedy and music. At the end of 1942, Gleason and Lew Parker led a large cast of entertainers in the road show production of Olsen and Johnson's New 1943 Hellzapoppin.[17][18][19] He also became known for hosting all-night parties in his hotel suite; the hotel soundproofed his suite out of consideration for its other guests.[15] "Anyone who knew Jackie Gleason in the 1940s", wrote CBS historian Robert Metz, "would tell you The Fat Man would never make it. His pals at Lindy's watched him spend money as fast as he soaked up the booze."[citation needed] Rodney Dangerfield wrote that he witnessed Gleason purchasing marijuana in the 1940s.[20]

Gleason's first significant recognition as an entertainer came on Broadway when he appeared in the hit musical Follow the Girls (1944). While working in films in California, Gleason also worked at former boxer Maxie Rosenbloom's nightclub (Slapsy Maxie's, on Wilshire Boulevard).[12][21][22]

Early television[edit]

Gleason and Rosemary DeCamp as Chester and Peg Riley in The Life of Riley
Jackie Gleason straightening a dancer's hat
Gleason and Margaret Jeanne (of the June Taylor dancers) get ready for St. Patrick's Day 1955.

Gleason's big break occurred in 1949, when he landed the role of blunt but softhearted aircraft worker Chester A. Riley for the first television version of the radio comedy The Life of Riley. (William Bendix had originated the role on radio but was initially unable to accept the television role because of film commitments.) Despite positive reviews, the show received modest ratings and was canceled after one year. Bendix did resume the role beginning in 1953 for a five-year series,[23] and it became a hit.[15] But long before this, Gleason's nightclub act had received attention from New York City's inner circle and the fledgling DuMont Television Network. He was working at Slapsy Maxie's when he was hired[12] to host DuMont's Cavalcade of Stars variety hour in 1950, having been recommended by comedy writer Harry Crane, whom he knew from his days as a stand-up comedian in New York.[24] The program initially had rotating hosts; Gleason was first offered two weeks at $750 per week. When he responded that this arrangement would not be worth the train trip to New York, the offer was extended to four weeks. Gleason returned to New York for the show.[12] He framed the acts with splashy dance numbers, developed sketch characters he would refine over the next decade, and became enough of a presence that CBS wooed him to its network in 1952.

Renamed The Jackie Gleason Show, the program became the country's second-highest-rated television show during the 1954–55 season.[25] Gleason amplified the show with even splashier opening dance numbers inspired by Busby Berkeley's screen dance routines and featuring the precision-choreographed June Taylor Dancers. Following the dance performance, he would do an opening monolog. Then, accompanied by "a little travelin' music" ("That's a Plenty", a Dixieland classic from 1914), he would shuffle toward the wings, clapping his hands and shouting, "And awaaay we go!" The phrase became one of his trademarks, along with "How sweet it is!" (which he used in reaction to almost anything).[25] Theona Bryant, a former Powers Girl, became Gleason's "And awaaay we go" girl. Ray Bloch was Gleason's first music director, followed by Sammy Spear, who stayed with him through the 1960s; Gleason often kidded with his music directors during his opening monologs. He continued developing comic characters, including:

  • Reginald Van Gleason III, a top-hatted millionaire with a taste for both the good life and fantasy;
  • Rudy the Repairman, boisterous and boorish;
  • Joe the Bartender, gregarious and with friendly words for the never-seen Mr. Dennehy (who was always the first one at the bar);
  • The Poor Soul, a silent character who could (and often did) come to grief in the least-expected places (or demonstrated gratitude at such gifts as being allowed to share a newspaper on a subway);
  • Rum Dum, a character with a brush-like mustache who often stumbled around as though drunk and confused;
  • Fenwick Babbitt, a friendly, addle-headed young man usually depicted working at various jobs and invariably failing;
  • Charlie Bratton, a loudmouth who frequently picked on the mild-mannered Clem Finch (portrayed by Art Carney, a future Honeymooners co-star);
  • Stanley R. Sogg, a pitchman who usually appeared on commercials during late night TV movies, often selling items that came with extras or bonuses (the ultimate inducement was a 10-pound wedge of Facciamara's Macciaroni cheese); and
  • The Bachelor, a silent character (accompanied by the song "Somebody Loves Me") doing everyday things in an unusually lazy (or makeshift) way.
The Poor Soul, staring at a stretching ballerina
Gleason as the Poor Soul on Toast of the Town in 1954

In a 1985 interview, Gleason explained how some of his invented comic characters were associated with his youth in Brooklyn. The Mr. Dennehy whom Joe the Bartender greets is a tribute to Gleason's first love, Julie Dennehy. The character of The Poor Soul was drawn from an assistant manager of an outdoor theater he frequented.[12]

Gleason disliked rehearsing. Using photographic memory[26] he read the script once, then watched a rehearsal with his co-stars and stand-in, and shot the show later that day. When he made mistakes, he often blamed the cue cards.[27]

The Honeymooners[edit]

Alice Kramden kissing Ralph after he gives her a bouquet
Gleason as Ralph Kramden with Audrey Meadows as Alice, circa 1955

Gleason's most popular character by far was blustery bus driver Ralph Kramden. Largely drawn from Gleason's harsh Brooklyn childhood, the Ralph Kramden sketches became known as The Honeymooners. The show was based on Ralph's many get-rich-quick schemes; his ambition; his antics with his best friend and neighbor, scatterbrained sewer worker Ed Norton; and clashes with his sensible wife, Alice, who typically pulled Ralph's head down from the clouds.

Gleason developed catchphrases he used on The Honeymooners, such as threats to Alice: "One of these days, Alice, pow! right in the kisser" and "Bang! Zoom! To the Moon Alice, to the Moon!"

The Honeymooners originated from a sketch Gleason was developing with his show's writers. He said he had an idea he wanted to enlarge: a skit with a smart, quiet wife and her very vocal husband. He went on to describe that, while the couple had their fights, underneath it all they loved each other. Titles for the sketch were tossed around until someone came up with The Honeymooners.[12]

The Honeymooners first appeared on Cavalcade of Stars on October 5, 1951, with Carney in a guest appearance as a cop (Norton did not appear until a few episodes later) and character actress Pert Kelton as Alice. Darker and fiercer than the milder later version with Audrey Meadows as Alice, the sketches proved popular with critics and viewers. In these early episodes with Kelton playing Alice, Gleason's frustrated bus driver character had a battleaxe of a wife, and the arguments between them were harrowingly realistic; when Meadows (who was 15 years younger than Kelton) took over the role after Kelton was blacklisted, the tone of the episodes softened considerably.

When Gleason moved to CBS, Kelton was left behind; her name had been published in Red Channels, a book that listed and described reputed communists (and communist sympathizers) who worked in television and radio, and CBS did not want to hire her. Gleason reluctantly let her be removed from the cast; the reason was covered up by telling the media that she had "heart trouble". At first, Gleason turned down Meadows as Kelton's replacement. Meadows wrote in her memoir that after her unsuccessful audition she frumped herself up and slipped back in to audition again, to convince Gleason that she could handle the role of a frustrated (but loving) working-class wife. Rounding out the cast, Joyce Randolph played Trixie, Ed Norton's wife. Elaine Stritch had played the role as a tall and attractive blonde in the first sketch but was quickly replaced by Randolph. Comedy writer Leonard Stern always felt The Honeymooners was more than sketch material and persuaded Gleason to make it into a full-hour-long episode.

In 1955, Gleason gambled on making it a separate series entirely. The result was the "Classic 39" episodes, which finished 19th in the ratings during their only season.[25] They were filmed with a new DuMont process, Electronicam. Like kinescopes, it preserved a live performance on film; unlike kinescopes (which were screenshots), the film was of higher quality and comparable to a motion picture.[28] Using this higher-quality video process turned out to be Gleason's most prescient move. A decade later, he aired the half-hour Honeymooners in syndicated reruns that began to build a loyal and growing audience, making the show a television icon. Its popularity was such that in 2000 a life-sized statue of Jackie Gleason, in uniform as bus driver Ralph Kramden, was installed outside the Port Authority Bus Terminal in New York City.

Gleason returned to a live show format for 1956–57, with short and long versions, including hour-long musicals. These musical presentations were reprised ten years later, in color, with Sheila MacRae and Jane Keane as Alice and Trixie.

Audrey Meadows reappeared for one black-and-white remake of the '50s sketch "The Adoption", telecast January 8, 1966. Ten years after that she rejoined Gleason and Carney (with Jane Kean replacing Joyce Randolph) for several TV specials (one special from 1973 was shelved).

The Jackie Gleason Show ended in June 1957. In 1959, Gleason discussed the possibility of bringing back The Honeymooners in new episodes; his dream was partially realized with a Kramden-Norton sketch on a CBS variety show in late 1960, and two more sketches on his hour-long CBS show The American Scene Magazine in 1962.


Gleason standing with Irish author Brendan Behan, arms around each other
Irish writer Brendan Behan with Jackie Gleason in Gleason's dressing room after a performance of Take Me Along (1960)

Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, Gleason enjoyed a prominent secondary music career producing a series of bestselling "mood music" albums with jazz overtones for Capitol Records. Gleason believed there was a ready market for romantic instrumentals. His goal was to make "musical wallpaper that should never be intrusive, but conducive".[29] He recalled seeing Clark Gable play love scenes in movies; the romance was, in his words, "magnified a thousand percent" by background music. Gleason reasoned, "If Gable needs music, a guy in Brooklyn must be desperate!"[12]

Gleason's first album, Music for Lovers Only, still holds the record for the longest stay on the Billboard Top Ten Charts (153 weeks), and his first 10 albums sold over a million copies each.[4] At one point, Gleason held the record for charting the most number-one albums on the Billboard 200 without charting any hits on the Top 40 of the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart.[30]

Gleason could not read or write music; he was said to have conceived melodies in his head and described them vocally to assistants who transcribed them into musical notes.[12] These included the well-remembered themes of both The Jackie Gleason Show ("Melancholy Serenade") and The Honeymooners ("You're My Greatest Love").[13] In spite of period accounts establishing his direct involvement in musical production, varying opinions have appeared over the years as to how much credit Gleason should have received for the finished products. Biographer William A. Henry wrote in his 1992 book, The Great One: The Life and Legend of Jackie Gleason, that beyond the possible conceptualizing of many of the song melodies, Gleason had no direct involvement (such as conducting) in making the recordings. Red Nichols, a jazz great who had fallen on hard times and led one of the group's recordings, was not paid as session-leader. Cornetist and trumpeter Bobby Hackett soloed on several of Gleason's albums and was leader for seven of them. Asked late in life by musician–journalist Harry Currie in Toronto what Gleason really did at the recording sessions, Hackett replied, "He brought the checks".

But years earlier Hackett had glowingly told writer James Bacon:

Jackie knows a lot more about music than people give him credit for. I have seen him conduct a 60-piece orchestra and detect one discordant note in the brass section. He would immediately stop the music and locate the wrong note. It always amazed the professional musicians how a guy who technically did not know one note from another could do that. And he was never wrong.[31]

The composer and arranger George Williams has been cited in various biographies as having served as ghostwriter for the majority of arrangements heard on many of Gleason's albums of the 1950s and 1960s.[3][32] Williams was not given credit for his work until the early 1960s, albeit only in small print on the backs of album covers.[3][32]

Gleason's lead role in the musical Take Me Along (1959–60) won him a Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Musical.

Return to television[edit]

Edward R. Murrow (standing) lighting Gleason's cigarette; Gleason is seated in an armchair
Edward R. Murrow and Gleason when the comedian was the subject of an interview on Person to Person in 1956

In 1956 Gleason revived his original variety hour (including The Honeymooners), winning a Peabody Award.[33] He abandoned the show in 1957 when his ratings for the season came in at No. 29[25] and the network "suggested" he needed a break.[34] He returned in 1958 with a half-hour show featuring Buddy Hackett, which did not catch on.

In addition to his salary and royalties, CBS paid for Gleason's Peekskill, New York, mansion "Round Rock Hill".[35] Set on six acres, the architecturally noteworthy complex included a round main home, guest house, and storage building. It took Gleason two years to design the house, which was completed in 1959.[36] Gleason sold the home when he relocated to Miami.[37][38]

In October 1960, Gleason and Carney briefly returned for a Honeymooners sketch on a TV special. His next foray into television was the game show You're in the Picture, which was canceled after a disastrously received premiere episode but was followed the next week by a broadcast of Gleason's[39] humorous half-hour apology, which was much better appreciated.[13] For the rest of its scheduled run, the game show was replaced by a talk show named The Jackie Gleason Show.

In 1962, Gleason resurrected his variety show with more splashiness and a new hook: a fictitious general-interest magazine called The American Scene Magazine, through which Gleason trotted out his old characters in new scenarios, including two new Honeymooners sketches. He also added another catchphrase to the American vernacular, first uttered in the 1963 film Papa's Delicate Condition: "How sweet it is!" The Jackie Gleason Show: The American Scene Magazine was a hit that continued for four seasons. Each show began with Gleason delivering a monolog and commenting on the attention-getting outfits of band leader Sammy Spear. Then the "magazine" features would be trotted out, from Hollywood gossip (reported by comedian Barbara Heller) to news flashes (played for laughs with a stock company of second bananas, chorus girls and dwarfs). Comedienne Alice Ghostley occasionally appeared as a downtrodden tenement resident sitting on her front step and listening to boorish boyfriend Gleason for several minutes. After the boyfriend took his leave, the smitten Ghostley would exclaim, "I'm the luckiest girl in the world!" Veteran comics Johnny Morgan, Sid Fields, and Hank Ladd were occasionally seen opposite Gleason in comedy sketches. Helen Curtis played alongside him as a singer and actress, delighting audiences with her 'Madame Plumpadore' sketches with 'Reginald Van Gleason.'

The final sketch was always set in Joe the Bartender's saloon with Joe singing "My Gal Sal" and greeting his regular customer, the unseen Mr. Dennehy (the TV audience, as Gleason spoke to the camera in this section). During the sketch, Joe would tell Dennehy about an article he had read in the fictitious American Scene magazine, holding a copy across the bar. It had two covers: one featured the New York skyline and the other palm trees (after the show moved to Florida). Joe would bring out Frank Fontaine as Crazy Guggenheim, who would regale Joe with the latest adventures of his neighborhood pals and sometimes show Joe his current Top Cat comic book. Joe usually asked Crazy to sing—almost always a sentimental ballad in his fine, lilting baritone.

Autographed color photo of Gleason in front of Miami Beach Auditorium
The Fillmore Miami Beach (originally the Miami Beach Municipal Auditorium), where Gleason recorded his shows after his move to Florida

Gleason revived The Honeymooners—first with Sue Ane Langdon as Alice and Patricia Wilson as Trixie for two episodes of The American Scene Magazine, then with Sheila MacRae as Alice and Jane Kean as Trixie for the 1966 series.[13] By 1964 Gleason had moved the production from New York to Miami Beach, Florida, reportedly because he liked year-round access to the golf course at the nearby Inverrary Country Club in Lauderhill (where he built his final home). His closing line became, almost invariably, "As always, the Miami Beach audience is the greatest audience in the world!" In 1966, he abandoned the American Scene Magazine format and converted the show into a standard variety hour with guest performers.

Gleason and Lucille Ball in a TV special "Tea for Two" (1975)

Gleason kicked off the 1966–1967 season with new, color episodes of The Honeymooners. Carney returned as Ed Norton, with MacRae as Alice and Kean as Trixie. The sketches were remakes of the 1957 world-tour episodes, in which Kramden and Norton win a slogan contest and take their wives to international destinations. Each of the nine episodes was a full-scale musical comedy, with Gleason and company performing original songs by Lyn Duddy and Jerry Bresler. Occasionally Gleason would devote the show to musicals with a single theme, such as college comedy or political satire, with the stars abandoning their Honeymooners roles for different character roles. This was the show's format until its cancellation in 1970. (The exception was the 1968–1969 season, which had no hour-long Honeymooners episodes; that season, The Honeymooners was presented only in short sketches.) The musicals pushed Gleason back into the top five in ratings, but audiences soon began to decline. By its final season, Gleason's show was no longer in the top 25. In the last original Honeymooners episode aired on CBS ("Operation Protest" on February 28, 1970), Ralph encounters the youth-protest movement of the late 1960s, a sign of changing times in both television and society.

Gleason (who had signed a deal in the 1950s that included a guaranteed $100,000 annual payment for 20 years, even if he never went on the air) wanted The Honeymooners to be just a portion of his format, but CBS wanted another season of only The Honeymooners. The network had canceled a mainstay variety show hosted by Red Skelton and would cancel The Ed Sullivan Show in 1971 because they had become too expensive to produce and attracted, in the executives' opinion, too old an audience. Gleason simply stopped doing the show in 1970 and left CBS when his contract expired.

Honeymooners revival[edit]

Gleason did two Jackie Gleason Show specials for CBS after giving up his regular show in the 1970s, including Honeymooners segments and a Reginald Van Gleason III sketch in which the gregarious millionaire was portrayed as a comic drunk. When the CBS deal expired, Gleason signed with NBC. He later did a series of Honeymooners specials for ABC. Gleason hosted four ABC specials during the mid-1970s. Gleason and Carney also made a television movie, Izzy and Moe (1985), about an unusual pair of historic Federal prohibition agents in New York City who achieved an unbeatable arrest record with highly successful techniques including impersonations and humor, which aired on CBS in 1985.

In April 1974, Gleason revived several of his classic characters (including Ralph Kramden, Joe the Bartender and Reginald Van Gleason III) in a television special with Julie Andrews. In a song-and-dance routine, the two performed "Take Me Along" from Gleason's Broadway musical.

In 1985, three decades after the "Classic 39" began filming, Gleason revealed he had carefully preserved kinescopes of his live 1950s programs in a vault for future use (including Honeymooners sketches with Pert Kelton as Alice). These "lost episodes" (as they came to be called) were initially previewed at the Museum of Television and Radio in New York City, aired on the Showtime cable network in 1985, and later were added to the Honeymooners syndication package. Some of them include earlier versions of plot lines later used in the 'classic 39' episodes. One (a Christmas episode duplicated several years later with Meadows as Alice) had all Gleason's best-known characters (Ralph Kramden, the Poor Soul, Rudy the Repairman, Reginald Van Gleason, Fenwick Babbitt and Joe the Bartender) featured in and outside of the Kramden apartment. The storyline involved a wild Christmas party hosted by Reginald Van Gleason up the block from the Kramdens' building at Joe the Bartender's place.


With Betsy Palmer in "The Time of Your Life" on Playhouse 90 (1958)

Gleason did not restrict his acting to comedic roles. He had also earned acclaim for live television drama performances in "The Laugh Maker" (1953) on CBS's Studio One and William Saroyan's "The Time of Your Life" (1958), which was produced as an episode of the anthology series Playhouse 90.

He was nominated for a Best Supporting Actor Academy Award for his portrayal of pool shark Minnesota Fats in The Hustler (1961), starring Paul Newman. Gleason made all his own trick pool shots.[40] In his 1985 appearance on The Tonight Show, Gleason told Johnny Carson that he had played pool frequently since childhood, and drew from those experiences in The Hustler. He was extremely well-received as a beleaguered boxing manager in the film version of Rod Serling's Requiem for a Heavyweight (1962). Gleason played a world-weary army sergeant in Soldier in the Rain (1963), in which he received top billing over Steve McQueen.

Gleason as Minnesota Fats in The Hustler (1961)

Gleason wrote, produced and starred in Gigot (1962), in which he played a poor, mute janitor who befriended and rescued a prostitute and her small daughter. It was a box office flop. But the film's script was adapted and produced as the television film The Wool Cap (2004), starring William H. Macy in the role of the mute janitor; the television film received modestly good reviews.

Gleason played the lead in the Otto Preminger-directed Skidoo (1968), considered an all-star failure. In 1969 William Friedkin wanted to cast Gleason as "Popeye" Doyle in The French Connection (1971), but because of the poor reception of Gigot and Skidoo, the studio refused to offer Gleason the lead; he wanted it. Instead, Gleason wound up in How to Commit Marriage (1969) with Bob Hope, as well as the movie version of Woody Allen's play Don't Drink the Water (1969). Both were unsuccessful.

Eight years passed before Gleason had another hit film. This role was the cantankerous and cursing Texas sheriff Buford T. Justice in the films Smokey and the Bandit (1977), Smokey and the Bandit II (1980) and Smokey and the Bandit Part 3 (1983). He co-starred with Burt Reynolds as the Bandit, Sally Field as Carrie (the Bandit's love interest), and Jerry Reed as Cledus "Snowman" Snow, the Bandit's truck-driving partner. Former NFL linebacker Mike Henry played his dimwitted son, Junior Justice. Gleason's gruff and frustrated demeanor and lines such as "I'm gonna barbecue yo' ass in molasses!" made the first Bandit movie a hit.

Years later, when interviewed by Larry King, Reynolds said he agreed to do the film only if the studio hired Jackie Gleason to play the part of Sheriff Buford T. Justice (the name of a real Florida highway patrolman, who knew Reynolds' father). Reynolds said that director Hal Needham gave Gleason free rein to ad-lib a great deal of his dialog and make suggestions for the film; the scene at the "Choke and Puke" was Gleason's idea. Reynolds and Needham knew Gleason's comic talent would help make the film a success, and Gleason's characterization of Sheriff Justice strengthened the film's appeal to blue-collar audiences.

During the 1980s, Gleason earned positive reviews playing opposite Laurence Olivier in the HBO dramatic two-man special, Mr. Halpern and Mr. Johnson (1983). He also gave a memorable performance as wealthy businessman U.S. Bates in the comedy The Toy (1982) opposite Richard Pryor. Although the film was critically panned, Gleason and Pryor's performances were praised. His last film performance was opposite Tom Hanks in the Garry Marshall-directed Nothing in Common (1986), a success both critically and financially.

Personal life[edit]

Gleason playing golf with President Gerald Ford, c. 1975

Fear of flying[edit]

For many years, Gleason traveled only by train; his fear of flying arose from an incident in his early film career when he was flying back and forth to Los Angeles for relatively minor film work. During one flight to New York, two of the plane's engines stopped, and the pilot executed an emergency landing in Tulsa, Oklahoma.[41] Gleason borrowed $200 from a Tulsa hardware-store owner to purchase train passage to New York.[41]

Interest in the paranormal[edit]

President Richard Nixon and Jackie Gleason in a golf cart with an audience in February 1973

Gleason was interested in the paranormal, reading many books on the topic as well as books on parapsychology and UFOs.[42][3][32][43] During the 1950s, he was a semi-regular guest on a paranormal-themed overnight radio show hosted by John Nebel, and he also wrote the introduction to Donald Bain's biography of Nebel.[44] After his death, his large book collection was donated to the library of the University of Miami.[45]

According to writer Larry Holcombe, Gleason's interest in UFOs prompted President Richard Nixon to share information with him and to disclose some UFO data publicly.[46]

Marriages and family[edit]

June Taylor Dancers with Gleason on one of his television specials

Gleason met dancer Genevieve Halford when they were working in vaudeville and they were married on September 20, 1936.[14][47][48] Halford wanted a quiet home life but Gleason led an active nightlife.[14] Separated for the first time in 1941 and reconciled in 1948,[15] the couple had two daughters, Geraldine (b. 1940) and Linda (b. 1942).[49][50] Gleason and his wife informally separated again in 1951.[48] It was during this period that Gleason had a romantic relationship with his secretary Honey Merrill, who had been a showgirl and Miss Hollywood of 1956.[51]

In early 1954, Gleason suffered a broken leg and ankle on-air during his television show. His injuries sidelined him for several weeks.[52][53] When Halford went to visit Gleason in the hospital, she discovered that Marilyn Taylor, a dancer from his television show, was also visiting him. Halford filed for a legal separation in April 1954.[50] A devout Catholic, Halford did not grant Gleason a divorce until 1970.[54][55]

Gleason met his second wife Beverly McKittrick at a country club in 1968, where she worked as a secretary. Ten days after his divorce from Halford was final, Gleason and McKittrick were married in Ashford, England on July 4, 1970.[56] The couple divorced in 1975.[57] Gleason reconnected with Taylor and married her in December 1975. They remained married until his death in 1987.[58][42][59][60]

Gleason's daughter Linda became an actress, and married actor-playwright Jason Miller. Their son is actor Jason Patric.[47]

Later years, health problems and death[edit]

As early as 1952, when The Jackie Gleason Show captured Saturday night for CBS, Gleason regularly smoked six packs of cigarettes a day.[61]

Gleason's sarcophagus—with the inscription "And Away We Go"—at Our Lady of Mercy Catholic Cemetery in Miami

In 1978, he suffered chest pains while touring in the lead role of Larry Gelbart's play Sly Fox and later underwent triple-bypass surgery.[62][63][64]

Gleason delivered a critically acclaimed performance as an infirm, acerbic and somewhat Archie Bunker-like character in the Tom Hanks comedy-drama Nothing in Common (1986), Gleason's final film role. During production, he was diagnosed with colon cancer, which had metastasized to his liver. He was also suffering from phlebitis and diabetes. He kept his medical problems private, although there were rumors that he was seriously ill.[65] On June 24, 1987, he died at age 71 in his Florida home.[66][67]

After a funeral Mass at the Cathedral of Saint Mary, Gleason was entombed in a sarcophagus in a private outdoor mausoleum at Our Lady of Mercy Catholic Cemetery in Miami.[59] Gleason's sister-in-law June Taylor is buried to the left of the mausoleum, next to her husband and attorney, Sol Lerner.

Legacy and honors[edit]

Ralph Kramden statue at the Port Authority Bus Terminal in Manhattan
Rectangular blue-and-green sign reading, "Welcome to Brooklyn. How sweet it is!"
Sign welcoming drivers to Brooklyn (circa 2000s)
The television home of The Honeymooners at 328 Chauncey Street in Brooklyn
  • Miami Beach in 1987 renamed the Miami Beach Auditorium as the Jackie Gleason Theater of the Performing Arts. As of May 2010, the theater was scheduled to be razed as part of a convention-center remodeling project and replaced by a hotel.[68][69] The demolition did not take place and The Fillmore Miami Beach is still in operation as of January 2024.
  • Gleason was inducted into the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences Television Hall of Fame in 1986. In 2000 a statue of him as Ralph Kramden in "And away we go!" pose was installed at the Miami Beach Bus Terminal.
  • Gleason was nominated three times for an Emmy Award, but never won. (Carney and Keane did, however.)
  • In 1976 at the Sixth Annual American Guild of Variety Artists (AGVA) "Entertainer of the Year Awards", Paul Lynde received an award for being voted the funniest man of the year.[70] Lynde immediately turned his award over to host Jackie Gleason, citing him as "the funniest man ever." The unexpected gesture shocked Gleason.[71]
  • On June 30, 1988, the Sunset Park MTA, NYCT's 5th Avenue Bus Depot in Brooklyn was renamed the Jackie Gleason Depot in honor of the native Brooklynite.[72]
  • A statue of Gleason as Ralph Kramden in his bus driver's uniform was dedicated in August 2000 in New York City in Manhattan at the 40th Street entrance of the Port Authority Bus Terminal (PABT). The statue was briefly shown in the film World Trade Center (2006).
  • A city park in Lauderhill, Florida, was named the "Jackie Gleason Park" in his honor; it is located near his former home and features racquetball and basketball courts and a children's playground.
  • Signs on the Brooklyn Bridge which advise drivers that they are entering Brooklyn have the Gleason phrase "How Sweet It Is!"
  • Late in his life actor-playwright Jason Miller, Gleason's former son-in-law, was writing a screenplay based on Gleason's life. He died before it was completed.[47]
  • Gleason was portrayed by Brad Garrett in a 2002 television biopic about his life.[73][74]




  • Your Sports Special (1949) as Himself
  • The Lamb's Gambol (March 27, 1949) as Himself
  • On The Two A Day (1949, NBC TV) as Himself
  • The Life of Riley (October 4, 1949 – March 28, 1950, TV Series) as Chester A. Riley
  • The Arrow Show (1949) as Himself
  • Tex and Jinx (1949) as Himself
  • This Is Show Business (1950) as Himself
  • Showtime USA (1950) as Himself
  • Cavalcade of Stars (1950–1952, TV Series) as Himself - Host / Ralph Kramden / Reginald Van Gleason III
  • The Frank Sinatra Show (1950) as Himself
  • Ford Star Revue (1951) as Himself
  • The Frank Sinatra Show (1951) as Himself
  • Cavalcade of Bands (1951) as Himself
  • Stage Entrance (1951, DuMont TV) as Himself
  • Musical Comedy Time: No! No! Nanette! (1951) as Himself
  • Texaco Star Theatre (1951) as Himself
  • Ford Festival (1951) as Himself
  • The James Melton Show (May 3, 1951) as Himself
  • This Is Show Business (1951) as Himself
  • The Colgate Comedy Hour (1951) as Himself
  • Ford Star Revue (1951) as Himself
  • The Colgate Comedy Hour (1951) as Himself
  • The Kate Smith Evening Hour (1951) as Himself
  • The Jackie Gleason Show (September 20, 1952 – June 18, 1955, TV Series) as Host / Ralph Kramden / Reginald Van Gleason III
  • Arthur Murray Party (1952) as Himself
  • The Sam Levinson Show (1952) as Himself
  • The Ken Murray Show (1952) as Himself
  • Toast of the Town (1952) as Himself
  • Celebrity Time (1952) as Himself
  • Scout O' Rama (1952) as Himself
  • Jane Froman's USA Canteen (1952) as Himself
  • Arthur Godfrey and His Friends (1953) as Himself
  • Studio One: The Laugh Maker (May 18, 1953, TV Movie) as Himself
  • What's My Line? (1953) as Himself
  • This Is Show Business (1953) as Himself - Guest / Himself
  • Arthur Murray Party (1953) as Himself
  • Toast of the Town (1954) as Himself
  • The Red Skelton Show (January 5, 1954) as Himself
  • Name That Tune (1954) as Himself
  • Studio One: Short Cut (December 6, 1954, TV Movie) as Himself
  • The Best of Broadway: The Show Off (February 2, 1955, TV Movie) as Himself
  • What's My Line? (1955) as Himself
  • I've Got a Secret (1955) as Himself
  • The Jack Benny Program (May 1, 1955) as Himself
  • Stage Show (1955) as Himself
  • The Honeymooners (October 1, 1955 – September 22, 1956, TV Series) as Ralph Kramden
  • The Red Skelton Show (October 4, 1955)
  • Studio One: Uncle Ed and Circumstances (October 10, 1955, TV Movie)
  • The $64,000 Question (1956) as Himself
  • Person to Person (February 3, 1956) as Himself
  • The Herb Shriner Show (October 2, 1956) as Himself
  • The Jackie Gleason Show (September 29, 1956 – June 22, 1957, TV Series) as Himself
  • Playhouse 90: The Time of Your Life (October 9, 1958, TV Movie) as Joe
  • This Is Your Life (1958) as Himself
  • Arthur Godfrey Show (1958) as Himself
  • The Jackie Gleason Show (October 1958 – January 1959, TV Series) as Himself
  • All Star Jazz IV: The Golden Age of Jazz (January 4, 1959) as Himself


  • The Fabulous Fifties (1960) as Narrator
  • Arthur Godfrey Special (1960) as Himself
  • The Secret World of Eddie Hodges (June 23, 1960) (TV Movie, [narration only]) as Narrator / Himself
  • The Jackie Gleason Special: The Big Sell Review (October 9, 1960) as Salesman / Reginald Van Gleason III / Joe the Bartender / Ralph Kramden
  • Step On the Gas (CBS-10/19/60) TV special
  • The Red Skelton Show (January 24, 1961) as Himself
  • Sunday Sports Spectacular: Jackie Gleason with the putter and cue (1961) as Himself
  • You're In the Picture/The Jackie Gleason Show (January 27 – March 24, 1961) as Himself
  • The Jackie Gleason Special: The Million Dollar Incident (April 21, 1961) as Himself
  • Jackie Gleason and His American Scene Magazine (September 29, 1962 – June 4, 1966, TV Series) as Himself
  • The 35th Annual Academy Awards (1963) as Himself
  • Freedom Spectacular (May 14, 1964, NAACP Special) as Himself
  • Inquiry (June 13, 1965, June 20, 1965, NBC) as Himself
  • The Bob Hope Chrysler Theatre: The Big Stomach (November 16, 1966) as the Vast Waistline
  • The Jackie Gleason Show (September 17, 1966 – September 12, 1970, TV Series) as Himself - Host
  • Here's Lucy: Lucy Visits Jack Benny (September 30, 1968) as Ralph Kramden
  • The Mike Douglas Show (October 15, 1968) as Himself
  • The David Frost Show (February 17, 1970) as Himself
  • The David Frost Show (April 6, 1970) as Himself
  • The David Frost Show (May 7, 1970) as Himself
  • The Jackie Gleason Special (December 20, 1970) as Ralph Kramden / Reginald Van Gleason III / the Poor Soul
  • The Mike Douglas Show (November 13–17, 20-24 and 29, 1972) as Himself
  • The Jackie Gleason Special (November 11, 1973) as Ralph Kramden / Reginald Van Gleason III / the Poor Soul
  • Show Business Tribute to Milton Berle (1973)
  • Julie & Jackie: How Sweet It Is! (1974)
  • Bob Hope Special (1974) as Himself
  • The Dean Martin Celebrity Roast (1975) as Himself
  • The Dick Cavett Show (August 30, 1975) as Himself
  • Dinah! (January 13, 1975) as Himself
  • Lucille Ball and Jackie Gleason: Two for Three (December 3, 1975) as Himself
  • Super Night at the Super Bowl (1976) as Himself
  • The Mike Douglas Show (January 12–16, 1976) as Himself
  • The Honeymooners Second Honeymoon (February 2, 1976) as Ralph Kramden
  • Donahue (1976) as Himself
  • The Captain and Tennille (September 20, 1976) as Himself
  • Bing Crosby's White Christmas (1976) as Himself
  • Dinah! (February 11, 1977) as Himself
  • The Honeymooners Christmas Special (November 28, 1977) as Ralph Kramden
  • The Honeymooners Valentine Special (February 13, 1978) as Ralph Kramden
  • The Second Honeymooners Christmas Special (December 10, 1978) as Ralph Kramden
  • The Mike Douglas Show (May 7, 1980) as Himself
  • Mr. Halpern and Mr. Johnson (June 3, 1983, TV Movie) as Ernest Johnson
  • All Star Party for Burt Reynolds (1984) as Himself
  • 60 Minutes (1984) as Himself
  • Izzy and Moe (September 23, 1985, TV Movie) as Himself
  • The Honeymooners Reunion (May 13, 1985) as Ralph Kramden
  • The 39th Annual Tony Awards (June 2, 1985) as Himself
  • The Honeymooners Anniversary Celebration (October 18, 1985) as Ralph Kramden
  • The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson (October 18, 1985) as Himself
  • Gleason: In His Own Words (February 14, 1986) as Himself




Singles discography[edit]

Year Titles (A-side, B-side) Label and Number Album (or EP-Extended Play)
1951 "What Is a Girl?"
b/w "What Is a Boy?"
Both sides with narratives by Gleason
Decca 27684 Non-album tracks
1952 "Melancholy Serenade"
b/w "You're Getting to Be a Habit"
Capitol F2361 Melancholy Serenade (EP)
1953 "Alone Together"
b/w "Body & Soul"
Capitol F2437 Music For Lovers Only
1953 "My Funny Valentine"
b/w "Love Is Here to Stay"
Capitol F2438
1953 "But Not for Me"
b/w "Love"
Capitol F2439
1953 "I'm in the Mood for Love"
b/w "I Only Have Eyes For You"
Capitol F2440
1953 "Terry's Theme from Limelight"
b/w "Peg O' My Heart" (from Melancholy Serenade (EP))
Capitol F2507 Non-album track
1953 "White House Serenade"
b/w "The President's Lady" (Non-album track)
Capitol F2515 Melancholy Serenade (EP)
1953 "Mystery Street"
b/w "Golden Violins"
Capitol F2659 Non-album tracks
1955 "I'll Never Be The Same"
b/w "Rain"
Capitol F3092
1955 "The Band Played On"
b/w "In the Good Old Summertime"
Capitol F3144
1955 "Autumn Leaves"
b/w "Oo! What You Do to Me"
Capitol F3223 Autumn Leaves (EP)
1956 "Capri in May"
b/w "You're My Greatest Love" (from Music To Change Her Mind)
Capitol F3337 Non-album track
1957 "To A Sleeping Beauty"
b/w "Apology at Bedtime"
Capitol EAP871 The Best of Jackie Gleason
1958 "Where Is She Now?"
b/w "Just Only Yesterday"
Capitol F4062 Non-album tracks
1962 "Melancholy Serenade"
b/w "Apology at Bedtime"
Capitol 4704 The Best of Jackie Gleason
1962 "Allo 'Allo 'Allo"
b/w "Joi De Vivre"
Capitol 4800 Jackie Gleason Presents His Original Music For "Gigot"
1963 "La La La La"
b/w "It's Such A Happy Day" (from Silk 'n' Brass)
Capitol 4933 The Best of Jackie Gleason
1964 "Bird Brain"
b/w "Soldier in the Rain"
Capitol 5131 Non-album tracks
1965 "I Had But 50¢"
b/w "Casey at the Bat"
Shown as by "Reginald Van Gleason, III"
Capitol 5420
1966 "One of Those Songs"
b/w "Love Theme From 'Madame X'" (from Music Around The World For Lovers Only)
Capitol 5584 Silk 'n' Brass

Album discography[edit]

# Year Title Label and Number U.S. Billboard Best Selling Popular Albums
1 1952 Music for Lovers Only Capitol H352 (10") # 1 (153 total weeks within the Billboard Top Ten)[75]
2 1953 Lover's Rhapsody Capitol H366 (10") No. 1
3 1953 Music to Make You Misty Capitol H455 (10") No. 1
4 1954 Tawny Capitol L471 (10") No. 8
5 1954 And Awaaay We Go! Capitol H511 (10") No. 1
6 1954 Music, Martinis and Memories Capitol W509 No. 1
7 1954 Melancholy Serenade Capitol E532 (EP) -
8 1955 Lonesome Echo Capitol H627 (10") No. 1
9 1955 Music for Lovers Only Capitol W352 No. 7
10 1955 Music to Make You Misty Capitol W455 No. 11
11 1955 And Awaaay We Go! Capitol W511 No. 85
12 1955 Jackie Gleason Plays Romantic Jazz Capitol W568 No. 2
13 1955 Music to Remember Her Capitol W570 No. 5
14 1955 Lonesome Echo Capitol W627 No. 1
15 1956 Captain Gleason's Garden Band Capitol E646 (EP) -
16 1956 Music to Change Her Mind Capitol W632 No. 8
17 1956 Night Winds Capitol W717 No. 10
18 1956 Merry Christmas Capitol W758 No. 16
19 1957 Music for the Love Hours Capitol W816 No. 13
20 1957 Velvet Brass Capitol SW/W859 No. 16
21 1957 "Oooo!" Capitol SW/W905 No. 14
22 1958 The Torch with the Blue Flame Capitol SW/W961 # 2
23 1958 Riff Jazz Capitol SW/W1020 No. 27
24 1959 Rebound Capitol SW/W1075 No. 18
25 1959 That Moment Capitol SW/W1147 No. 36
26 1959 Take Me Along (original cast) RCA Victor LSO1050 -
27 1960 Aphrodisia Capitol SW/W1250 No. 49
28 1960 The Actor's Prayer (spoken by Gleason) The Marsalin Institute -
29 1960 Opiate D'Amour Capitol SW/W1314 No. 53
30 1961 Lazy Lively Love Capitol SW/W1439 No. 57
31 1961 The Gentle Touch Capitol SW/W1519 No. 62
32 1962 A Lover's Portfolio (two records in a "briefcase") Capitol SWBO/SBO1619 No. 135
33 1962 Love Embers and Flame Capitol SW/W1689 No. 103
34 1963 Gigot (soundtrack) Capitol SW/W1754 -
35 1963 Champagne, Candlelight and Kisses Capitol SW/W1830 No. 97
36 1963 Movie Themes – For Lovers Only Capitol SW/W1877 No. 82
37 1963 Today's Romantic Hits – For Lovers Only Capitol SW/W1978 No. 115
38 1964 Lover's Portfolio Vol. 1 (Music for Sippin' – Music for Dancin') Capitol SW/W1979 No. 128
39 1964 Lover's Portfolio Vol. 2 (Music for Listenin' – Music for Lovin') Capitol SW/W1980 No. 137
40 1964 Today's Romantic Hits – For Lovers Only Vol. 2 Capitol SW/W2056 No. 82
41 1965 Last Dance – For Lover's Only Capitol SW/W2144 No. 131
42 1965 Silk 'n' Brass Capitol SW/W2409 No. 141
43 1966 Music from Around the World – For Lovers Only Capitol SW/W2471 No. 102
44 1966 How Sweet It Is for Lovers Capitol SW/W2582 No. 71
45 1967 A Taste of Brass – For Lovers Only Capitol SW/W2684 No. 200
46 1967 'Tis the Season Capitol ST/T2791 No. 37
47 1967 The Best of Jackie Gleason Capitol SW/W2796 -
48 1967 The Best of Jackie Gleason Capitol Record Club SWAO-90601 -
49 1968 Doublin' in Brass Capitol SW/W2880 No. 165
50 1969 The Best of Jackie Gleason, vol. 2 Capitol SKAO-146 -
51 1969 The Now Sound Capitol SW/W2935 No. 200
52 1969 Irving Berlin's Music – For Lovers Only Capitol SW106 -
53 1969 Close Up Capitol SW255 No. 192
54 1969 All I Want for Christmas Capitol ST346 No. 13
55 1970 Softly Capitol SL6664 -
56 1970 Romeo and Juliet – A Theme for Lovers Capitol ST398 -
57 1971 Come Saturday Morning Capitol ST480 -
58 1972 Words of Love Capitol ST693 -

Compact disc discography[edit]

Year Title Label
1984 Lush Moods Pair
1987 Music, Martinis and Memories Capitol
1987 Intimate Music for Lovers CEMA Special Markets
1990 Merry Christmas Capitol
1991 Night Winds / Music to Make You Misty Capitol
1993 The Best of Jackie Gleason Curb
1994 Shangri-La Pair
1995 Merry Christmas Razor & Tie
1995 Body & Soul Pair
1995 22 Melancholy Serenades CEMA Special Markets
1996 And Awaaay We Go Scamp
1996 How Sweet It Is! The Velvet Brass Collection Razor & Tie
1996 Romantic Moods of Jackie Gleason (Two Disc Set) EMI Capitol
1996 Thinking of You CEMA Special Markets
1996 'Tis the Season Capitol
1996 The Best of Jackie Gleason Collectibles
1999 Music for Lovers Only / Music to Make You Misty Collector's Choice
2000 Best of Jackie Gleason EMI Special Products
2000 Tawny / Music, Martinis and Memories Collector's Choice
2000 Music, Moonlight and Memories (Three Disc Set) Reader's Digest
2001 Lonesome Echo Collector's Choice
2001 Music to Remember Her Collector's Choice
2001 Lover's Rhapsody / And Awaaay We Go Collector's Choice
2001 Snowfall EMI
2002 For Lovers Only: 36 All Time Greatest Hits (Three disc set) Timeless Media Group
2003 Plays Romantic Jazz Collector's Choice
2004 Music to Change Her Mind Collector's Choice
2005 Night Winds Collector's Choice
2006 A Taste of Brass & Doublin' in Brass Capitol
2007 Complete Bobby Hackett Sessions (Four Disc Set) Fine & Mellow
2009 Take Me Along (1959 Original Broadway Cast) DRG
2009 'Tis the Season Capitol
2011 That Moment / Opiate D'Amour Dutton Vocalion
2011 The Torch with the Blue Flame / The Best of 'Oooo!' Dutton Vocalion
2012 Music For Lovers Only Real Gone Music
2012 Movie Themes - For Lovers Only / The Last Dance - For Lovers Only Dutton Vocalion
2012 Romeo and Juliet - A Theme for Lovers / Music Around the World - For Lovers Only Dutton Vocalion
2012 Gigot Dutton Vocalion
2012 Champagne, Candlelight and Kisses / Love Embers and Flame Dutton Vocalion
2012 'Tis the Season / Merry Christmas Relayer Records


  1. ^ Musiker, Naomi; Musiker, Reuben (February 25, 2014). Conductors and Composers of Popular Orchestral Music: A Biographical and Discographical Sourcebook. Routledge. ISBN 9781135917708 – via Google Books.
  2. ^ "Jackie Gleason Biography". JackieGleason.com. Retrieved November 27, 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d Henry, William A. (1992). The Great One: The Life and Legend of Jackie Gleason. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-41533-0. OCLC 651898009 – via Internet Archive.
  4. ^ a b Joel Whitburn Presents the Billboard Albums, 6th edition, ISBN 0-89820-166-7
  5. ^ "Kid's talk". News & Record. September 19, 1995. Retrieved June 8, 2009 – via newsbank.com.
  6. ^ a b "Jackie Gleason Biography". JackieGleason.com. Archived from the original on November 2, 2008. Retrieved November 23, 2008.
  7. ^ "Honeymooners". Fifties Web. April 30, 1999. Retrieved November 26, 2023.
  8. ^ a b Yudell, Cliff (December 28, 1980). "Famed funnyman shows a simpler, wiser side". The Milwaukee Journal.
  9. ^ "Jackie Gleason Biography (1916–1987)". filmreference.com. Archived from the original on 22 December 2008. Retrieved 13 January 2009.
  10. ^ Bishop, Jim (February 11, 1976). "Jackie Gleason soon to be 60". Reading Eagle. p. 8.
  11. ^ Pace, Eric (June 25, 1987). "Jackie Gleason dies of cancer; comedian and actor was 71". The New York Times (obituary). Archived from the original on March 13, 2017.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Hamill, Pete (September 23, 1985). Gleason's Second Honeymoon. Retrieved February 3, 2011. {{cite book}}: |newspaper= ignored (help)
  13. ^ a b c d Lester, Will (June 25, 1987). "Entertainer Jackie Gleason, the Great One, dies of cancer". The Rock Hill Herald. Retrieved January 20, 2011.[dead link]
  14. ^ a b c Bacon, James (June 30, 1987). "Funny comic, terrible husband". The Milwaukee Journal.
  15. ^ a b c d "A sound-proof suite for the noisiest man on Broadway". The Sydney Morning Herald. December 26, 1954. Retrieved January 28, 2011.
  16. ^ The Golden Ham: A Candid Biography of Jackie Gleason
  17. ^ "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Google News Archive Search". News.google.com.
  18. ^ Billboard. October 10, 1942. p. 9. Retrieved August 17, 2015 – via Google Books.
  19. ^ "Jackie Gleason Lew Parker Hellzapoppin 1943 Hanna Theater Cleveland OHIO Program (01/14/2012)". Worthpoint.com. Retrieved August 17, 2015.
  20. ^ Dangerfield, Rodney (2004). It's Not Easy Being Me: A Lifetime of No Respect But Plenty of Sex and Drugs. HarperCollins.
  21. ^ "History of Los Angeles-Restaurants that are extinct". The Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on February 10, 2011. Retrieved February 3, 2011.
  22. ^ "Photo-Slapsy Maxie's Nightclub". Worthpoint. Archived from the original on April 27, 2018. Retrieved February 3, 2011.
  23. ^ "The Life of Riley". Museum of Broadcast Communications. Archived from the original on February 11, 2011. Retrieved February 3, 2011.
  24. ^ UCLA Newsroom: "UCLA Library Acquires Papers of Television Pioneer Harry Crane" by Teri Bond Michael Archived July 31, 2015, at the Wayback Machine November 18, 2004
  25. ^ a b c d Brooks, Tim; Marsh, Earle (2007). The Complete Directory to Prime Time Network and Cable TV Shows, 1946–present. Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-345-49773-4.
  26. ^ Jim Callo (November 3, 1980). "After 53 Years in the Limelight, Jackie Gleason Revels in How Sweet It Still Is". People. Time Inc. Archived from the original on February 14, 2013. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  27. ^ Billy Ingram (1995–2011). "Mistakes & Blunders". www.TVParty.com. Billy Ingram. Archived from the original on September 23, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  28. ^ Ingraham, Clarke. "Electronicam". DuMont Television Network Historical Website.
  29. ^ AoL Music (2012). "Jackie Gleason Albums". AoL Music. AOL Inc. Archived from the original on July 12, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  30. ^ Gael Fashingbauer Cooper (June 15, 2014). Casey Kasem's 'American Top 40' reached for the stars Archived June 15, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. NBC News. Retrieved June 15, 2014. "An unparalleled storyteller, Kasem loved to drop a teasing question about a song or a band, then cut to commercial, making his trivia so tantalizing that listeners just had to stay tuned to find out the answer. […] Who had the most No. 1 albums without a Top 40 single? (Comic and mood-music expert Jackie Gleason, at least at the time.)"
  31. ^ Bacon, James. How Sweet It Is. ISBN 0-312-39621-X. p. 118.
  32. ^ a b c Bacon, James (1986). How Sweet it Is: The Jackie Gleason Story. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-90229-8.
  33. ^ "Como, Gleason Win Peabody Award". Long Beach Independent. April 12, 1956. p. 32. Archived from the original on January 6, 2017. Retrieved January 5, 2017 – via Newspapers.com. Open access icon
  34. ^ Slifka, Adrian M. (July 4, 1957). "Gleason Blasts Ratings As Senseless TV Critics". Youngstown Vindicator. Retrieved November 29, 2010. For his final season, 1956–57, he returned to live Honeymooners of varying lengths and presented a number of hour long musicals (reprised a decade later, in colour, with a "new" Alice and Tricia, Sheila McCrae and Jane Kean).
  35. ^ Pace, Eric (June 15, 1987). "Jackie Gleason Dies of Cancer; Comedian And Actor Was 71". The New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2010.
  36. ^ "Jackie Gleason's Round House". Popular Mechanix. April 1960. Archived from the original on December 31, 2010. Retrieved November 21, 2010.
  37. ^ Statham, Richard (July 31, 1963). "Jackie Gleason's fabulous home is now up for sale". Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved November 21, 2010.
  38. ^ "Here's House For Sale, Jackie Gleason Special". St. Petersburg Times. July 28, 1963. Retrieved November 21, 2010.
  39. ^ Brooks, Tim; Marsh, Earle (2007). The Complete Directory to Prime Time Network and Cable TV Shows, 1946–present. Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-345-49773-4.
  40. ^ Brown, Wesley (July 12, 2014). "Gleason showed real Hustler skills in Augusta". The Augusta Chronicle. Augusta, Georgia, US. Archived from the original on December 20, 2014. Retrieved December 20, 2014. Jackie Gleason needed no help to portray the real-life Minnesota Fats, the cutthroat pool shark he portrayed in the 1961 film who toyed with opponents before making decisive trick shots to collect from local hustlers.
  41. ^ a b Bishop, Jim (December 31, 1976). "The Great Gleason". Lewiston Evening Journal. Retrieved January 21, 2011.
  42. ^ a b Rosenblatt, Andy (May 21, 1978). "Jackie Gleason: Why The Great One Is Great". Lakeland Ledger. Retrieved January 21, 2011.
  43. ^ Meadows, Audrey; Daley, Joe (1994). "Jackie the Hypnotist". Love, Alice: My Life as a Honeymooner. Crown Publishing Group. ISBN 0-517-59881-7.
  44. ^ Bain, Donald (1974). Long John Nebel: Radio Talk King, Master Salesman, and Magnificent Charlatan. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 0-02-505950-5.
  45. ^ "The Jackie Gleason Collection". University of Miami. Archived from the original on August 28, 2015. Retrieved August 17, 2015.
  46. ^ Larry Holcombe: The Presidents and UFOs: A Secret History from FDR to Obama. New York: Macmillan, March 2015.
  47. ^ a b c Scott, Vernon (November 9, 1983). "Actress seeks place beyond the shadow of her legendary father". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved January 28, 2011.
  48. ^ a b "Jackie Gleason Asks Divorce in New York". The Times-News. October 24, 1968. Retrieved January 28, 2011.
  49. ^ "Squabble Erupts in Hospital Room For Bedridden Gleason's Affections". The Miami News. February 9, 1954.[dead link]
  50. ^ a b "Squabble Erupts in Hospital Room For Bedridden Gleason's Affections". The Miami News. February 9, 1954.[dead link]
  51. ^ Clemens, Samuel (2020). Pat: A Biography of Hollywood's Blonde Starlet. Sequoia Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-0578682822.
  52. ^ Wilson, Earl (February 13, 1954). "New York". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved November 19, 2010.
  53. ^ "Gleason's Ankle, Leg Are Broken". Youngstown Vindicator. February 1, 1954. Retrieved November 19, 2010.
  54. ^ Darrach, Brad (July 13, 1987). "A Fond Goodbye to the Great One". People. Archived from the original on February 17, 2015. Retrieved February 17, 2015.
  55. ^ "Jackie Gleason Is Granted Divorce". Gettysburg Times. June 24, 1970. Retrieved November 19, 2010.
  56. ^ Forbes, Donald (July 4, 1970). "Jackie Gleason Weds Secretary". The Tuscaloosa News. Retrieved January 20, 2011.
  57. ^ "Gleasons Divorce". The Evening News. November 20, 1975. Retrieved January 20, 2011.
  58. ^ "How Sweet She Is". The Evening News. December 17, 1975. Retrieved January 20, 2011.
  59. ^ a b Dickerson, A. J. (June 27, 1987). "Gleason's widow pins last carnation on 'Great One's' lapel; fans gather". Schenectady Gazette. Retrieved November 19, 2010.
  60. ^ "Jackie Gleason To Marry For Third Time Tuesday". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. December 12, 1975. Retrieved November 19, 2010.
  61. ^ "Jackie Gleason". people.com. Archived from the original on December 6, 2017. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
  62. ^ "Doctors Say heart attack was imminent before Gleason surgery". Daytona Beach Morning Journal. June 6, 1978. Retrieved April 9, 2012.
  63. ^ "Gleason ails; Schnoz better". The Miami News. June 1, 1978.[dead link]
  64. ^ "Gleason in hospital again". The Telegraph-Herald. May 30, 1978. Retrieved April 9, 2012.
  65. ^ Wilson, Catherine (June 26, 1987). "Gleason hid nature of illness from fans". The Times-News. Retrieved January 28, 2011.
  66. ^ Konicki, Steve (June 25, 1987). "Gleason's death came quietly at age 71". The Miami News.
  67. ^ Pace, Eric (June 25, 1987). "JACKIE GLEASON DIES OF CANCER; COMEDIAN AND ACTOR WAS 71". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 9, 2022.
  68. ^ "Jackie Gleason Theater:Away It Goes!". NBC Miami. May 5, 2010. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
  69. ^ "Future of Former Jackie Gleason Theater Uncertain". Palm Beach Post. June 16, 2010. Archived from the original on June 23, 2010. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
  70. ^ "Entertainer of the Year Awards: Special with Jackie Gleason as host". Lumberton, North Carolina: The Robesonian. January 11, 1976. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  71. ^ Rudolph, Cathy (December 2, 2013). Paul Lynde: A Biography - His Life, His Love(s) and His Laughter. BearManor Media. p. 202. ISBN 978-1629330655.
  72. ^ "Bus Depot is dedicated to Jackie Gleason". The Pittsburgh Press. July 1, 1988. Retrieved January 20, 2011.
  73. ^ Miller, Darryl H. (October 12, 2002). "'Gleason' Just Skims the Star's Surface". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on August 7, 2016. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
  74. ^ Hart, Hugh (October 10, 2002). "And awaaay he goes / Brad Garrett fulfills dream of playing troubled, talented Jackie Gleason in CBS biopic". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on December 11, 2017. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
  75. ^ "The Quick 10: 10 Billboard 200 Milestones". Mental Floss. April 23, 2009. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved August 17, 2015.


Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]