Kirov, Kirov Oblast

Coordinates: 58°36′N 49°41′E / 58.600°N 49.683°E / 58.600; 49.683
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Spassky Cathedral
Rotunda in the Alexander Garden
Seraphim Church
Shopping complex on Spasskaya street
Trifonov Monastery
Foreign Trade Bank building
Flag of Kirov
Coat of arms of Kirov
Anthem: none[2]
Location of Kirov
Kirov is located in Kirov Oblast
Location of Kirov
Kirov is located in European Russia
Kirov (European Russia)
Kirov is located in Europe
Kirov (Europe)
Coordinates: 58°36′N 49°41′E / 58.600°N 49.683°E / 58.600; 49.683
Federal subjectKirov Oblast[1]
First mentioned1374[3][4]
 • BodyCity Duma[5]
 • Head[7]Kovaleva Elena[6]
 • Total757.0 km2 (292.3 sq mi)
150 m (490 ft)
 • Total473,695
 • Estimate 
507,155 (+7.1%)
 • Rank38th in 2010
 • Density630/km2 (1,600/sq mi)
 • Subordinated toCity of Kirov[1]
 • Capital ofKirov Oblast,[1] City of Kirov[1]
 • Urban okrugKirov Urban Okrug[11]
 • Capital ofKirov Urban Okrug[11]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[12])
Postal code(s)[13]
  • 610000–610002, 610004–610011, 610013–610021, 610025–610027, 610029–610031, 610033, 610035, 610037, 610040, 610042, 610044–610048, 610050, 610051, 610890, 610899, 610960–610967, 610990, 610995, 610999
Dialing code(s)+7 8332
OKTMO ID33701000001
City Dayobserved in June[14]

Kirov (Russian: Ки́ров, IPA: [ˈkʲirəf] ) is the largest city and administrative center of Kirov Oblast, Russia. It is located on the Vyatka River in European Russia, 896 kilometres (557 mi) northeast of Moscow. Its population was 518,348 in 2020.[15]

Kirov was the center of Vyatka Land which was settled by Russians during the Middle Ages.

Historical, cultural, industrial and scientific center of the Volgo-Vyatka region.

It is also home to the Dymkovo toys.

The city was previously known as Vyatka (Вя́тка), after the Vyatka River, until 1934,[4][3] and as Khlynov (Хлы́нов) from 1457 to 1780.[3] It was renamed Kirov after Bolshevik Sergei Kirov in 1934, even though he never visited the city.


Principality and republic[edit]

The native Slavic tribe in Central Russia and the Volga region, the Vyatichi (also called Viatichi), mixed here with the Novgorodian Slovenes and Finno-Ugric peoples.[16] According to medieval chronicles, the first Russian settlements in the area appeared in the 12th century. Kirov itself was first mentioned (as Vyatka) for the first time in 1374,[4] when Novgorodian ushkuyniks plundered it on their way to Bolghar.[17] Vyatka was governed by a public assembly (veche) like the other northern Russian republics of Pskov and Novgorod.

At different times in the late 14th and 15th centuries, Vyatka militias raided Ustyug, Novgorod and Tatar lands in the Kama and Volga regions. Vyatka supported Yury of Zvenigorod during the Muscovite Civil War, and after his party lost to the victorious Vasily II, the Muscovite armies were sent twice to subjugate Vyatka until it was eventually forced to accept the suzerainty of Moscow, while retaining a significant amount of autonomy.[18] In 1469, Vyatka allied with Khan Ibrahim of the Khanate of Kazan and did not take part in the campaign of Ivan III against the khanate.[19][18]

After several unsuccessful campaigns by Moscow against Vyatka in the 1480s, the latter was finally annexed in 1489.[18]

Tsarist Russia[edit]

Khlynov became known throughout Russia for its clay statuettes and whistles. The town's oldest surviving monument is the Assumption Cathedral (1689), an imposing structure surmounted by five globular domes.

In 1780, Catherine the Great renamed the town Vyatka and made it the seat of Vyatka Governorate.[citation needed] The town also served as a place of exile, notably for Alexander Herzen, Alexander Vitberg, and Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin. By the end of the 19th century, it was an important station on the Trans-Siberian railway.

Soviet period[edit]

In December 1934,[citation needed] it was renamed after the Soviet communist party functionary Sergey Kirov, who was assassinated on December 1, who was born in nearby Urzhum, despite him never visiting the city himself.

During the Second World War, due to the evacuation of machine-building plants from Moscow and Leningrad, the Kirov industry was mainly formed.

In the post-war years, new industrial and agricultural enterprises came into operation, active development and mass housing construction began in the western and southern parts of the city.

Recent history[edit]

There have been movements to restore the city's original name of Vyatka, although none of them have been successful so far.

Since the 2010s, the city has been actively positioning itself as a venue for various forums and festivals. In particular, the Golden Calf International Short Film Festival, the All-Russian Urban Forum, and the sites of the Atomic Energy Information Center began to be held in the city.

A wide celebration of the 650th anniversary of the founding of Kirov is planned for 2024. A campaign has been developed for the reconstruction of infrastructure facilities, the organization of cultural events, educational and publishing activities, exhibitions and festivals.[20][21]

Pre-revolutionary Vyatka. Early 20th century
The northeastern part of the Vyatka City wharf and the ensemble of the Central square
Spasskaya Street Khlebnaya Square Vladimirskaya Street

S. Lobovikov
Kirov population
2010 Census473,695[9]
2002 Census480,411[22]
1989 Census440,240[23]
1979 Census389,533[24]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Kirov is the administrative center of the oblast.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with 134 rural localities, incorporated as the City of Kirov—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the City of Kirov is incorporated as Kirov Urban Okrug.[11]


Kirov is a major transport hub (railway; Trans-Siberian main) and river port. It is served by Kirov Pobedilovo airport. During the 1990s this airport was closed and for several years provided only irregular service. During the 2003–2006 summer seasons there were signs of a revival in air transportation as several companies attempted to establish flight routes from Kirov to Moscow and Krasnodar. Since 2006 Kirov airport has been used by a local company operating flights to Moscow.

The Kirov River port went bankrupt in the late 1990s and all its river boats were sold to other regions. Kirov is a center of machine building; metallurgy, light, the printing trade, biochemical and the timber industry.



Sacred Heart Catholic Church
Armenian church
Kirov churches

Vyatka Museum of Art, one of the oldest museums in Russia, was founded in 1910 by local artists.

The idea of creation belongs to natives of Vyatka land, brothers artists Viktor Vasnetsov and Apollinary Vasnetsov. At the core of the collection — works that received the most part in the 1910-1920s from the State Museum Fund, private collections and as gifts — from patrons and artists. Today the museum has more than fifteen thousand exhibits and is located in four buildings in Kirov downtown.[25]


Drama Theater



Rotunda of the Alexander Garden
  • Alexander Garden

Is the oldest park in the city. It is named after Russian Emperor Alexander I who visited this park during his visit to Vyatka. It offers a beautiful view of the Vyatka River. The hallmark of the garden is the white rotundas, located on the edge of the cliff

Central Park – The bottom pond at a diorama
  • Park named after S. M. Kirov

Is the central park of the city, one of the favorite places of recreation for citizens. In the park there is an artificially created cascade of ponds at the top of which there is a diorama.

  • Park named after Yu. A. Gagarin.
  • Square named after the 60th anniversary of the USSR.
  • Botanical Garden
  • Children's park "Apollo".
  • Victory Park.
  • Zarechny Park.
  • Kochkurovsky Park
  • Arboretum.

According to a report in Pravda dated January 4, 2005, Kirov is known as the "city of twins" for the unusually high number of multiple births there.[27]

According to a report, the city is home to a high concentration of red-haired individuals.[28]


Kirov ski jump

Rodina[29] plays in the highest division of Russian Bandy League. Their home arena has a capacity of 7,500.[30] It was the venue of the national final in 2013.[31] Rodina-2 will participate in the Russian Rink Bandy Cup 2017.[32]

There's also a Kirov sky jump – it's multifunctional ski sports complex Regularly hosts interregional and All-Russian ski competitions.


Currently, there are 13 state universities and their branches operating in the city, in which more than several tens of thousands of students study in total. In addition, there are 11 non—state universities and their branches in the city, as well as one church – Vyatka Theological School.

Kirov is the home of Vyatka State University, which was established in 1914. As of 2022, 18 thousand students were studying at the university. The University ranked 39th in the National Ranking of Universities in the "Education" parameter, 44th among Russian universities according to the global ranking of scientific institutions SCImago Institutions Rankings-2021.[33]

Kirov State Medical University is the largest scientific, educational and medical complex of the Kirov region and the Volga Region. The university annually attracts many students from various regions of Russia and other countries. The university has opened an Anatomical Museum, which presents more than 1,000 exhibits.

According to the results of monitoring the quality of educational activities of universities conducted by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, the university entered the Top 10 best universities in the country, taking a place on the first lines of the rating.[34]

The medical University has established well-known scientific schools in the country: rheumatology (Professor B. F. Nemtsov), surgery (Professors V. A. Zhuravlev and V. A. Bakhtin), pediatrics (Professor Y. Y. Illeka), obstetrics and gynecology (Professor S. A. Dvoryansky), social medicine, medical ecology and hygiene (Professor B. A. Petrov), neurology and neurosurgery (Professor B. N. Bein).

Volga-Vyatka Branch of the Moscow State Law University – is one of the best specialized law universities in the Volga region. Currently, the Institute has more than 1,600 students. During the existence of the Institute, more than ten thousand lawyers with higher education have been trained to work in courts, prosecutor's offices, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the FSB, state and municipal authorities, notaries, lawyers, legal services of enterprises, organizations and institutions. The Institute has opened a specialized forensic laboratory, a department of labor law Teachers provide advisory assistance to local authorities in their law-making and law enforcement work. The Institute has a student law clinic – a center for free legal aid for socially vulnerable segments of the population

There is also an Vyatka Agrotechnological university in Kirov, the first mention of which dates back to 1872

Vyatka State University Volga-Vyatka Branch of the Moscow State Law University Kirov State Medical University Kirov Forestry and Industrial College


А176 «Vyatka» in the system of federal roads of Russia

Kirov is a major transport hub. Near the city there is the federal highway P176 "Vyatka", connected to the Kirov entrance, as well as the federal highway P243 KostromaSharya — Kirov — Perm. There is an exit to Arkhangelsk, Veliky Ustyug and Vologda along the A123 federal highway, adjacent to Vyatka, 340 kilometers from Kirov.

The regional highway P159 connects Kirov with Nizhny Novgorod.

Kirov is a major railway junction of the Trans-Siberian Railway. Through the city there are railway tracks going to Nizhny Novgorod, Moscow, Vologda, Kotlas, St. Petersburg, Perm.

Public transport[edit]

Kirov's public transport is represented by buses and trolleybuses

Every day, more than 499 units of public transport rolling stock, including 87 trolleybuses, enter the municipal routes of the city of Kirov. On urban routes, an average of about 292.4 thousand trips are made daily, with a mobility coefficient of 1.7 trips per day on public transport, this corresponds to 172 thousand people or about 30% of the city's population.

According to satellite monitoring data for 2019, 1,879,047 flights were performed by public transport, 1,867,138.91 car hours were worked on urban routes, 94,407,930 passengers were transported.[35]


Kirov is a major railway junction. There are 8 railway stations in the city.

There are three stations with stations, the largest of which is the Kirov Railway Station, built in 1902. It serves passenger trains running on the Trans-Siberian Railway, as well as suburban trains.


There is an Pobedilovo airport in Kirov, 22 km from the city territory.

The airport has three runways with a length of 600, 685 and 2700 meters and is capable of receiving aircraft of classes Tu-154, equated to them Boeing-737 and Airbus A310, Il-76 and lighter. Regular transport links are carried out from Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Kazan, Anapa, Sochi and Naryan-Mar.


Kirov has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb). Summers are warm and rainy, coupled with cool nights, while winters are cold and extremely snowy, with snow falling on most days during winter.

Climate data for Kirov (1991–2020, extremes 1845–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 3.8
Average high °C (°F) −8.4
Daily mean °C (°F) −11.5
Average low °C (°F) −14.5
Record low °C (°F) −53.4
Average precipitation mm (inches) 51
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 44
Average rainy days 6 4 6 14 18 19 18 20 22 20 11 7 165
Average snowy days 28 24 20 9 3 0.3 0 0 1 12 24 28 149
Average relative humidity (%) 85 81 74 65 60 67 70 76 80 84 86 85 76
Mean monthly sunshine hours 35 74 141 201 265 284 269 233 130 61 33 21 1,747
Source 1:[36]
Source 2: NOAA (sun 1961–1990)[37]


Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Kirov is twinned with:[38]

Notable people[edit]



  1. ^ a b c d e f g Law #387-ZO
  2. ^ Article 4 of the Charter of Kirov states that the city will have an anthem once one is officially adopted. As of 2016, an anthem is not listed among the symbols of the city shown on the official website of Kirov Archived June 9, 2017, at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ a b c Official website of Kirov. Brief Historical Reference Archived January 26, 2022, at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  4. ^ a b c Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. pp. 193–195. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
  5. ^ Charter of Kirov, Article 22
  6. ^ Official website of Kirov.Kovaleva was elected head of the city of Kirov[permanent dead link], Head of Kirov (in Russian)
  7. ^ Charter of Kirov, Article 28
  8. ^ Official website of Kirov. Administrative-Territorial Structure Archived November 30, 2016, at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  9. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  10. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  11. ^ a b c Law #284-ZO
  12. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  13. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  14. ^ Charter of Kirov, Article 4
  15. ^ "Количество жителей Киров численность населения. Фото и карты". xn----7sbiew6aadnema7p.xn--p1ai. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  16. ^ Feldbrugge, Ferdinand Joseph Maria (2018). A History of Russian Law: from Ancient Times to the Council Code (Ulozhenie) of Tsar Aleksei Mikhailovich of 1649. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-34642-0. OCLC 988859062.
  17. ^ Комиссия Институт российской истории РАН (May 28, 2009). "Историческая экспертиза по вопросу о возвращении городу Кирову его исторического названия, проведённая Институтом Российской Истории РАН" (in Russian). Пресс-центр Правительства Кировской области. Archived from the original on July 22, 2012. Retrieved August 12, 2009.
  18. ^ a b c Николай Иванович Костомаров (1868). Исторія Новгорода, Пскова и Вятки во время удѣльно-вѣчеваго уклада. С.-Петербургъ: Типографія В. С. Эттингера. pp. 241–251.
  20. ^ "650-летие Кирова: Что за 41,3 млрд рублей власти планируют сделать к юбилею". Правительство Кировской области (in Russian). Archived from the original on October 13, 2022. Retrieved December 25, 2022.
  21. ^ "Дмитрий Чернышенко: 650-летие Кирова должно стать драйвером туристического и социально-экономического развития региона" (in Russian).
  22. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  23. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  24. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 г. Национальный состав населения по регионам России [All Union Population Census of 1979. Ethnic composition of the population by regions of Russia] (XLS). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 года [All-Union Population Census of 1979] (in Russian). 1979 – via Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics.
  25. ^ "Республиканский музей изобразительных искусств. Марий Эл". Archived from the original on July 19, 2006. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
  26. ^ Вятский палеонтологический музей
  27. ^ "Multiple births in Oblast Kirov". Archived from the original on January 12, 2005. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  28. ^ "Map of Redheads in Europe". Archived from the original on July 5, 2013. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
  29. ^ ""Родина" Киров Официальный сайт хоккейного клуба - Новости". March 14, 2013. Archived from the original on November 12, 2012. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
  30. ^ "Google Translate". Retrieved March 26, 2013.
  31. ^ "Google Translate". Retrieved March 26, 2013.
  32. ^ "Кубок России по мини-хоккею с мячом - 2017 - Соревнования - Федерация хоккея с мячом России".
  33. ^ ВятГУ. "Почему нужно выбрать ВятГУ". Archived from the original on October 14, 2022. Retrieved October 14, 2022.
  34. ^ КГМА. "История Кировского государственного медицинского университета". Archived from the original on October 14, 2022. Retrieved October 14, 2022.
  35. ^ Администрация города Кирова. "ОБЩИЕ СВЕДЕНИЯ ПО ГОРОДСКОМУ ТРАНСПОРТУ". Archived from the original on January 21, 2022. Retrieved October 14, 2022.
  36. ^ "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Kirov" (in Russian). Погода и климат. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  37. ^ "Kirov Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved November 5, 2021.
  38. ^ "Strona główna: Miasta partnerskie". (in Polish). Siedlce. Retrieved February 6, 2020.


  • Кировская городская Дума. Решение №42/19 от 29 июня 2005 г. «Об Уставе муниципального образования "Город Киров"», в ред. Решения №40/5 от 25 сентября 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав муниципального образования "Город Киров", принятый Решением Кировской городской Думы от 29.06.2005 №42/19». Вступил в силу в соответствии со статьёй 56. Опубликован: "Вятский край", №130 (3538), 13 июля 2005 г. (Kirov City Duma. Decision #42/19 of June 29, 2005 On the Charter of the Municipal Formation of the "City of Kirov", as amended by the Decision #40/5 of September 25, 2015 On Amending the Charter of the Municipal Formation of the "City of Kirov" Adopted by the Decision #42/19 of Kirov City Duma of June 29, 2005. Effective as of the date set forth in accordance with the provisions of Article 56.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Кировской области. Закон №387-ЗО от 2 декабря 2005 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Кировской области», в ред. Закона №249-ЗО от 29 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Кировской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Кировской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вятский край", №228–228 (3635–3636), 13 декабря 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Kirov Oblast. Law #387-ZO of December 2, 2005 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Kirov Oblast, as amended by the Law #249-ZO of December 29, 2012 On Amending the Law of Kirov Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Kirov Oblast". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Кировской области. Закон №284-ЗО от 7 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Кировской области и наделении их статусом муниципального района, городского округа, городского поселения, сельского поселения», в ред. Закона №350-ЗО от 11 ноября 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные Законы Кировской области». Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вятский край", №233–234 (3401–3402), 21 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Kirov Oblast. Law #284-ZO of December 7, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Kirov Oblast and on Granting Them the Municipal District, Urban Okrug, Urban Settlement, Rural Settlement Status, as amended by the Law #350-ZO of November 11, 2013 On Amending Various Laws of Kirov Oblast. Effective as of after 10 days from the day of the official publication.).

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]