The first major competition was held in 1892 in Oslo at the first Holmenkollen ski jump. King Olav V of Norway was an able jumper and competed in the Holmenkollen Ski Festival in the 1920s. It was in the 1924 Winter Olympics, and has been on the programme ever since. Until the 1950s, the cross-country race was held first, followed by the ski jumping. This was reversed as the difference in the cross-country race tended to be too big to overcome in ski jumping. The sport has been dominated by the Norwegians, supported by the Finns. It was not until 1960 that the Nordic grip on this discipline was broken when West GermanGeorg Thoma won the gold medal at the 1960 Winter Olympics.
Formats and variations currently used in the World Cup are:
Individual Gundersen: competition starts with one competition jump from a normal or large hill. Later on the same day, the 10 kilometre cross-country race takes place. The winner starts at 00:00:00 and all other athletes start with time disadvantages according to their jumping score. The first to cross the finish line is the winner. A variation of this is the Final Individual Gundersen, consisting of two jumps and 15 kilometres of cross-country skiing in free technique.
Nordic Combined Triple: introduced in the 2013–14 FIS Nordic Combined World Cup, it features three different events on three days and one overall winner who is awarded extra World Cup points and prize money:
Day 1: 1 jump & 5 km Prologue
Day 2: 1 jump & 10 km Individual Gundersen (Top 50 from Day 1's competition)
Day 3: 2 jumps & 15 km Final Individual Gundersen (Top 30 from Day 2's competition)
Team Event: introduced in the 1980s, one team consists of four athletes who have one competition jump each. The total score of all four athletes determines the time disadvantages for the start of the ensuing 5 km cross-country race. The first team to cross the finish line wins.
Team Sprint: teams consist of two athletes each. In the ski jumping part, every athlete makes one competition jump like in the Individual Gundersen or Team Event formats and the time behind for the start of the successive cross-country race. The team to arrive first at the finish line wins the competition.
Included in the rules but currently not used in World Cup:
Penalty Race: instead adding a time disadvantage, distance is added to the cross-country part.
Mass Start: the only format in which the cross-country part takes place before the ski jumping. All competitors start into a 10 kilometre cross-country race in free technique at the same time. The final cross-country times are then converted into points for the ski jumping part. The winner is determined in a points-based system.
Events in the Olympics are: the sprint K120 individual, ski jumping K90 (70m), and Team/4x5km.
Ski bindings: secure only the toe of the boot to the ski. In cross-country, it must be placed so that not more than 57% of the entire ski length is used as the front part. In jumping, a cord attaches the ski to the boot and prevents the wobbling of skis during flight.