Kolahoi Peak

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Kolahoi Peak
Mt.KOLAHOI (5425m) heighest peak of Kashmir Valley.jpg
Kolahoi Peak
Highest point
Elevation5,425 m (17,799 ft)
Prominence1,585 m (5,200 ft) Edit this on Wikidata
Coordinates34°9′52″N 75°19′37″E / 34.16444°N 75.32694°E / 34.16444; 75.32694Coordinates: 34°9′52″N 75°19′37″E / 34.16444°N 75.32694°E / 34.16444; 75.32694
Parent rangeHimalaya
First ascent1912 by Dr Ernest Neve,
United Kingdom
Easiest routeAru Pahalgam

Kolahoi Peak (locally called 'Gashe-braer' meaning the goddess of light) is a mountain with a peak elevation[1] of 17,799 ft (5,425 metres) located in Anantnag district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. The mountain is the highest mountain in Kashmir Division.[a] Kolahoi Peak is easily accessible through Aru valley and lies in the vicinity of Sonamarg in Ganderbal district. Kolahoi Peak is part of the Great Himalayan range, and is located 21 km north of Aru near Pahalgam. To its north flows the Sind River, while the Lidder River originates from the glacier located on the mountain and flows south.[2]

Kolahoi Peak rises from the Kolahoi Glacier is a pyramid-shaped peak with ice falls and ice fields at its bottom. The rock formation of the peak is extraordinary stable with aretes and ridges.[3]

Climbing history and routes[edit]

Kolahoi Peak was first climbed by a British medical team headed by Dr Ernest Neve in 1912.[4]

The easiest route to climb Kolahoi Peak is its southern face[3] via the Aru village near Pahalgam, from which a 21 km high altitude alpine trek leads to the glacier of the peak. A shorter but more difficult 15 km trek from Sonamarg via the Sarbal Nallah is also possible.

On 7 September 2018, a team of mountaineers while descending after successful summit were hit by rockfall debris, which killed two of them.[5]

Kolahoi Glacier[edit]

Kolhai Glacier
Kolahoi Glacier andMt.Kolahoi(5425m) North view -the highest mountain in Kashmir valley.JPG
Kolhai Glacier
TypeMountain glacier
LocationHimalaya Range, Kashmir valley, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Coordinates34°10′20″N 75°20′10″E / 34.17222°N 75.33611°E / 34.17222; 75.33611
Length5 kilometres (3 mi) in 1974

Kolahoi Glacier is a valley glacier in the northwestern Himalayan Range situated 26 kilometers north from Pahalgam and 16 kilometers south from Sonamarg, in the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir.

Kolahoi glacier lies at an average elevation of 4,700 metres (15,400 ft). The origin of the glacier is below the cirques on the north flank of Kolahoi Peak.[6] It is the main source of Lidder River, whose water serves the population of Anantnag district, where it is mainly used for drinking and agricultural purposes. It finally drains into the Jhelum River near Khanabal, Anantnag.

Kolahoi Glacier is among the victims of global warming,[7] and has shrunk in area[8] from 13.57 km2 in 1963 to 10.69 km2 in 2005 or a loss of 2.88 km2 in three decades.[9] In 1974 the glacier was about 5 km long and is known to have extended for at least 35 km during the Pleistocene.[6] A detailed analysis by Rafiq and Mishra[10] reported that the glacier has shrunk from 35 to 09.88 Sq Km. The rate of recession measured from 1922 to 2015 is reported to be 73.26 m per year. Furthermore, the rate of recession of snout is found to be 16.41 m per year from 1857 to 2015. The shirking of glacier area is linked to reduction in snow depth which in turn is affected by the increase in black carbon concentration, temperature and reduction in precipitation. Reanalysis data show that there is decrease of about 1.08 ± 0.65 cm per decade in snow depth over Kolahoi glacier during 1979 to 2013. There are decadal increasing trends of about 76 nanogram/m2 (statistically significant) and 0.39 °C (insignificant) in black carbon concentration and temperature, respectively, over Kolahoi. A decreasing trend of about 2.9 mm/month per decade in precipitation over the study area is also reported. It is reported that there is decrease of about 71 ± 24% in snow depth for each degree increase in temperature over Kolahoi.[11] Reduction in snow depth as a result of increase in black carbon concentration, temperature and reduction in precipitation might have resulted in the shrinking of the Kolahoi glacier. According to another report,[12] Kolahoi is a hanging glacier and hollowed inside. It is a matter of great concern for Kashmir Valley. Many expeditions have failed here.


  1. ^ The Nun Peak which is 23,409 ft (7,135 metres) in height and lies in the Jammu Division is the highest mountain in Jammu and Kashmir.

See also[edit]



  1. ^ "Kolahoi". Peakware.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
  2. ^ "Geography of Kashmir". kousa.org. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  3. ^ a b "EXPEDITIONS : Himalayan Journal vol.16/8". www.himalayanclub.org. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  4. ^ "Kolahoi first climbed" (PDF). Alpine Journal. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
  5. ^ "KAS officer among 2 feared dead in Kolahoi glacier accident". greaterkashmir.com. 8 September 2018. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
  6. ^ a b N. Ahmed and N. H. Hashimi (1974). "Glacial History of Kolahoi Glacier, Kashmir, India" (PDF). Journal of Glaciology. 13 (68): 279–283. Bibcode:1974JGlac..13..279A. doi:10.1017/S002214300002308X. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 December 2013. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
  7. ^ "Goddess glacier melting in war-torn Kashmir". national geographic.com. 26 March 2010. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  8. ^ "Kashmir's crown Kolahoi glacier is in deep water". TERI.
  9. ^ Kanth, T.A., Aijaz Ahmad Shah and Zahoor ul Hassan; Geomorphologic Character & Receding Trend of Kolahoi Glacier in Kashmir Himalaya, Recent Research in Science and Technology 2011, 3(9): 68-73 Archived 11 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine, ISSN 2076-5061
  10. ^ Rafiq, Mohammd; Mishra, Anoop (25 November 2016). "Investigating changes in Himalayan glacier in warming environment: a case study of Kolahoi glacier". Environmental Earth Sciences. 75 (23). doi:10.1007/s12665-016-6282-1. ISSN 1866-6280.
  11. ^ Mishra, Anoop Kumar; Rafiq, Mohammd (September 2017). "Analyzing snowfall variability over two locations in Kashmir, India in the context of warming climate". Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans. 79: 1–9. Bibcode:2017DyAtO..79....1M. doi:10.1016/j.dynatmoce.2017.05.002. ISSN 0377-0265.
  12. ^ "Kolahoi: Hanging and hollowed inside". hoparoundindia.com. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
  13. ^ "Kolahoi: His life would come to an end on the alpines he had become synonymous with". Mahmood A. Shah. 16 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.