Kashmir Valley

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Kashmir valley
Vale of Kashmir
Kashmir-sat-nasa.jpg
Satellite imagery of the Kashmir Valley, showcasing the snow-capped peaks of the Pir Panjal Range (left in image; southwest in compass) and the Himalayas (right in image; northeast in compass) flanking it on either side
Kashmir Region November 2019.jpg
The Kashmir valley shown in the southwestern region of the larger Kashmir region
Length83 miles (134 km) Northwest-Southeast
Width20 miles (32 km)
Area15,520.3 km2 (5,992.4 sq mi)
Geography
CountryRegion of Kashmir administered by India as the Union territory of Jammu and Kashmir
RiverJhelum

The Kashmir Valley, also known as the Vale of Kashmir, is an intermontane valley in Kashmir. It is in a region administered by India as the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir, which has been the subject of a dispute between India and Pakistan.[1][2] The valley is bounded on the southwest by the Pir Panjal Range and on the northeast by the main Himalayas range. It is approximately 135 km (84 mi) long and 32 km (20 mi) wide, and drained by the Jhelum River.[3]

Geography[edit]

The Kashmir Valley lies between latitude 32° and 34°N, and longitude 74° and 75°E.[4] The valley is 100 km (62 mi) wide and 15,520.3 km2 (5,992.4 sq mi) in area.[5] The Himalayas divide the Kashmir valley from the Tibetan plateau while the Pir Panjal Range, which encloses the valley from the west and the south, separates it from the Punjab Plain.[citation needed] Along the northeastern flank of the Valley runs the main range of the Himalayas.[6] The valley is situated in the bosom of the western Himalayas at an average elevation of 1,850 metres (6,070 ft) above sea-level,[5] but the surrounding Pir Panjal range has an average elevation of 10,000 feet (3,000 m).[7] The Jhelum River is the main river of the Valley. It rises at Verinag; its most important tributaries are the Lidder and Sind rivers.

Climate[edit]

The Kashmir Valley has a moderate climate, which is largely defined by its geographic location, with the towering Karakoram Range in the north, Pir Panjal Range in the south and west, and Zanskar Range in the east.[8] It can be generally described as cool in the spring and autumn, mild in the summer and cold in the winter. As a large valley with significant differences in geo-location among various districts, the weather is often cooler in the hilly areas compared to the flat lower parts.

Summer is usually mild and fairly dry, but relative humidity is generally high and the nights are cool. Precipitation occurs throughout the year and no month is particularly dry. The hottest month is July (mean minimum temperature 16 °C, mean maximum temperature 32 °C) and the coldest are December–January (mean minimum temperature −15 °C, mean maximum temperature 0 °C).

Compared with other plain parts of India, the Kashmir Valley enjoys a more moderate climate but weather conditions are unpredictable. The record high temperature is 33 °C and the record low is −18 °C. On 5 and 6 January 2012, after years of relatively little snow, a wave of heavy snow and low temperatures (winter storm) shocked the valley covering it in a thick layer of snow and ice.

The Valley has seen an increase in relative humidity and annual precipitation in the last few years. This is most likely because of the commercial afforestation projects which also include expanding parks and green cover.

Srinagar
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
48
 
 
7
−2
 
 
68
 
 
8
−1
 
 
121
 
 
14
3
 
 
85
 
 
21
8
 
 
68
 
 
25
11
 
 
39
 
 
30
15
 
 
62
 
 
30
18
 
 
76
 
 
30
18
 
 
28
 
 
27
12
 
 
33
 
 
22
6
 
 
28
 
 
15
1
 
 
54
 
 
8
−2
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: HKO [9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ (a) Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannia, "Kashmir, region Indian subcontinent", Encyclopædia Britannica, retrieved 15 August 2019CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) (subscription required) Quote: "Kashmir, region of the northwestern Indian subcontinent ... has been the subject of dispute between India and Pakistan since the partition of the Indian subcontinent in 1947. The northern and western portions are administered by Pakistan and comprise three areas: Azad Kashmir, Gilgit, and Baltistan, the last two being part of a territory called the Northern Areas. Administered by India are the southern and southeastern portions, which constitute the state of Jammu and Kashmir but are slated to be split into two union territories. China became active in the eastern area of Kashmir in the 1950s and has controlled the northeastern part of Ladakh (the easternmost portion of the region) since 1962.";
    (b) "Kashmir", Encyclopedia Americana, Scholastic Library Publishing, 2006, p. 328, ISBN 978-0-7172-0139-6 C. E Bosworth, University of Manchester Quote: "KASHMIR, kash'mer, the northernmost region of the Indian subcontinent, administered partlv by India, partly by Pakistan, and partly by China. The region has been the subject of a bitter dispute between India and Pakistan since they became independent in 1947";
  2. ^ Osmańczyk, Edmund Jan (2003), Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements: G to M, Taylor & Francis, pp. 1191–, ISBN 978-0-415-93922-5 Quote: "Jammu and Kashmir: Territory in northwestern India, subject to a dispute between India and Pakistan. It has borders with Pakistan and China."
  3. ^ Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia (11 March 2021), Vale of Kashmir, Encyclopedia Britannica, retrieved 12 April 2021
  4. ^ "TOURISM POTENTIAL IN ECOLOGICAL ZONES AND FUTURE PROSPECTS OF TOURISM IN KASHMIR VALLEY" (PDF). core.ac.uk. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  5. ^ a b Guruswamy, Mohan (28 September 2016). "Indus: The water flow can't be stopped". The Asian Age. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
  6. ^ Andrei, Mihai (11 March 2019). "Why India and Pakistan keep fighting over Kashmir – the history of the Kashmir conflict". GME Science. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
  7. ^ Vrinda; J. Ramanan (21 December 2017). "Doorway of the gods: Himalaya crosses five countries". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
  8. ^ Sharad Singh Negi (1986). Geo-botany of India. Periodical Expert Book Agency, 1986. p. 58–. ISBN 9788171360055.
  9. ^ "Climatological Information for Srinagar, India". Hong Kong Observatory. Archived from the original on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2012.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 34°02′00″N 74°40′00″E / 34.0333°N 74.6667°E / 34.0333; 74.6667