Slide guitar is a particular technique for playing the guitar that is often used in blues-style music. The technique involves placing an object against the strings while playing to create glissando effects and deep vibratos. It typically involves playing the guitar in the traditional position (flat against the body) with the use of a tubular "slide" fitted on one of the guitarist's fingers. The slide may be a metal or glass tube like the neck of a bottle. The term "bottleneck" was historically used to describe this type of playing. The strings are typically plucked while the slide is moved over the strings to change the pitch. The guitar may also be placed on the player's lap and played with a hand-held bar and is then referred to as "lap slide guitar" or "lap steel guitar".
Creating music with a slide of some type has been traced back to primitive stringed instruments in African culture and also to the origin of the steel guitar in Hawaii. Near the beginning of the twentieth century, blues musicians in the Mississippi Delta popularized the bottleneck slide guitar style, and the first recording of slide guitar was by Sylvester Weaver in 1923. Since the 1930s, performers including Robert Nighthawk, Earl Hooker, Elmore James and Muddy Waters popularized slide guitar in the electric blues genre and influenced later slide guitarists in the rock genre including the Rolling Stones, Duane Allman and Ry Cooder. Lap slide guitar pioneers include Oscar "Buddy" Woods, "Black Ace" Turner and Freddie Roulette.
- 1 History
- 2 Influential early electric slide guitarists
- 3 In 1960s rock music
- 4 Technique
- 5 Resonator guitars
- 6 Lap slide guitar
- 7 Lap slide guitar pioneers
- 8 Slides and steels
- 9 See also
- 10 Footnotes
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 External links
The technique of using a hard object against a plucked string goes back to the "diddley bow" derived from a one-stringed African instrument. The "diddley bow" is believed to be one of the ancestors of the bottleneck style. When sailors from Europe introduced the Spanish guitar to Hawaii in the latter nineteenth century, the Hawaiians slackened some of the strings from the standard tuning to make a chord—this became known as "slack-key" guitar, today referred to as an open tuning. With the "slack-key" the Hawaiians found it easy to play a three-chord song by moving a piece of metal along the fretboard and began to play the instrument across the lap. Near the end of the nineteenth century, a Hawaiian named Joseph Kekuku became proficient in playing this way using a steel bar against the guitar strings. The bar was called the "steel" and was the source of the name "steel guitar". Kekuku popularized the method and some sources claim he originated the technique. He moved to the United States mainland and became a vaudeville performer, later performing in Europe for several years. In the first half of the twentieth century, this so-called "Hawaiian guitar" style of playing spread to the US. Sol Hoopii was an influential Hawaiian guitarist who in 1919, at age 17, came to the US mainland from Hawaii as a stow-away on a ship heading for San Francisco. Hoopii's playing became popular in the late 1920s and he recorded songs like "Hula Blues" and "Farewell Blues". According to author Pete Madsen, "[Hoopii's playing] would influence a legion of players from rural Mississippi."
Most players of blues slide guitar were from the southern US particularly the Mississippi Delta, and their music was likely from an African origin handed down to African-American sharecroppers who sang as they toiled in the fields. The earliest Delta blues musicians were largely solo singer-guitarists. W. C. Handy commented on the first time he heard slide guitar in 1903, when a blues player performed in a local train station: "As he played, he pressed a knife on the strings of the guitar in a manner popularised by Hawaiian guitarists who used steel bars. The effect was unforgettable." Blues historian Gérard Herzhaft notes that Tampa Red was one of the first black musicians inspired by the Hawaiian guitarists of the beginning of the century, and he managed to adapt their sound to the blues. As an example, Tampa Red, as well as Kokomo Arnold, Casey Bill Weldon and Oscar Woods, adopted the Hawaiian mode of playing longer melodies with the slide instead of playing short riffs as they had done previously.
In the early twentieth century, steel guitar playing divided into two streams: bottleneck-style, performed on a traditional Spanish guitar held flat against the body; and lap-style, performed on an instrument specifically designed or modified for the purpose of being played on the performer's lap. The bottleneck-style was typically associated with blues music and was popularized by African-American blues artists. The Mississippi Delta was the home of Robert Johnson, Son House, Charlie Patton, and other blues pioneers. The first known recording of the bottleneck style was in 1923 by Sylvester Weaver, who recorded two instrumentals, "Guitar Blues" and "Guitar Rag". Some of the blues artists who most prominently used the slide include Robert Johnson (sample above), Charley Patton, Son House, Bukka White, Mississippi Fred McDowell, Kokomo Arnold, Furry Lewis, Big Joe Williams, Tampa Red and Casey Bill Weldon.
Influential early electric slide guitarists
When the guitar was electrified in the 1930s, it allowed solos on the instrument to be more audible, and thus more prominently featured. In the 1940s, players like Robert Nighthawk and Earl Hooker popularized electric slide guitar; but, unlike their predecessors, they used standard tuning. This allowed them switch between slide and fretted guitar playing readily, which was an advantage in rhythm accompaniment.
Robert Nighthawk (born Robert Lee McCollum) recorded extensively in the 1930s as "Robert Lee McCoy" with bluesmen like John Lee "Sonny Boy" Williamson (also known as Sonny Boy Williamson I). He performed on acoustic guitar in a style influenced by Tampa Red. Sometime around World War II, after changing his last name to "Nighthawk" (from the title of one of his songs), he became an early proponent of electric slide guitar and adopted a metal slide. Nighthawk's sound was extremely clean and smooth, with a very light touch of the slide against the strings. He helped popularize Tampa Red's "Black Angel Blues" (later called "Sweet Little Angel"), "Crying Won't Help You", and "Anna Lou Blues" (as "Anna Lee") in his electric slide style – songs which later became part of the repertoire of Earl Hooker, B.B. King, and others. His style influenced both Muddy Waters and Hooker. Nighthawk is credited as one who helped bring music from Mississippi into the Chicago blues style of "electric blues".
As a teenager, Earl Hooker (a cousin of John Lee Hooker) sought out Nighthawk as his teacher and in the late 1940s, the two toured the South extensively. Nighthawk had a lasting impact on Hooker's playing; however, by the time of his 1953 recording of "Sweet Angel" (a tribute of sorts to Nighthawk's "Sweet Little Angel"), Hooker had developed an advanced style of his own. His solos had a resemblance to the human singing voice and music writer Andy Grigg commented: "He had the uncanny ability to make his guitar weep, moan and talk just like a person ... his slide playing was peerless, even exceeding his mentor, Robert Nighthawk." The vocal approach is heard in Hooker's instrumental, "Blue Guitar", which was later overdubbed with a unison vocal by Muddy Waters and became "You Shook Me". Unusual for a blues player, Hooker explored using a wah-wah pedal in the 1960s to further emulate the human voice.
Possibly the most influential electric blues slide guitarist of his era was Elmore James, who gained prominence with his 1951 song "Dust My Broom", a remake of Robert Johnson's 1936 song, "I Believe I'll Dust My Broom". It features James' playing a series of triplets throughout the song which Rolling Stone magazine called "one immortal lick" and is heard in many blues songs to this day. Although Johnson had used the figure on several songs, James' overdriven electric sound made it "more insistent, firing out a machine-gun triplet beat that would become a defining sound of the early rockers", says historian Ted Gioia. Unlike Nighthawk and Hooker, James used a full-chord glissando effect with an open E tuning and a bottleneck. Other popular songs by James, such as "It Hurts Me Too" (first recorded by Tampa Red), "The Sky Is Crying", "Shake Your Moneymaker", feature his slide playing.
Although Muddy Waters made his earliest recordings using an acoustic slide guitar, as a guitarist, he was best known for his electric slide playing. Born McKinley Morganfield, Muddy Waters helped bring the Delta blues to Chicago and was instrumental in defining the city's electric blues style. He was also one of the pioneers of electric slide guitar. Beginning with "I Can't Be Satisfied" (1948), many of his hit songs featured slide, including "Rollin' and Tumblin'", "Rollin' Stone" (whose name was adopted by the well-known rock band), "Louisiana Blues", and "Still a Fool". Waters used an open G tuning for several of his earlier songs, but later switched to a standard tuning and often used a capo to change keys. He usually played single notes with a small metal slide on his little finger and dampened the strings combined with varying the volume to control the amount of distortion. According to writer Ted Drozdowski, "One last factor to consider is slide vibrato that is achieved by shaking a slide back and forth. Muddy’s slide vibrato was insane, both manic and controlled. That added to the excitement of his playing."
In 1960s rock music
Rock musicians began exploring electric slide guitar in the early 1960s. In the UK, groups like the Rolling Stones, who were fans of Chicago blues and Chess Records artists in particular, began recording songs by Muddy Waters, Howlin' Wolf, and others. The Stones' second single, "I Wanna Be Your Man" (1963), featured a slide guitar break by Brian Jones which may be the first appearance of a slide on a rock record. Critic Richie Unterberger commented, "Particularly outstanding was Brian Jones's slide guitar, whose wailing howl gave the tune a raunchy bluesiness missing in the Beatles' more straightforward rock 'n' roll arrangement. Jones also played slide on their 1964 single "Little Red Rooster", which reached number one on the British charts. Jones' successor playing slide in the Stones was Mick Taylor, a 20 year old virtuoso who performed on Sticky Fingers and Exile on Main Street. The album Let It Bleed features Keith Richards on slide guitar for the majority of the album.
In Chicago, Mike Bloomfield frequented blues clubs as early as the late 1950s– by the early 1960s Muddy Waters and harmonica virtuoso Little Walter encouraged him and occasionally allowed him to sit in on jam sessions. Waters recalled: "Mike was a great guitar player. He learned a lot of slide from me. Plus I guess he picked up a little lick or two from me, but he learned how to play a lot of slide and pick a lot of guitar." Bloomfield's slide playing attracted Paul Butterfield and together with guitarist Elvin Bishop, they formed the classic lineup of the Paul Butterfield Blues Band. Their first album, The Paul Butterfield Blues Band (1965), features Bloomfield's guitar work and his slide playing on the band's adaptation of Elmore James' "Shake Your Moneymaker" and shows his well-developed slide style. Around the same time, he recorded with Bob Dylan for the Highway 61 Revisited album and contributed the distinctive slide guitar to the title track. On the second Butterfield album, East-West (1966)], songs such as "Walkin' Blues" and "Two Trains Running" include slide playing that brought him to the audience's attention.
Ry Cooder was a child music prodigy and at age 15, began working on bottleneck guitar techniques and learned Robert Johnson songs. In 1964, Cooder, along with Taj Mahal, formed the Rising Sons, one of the earliest blues rock bands. His early guitar work appears on Captain Beefheart's debut Safe as Milk album (1967) and several songs on Taj Mahal's self-titled 1968 debut album. Cooder's slide playing is featured on songs such as "44 Blues" (which he later recorded with Little Feat for their 1971 debut album), "Sure 'Nuff 'n Yes I Do" (a "Rollin' and Tumblin'"-style song), "The Celebrated Walkin' Blues" (an adaptation of Muddy Waters' "Walkin' Blues"), and "Statesboro Blues" (later adopted by the Allman Brothers Band). In 1970, he recorded his own self titled debut album, which included the Blind Willie Johnson classic slide instrumental "Dark Was the Night, Cold Was the Ground" (re-recorded in 1984 for the soundtrack to Paris, Texas). Recognized as a master of slide guitar by 1967, Cooder collaborated with the Rolling Stones on recording sessions and is credited with showing Keith Richards the open G tuning, which Richards then adopted in songs such as "Gimme Shelter", "Jumping Jack Flash", "Start Me Up" and "Brown Sugar". In 2003, Rolling Stone magazine ranked him at number eight on their list of the "100 Greatist Guitarists of All Time".
Duane Allman played a role in bringing slide guitar into Southern rock with the Allman Brothers Band, and with Eric Clapton's Derek and the Dominos on the Layla and Other Assorted Love Songs album. Allman, who died in a motorcycle accident at age 24, was referred to by NPR's Nick Morrison as "the most inventive slide guitarist of his era". He extended the role of the slide guitar by mimicking the harmonica effects of Sonny Boy Williamson II, most clearly in the Allman Brothers' rendition of Williamson's "One Way Out", recorded live at the Fillmore East and heard on their album Eat a Peach.
The slide guitar, according to music educator Keith Wyatt, can be thought of as a "one-finger fretless guitar". The slide functions as a finger, and is a hollow tube usually fitted over the ring or little finger, to allow a traditional guitar to mimic the sound of a steel guitar. The slide is pressed lightly against the strings to avoid hitting against the frets, and is kept parallel with them. The frets are used only as a visual reference, and playing in tune without them requires additional skill. In this playing technique the player's remaining fingers and thumb still have access to the frets, and may be used for playing rhythmic accompaniment or reaching additional notes. The guitar itself may be tuned in the traditional tuning or an open tuning. Most early blues players used open tunings, but most modern slide players use both. The major limitation of open tuning is that usually only one chord shape is easily available and is dictated by how the guitar is originally tuned. Two-note intervals can be played by slanting the slide on certain notes (see photo).
In the sixteenth century, the notes of A–D–G–B–E were adopted as a tuning for guitar-like instruments, and the low E was added later to make E–A–D–G–B–E as the standard guitar tuning. In open tuning, the strings are tuned to sound a chord when not fretted, and is most often major. Open tunings commonly used with slide guitar include open D or Vestapol[a] tuning: D–A–D–F♯–A–D; and open G or Spanish tuning: D–G–D–G–B–D. The latter is the tuning introduced to Keith Richards by Ry Cooder. Open E and open A, formed by raising each of those tunings a whole tone, are also common. Other tunings are also used, in particular the drop D tuning (low E string tuned down to D) is used by many slide players. This tuning allows for power chords, which contain root, fifth and eighth (octave) notes in the bass strings and conventional tuning for the rest of the strings. Robert Johnson, whose playing has been cited by Clapton, Richards, Hendrix, and Winter as being a powerful influence on them, used tunings of standard, open G, open D, and drop D.
The National String Instrument Corporation produced the first metal-body resonator guitars in the late 1920s (see image at beginning of article). These instruments were popular with early slide players. The resonator is a large aluminum cone, resembling an inverted loudspeaker, attached under the bridge of a guitar, mandolin, ukulele or similar instrument to increase its volume. It was patented in the late 1920s by the Dopyera brothers and became widely used on many types of guitars. Tampa Red played a gold-plated National Tricone style 4, and was of the first black musicians to record with it. Delta blues pioneer, Son House, played this type of guitar on many songs including the classic, "Death Letter". A resonator guitar with a metal body was played by Bukka White ("Parchman Farm Blues" and "Fixin' to Die Blues"[b]).
Lap slide guitar
"Lap slide guitar" does not refer a specific instrument, but refers to a style of playing guitar with the instrument resting on the performer's lap or otherwise supported, and the term usually indicates blues or rock music. The horizontal position is also known as "Hawaiian style" There are various instruments specifically made (or adapted) to play in the table-top position, including:
- a traditional guitar, which has been adapted for lap slide playing by raising the bridge and/or the nut to make the strings higher off the fretboard;
- Steel guitars, including lap steel, console steel and pedal steel, in which a solid metal bar, typically referred to as a "steel", is pressed against the strings and is the source of the name "steel guitar";
- a National or Dobro-type guitar, which resembles a traditional guitar, but with a thicker, sometimes square, reinforced neck.
Proper terminology for the hand-held bar used is "steel" or "tone bar" rather than "slide". The term "lap slide" coexists with "lap steel" to describe the same lap-played instrument, but "lap slide" usually connotes blues or rock music, while "lap steel" could encompass any musical genre. That said, not even the manufacturers and players of the many variants of these instruments agree on basic terminology. These types of instruments may differ markedly in external appearance – some resemble a traditional guitar, while others are made in a solid rectangular block.
Lap slide guitar pioneers
Buddy Woods was a Louisiana street performer who recorded in the 1930s. He was called "The Lone Wolf" after the title of his most successful song, "Lone Wolf Blues". Between 1936 and 1938, he recorded ten songs which are today considered classics, including "Don't Sell It, Don't Give It Away". Woods recorded five songs for the US Library of Congress in 1940 in Shreveport, Louisiana, including "Boll Weevil Blues" and "Sometimes I Get a Thinkin'".
"Black Ace" Turner (born Babe Karo Turner), a blues artist from Texas, was befriended and mentored by Buddy Woods. Historian Gérard Herzhaft stated, "Black Ace is one of the few blues guitarists to have played in the purest Hawaiian style, that is, with the guitar flat on the knees."  Turner played a square-neck National "style 2" Tri-cone metal body guitar and used a glass medicine bottle as a slide. Turner was also a good storyteller, which enabled him to host a radio program in Fort Worth called The Black Ace. His career effectively ended when he entered military service in 1943. His album, I Am the Boss Card in Your Hand, contained Turner's original 1930s recordings as well as new songs recorded in 1960. Turner was featured in a 1962 documentary film entitled The Blues.
Freddie Roulette (born Frederick Martin Roulette) is a San Francisco-based lap steel blues artist who became interested in the lap steel guitar at an early age and became proficient enough to play in Chicago blues clubs with prominent players. He earned a spot in Earl Hooker's band and recorded with Hooker in the 1960s. Roulette had played lap steel in other genres before focusing on blues – he said this helped him add more complex chords to the basic blues played by Hooker, and said, "it worked". Roulette was recruited to San Francisco in the mid 1970s by blues hall-of-famer Charlie Musselwhite. In 1997, he recorded a solo album, Back in Chicago: Jammin' with Willie Kent and the Gents, which won Best Blues Album of 1997 by Living Blues Magazine. Roulette's contribution to the lap slide guitar was to prove that a lap-played instrument was capable of holding its own in Chicago blues style.
Slides and steels
A slide used around a player's finger can be made with any type of smooth hard material that allows tones to resonate. Different materials cause subtle differences in sustain, timbre, and loudness; glass or metal are the most common choices. Longer slides are used to bridge across all six guitar strings at once, but take away the fretting ability of that finger entirely. A shorter slide allows the fingertip to protrude from the slide and allow that finger to be used to fret.
Improvised slides are common, including pipes, rings, spoons, and glass bottle necks. Duane Allman used a glass Coricidin medicine bottle. Blues guitarist CeDell Davis used a butterknife. Pink Floyd founder Syd Barrett was fond of using a Zippo lighter as a slide, but this was largely for special effects. Hendrix also used a cigarette lighter for part of his solo on "All Along the Watchtower". It is one of the few recordings with Hendrix on slide, and biographer Harry Shapiro notes he performs it with the guitar on his lap.
For guitars designed to be played on the lap, the performer uses a solid piece of steel rather than a hollow tube. The choice of shape and size is a matter of personal preference. The most common steel is a solid metal cylinder with one end rounded into a dome shape. Some lap slide guitar players choose a steel with a deep indentation or groove on each side so it can be held firmly, and may have squared-off ends. The better grip may facilitate playing the rapid vibratos in blues music. This design facilitates hammer-on and pull-off notes.
- Tracy & Evans 1999, p. 65.
- Ross, Michael (February 17, 2015). "Pedal to the Metal: A Short History of the Pedal Steel Guitar". premierguitar.com. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
- Ruymar, Lorene. "The History of the Hawaiian Steel Guitar". hgsa.com. Hawaiian Steel Guitar Association. Archived from the original on March 16, 2018. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
- "Polynesian Cultural Center Unveils Statue of Joseph Kekuku, Inventor of the Hawaiian Steel Guitar". polynesia.com. Retrieved October 28, 2017.
- Ruymar 1996, p. 48.
- Masden 2005, p. 6.
- Kopp, Ed (August 16, 2005). "A Brief History of the Blues". allaboutjazz.com. Retrieved October 19, 2017.
- Morrison, Nick (July 13, 2009). "Mississippi Delta Blues: American Cornerstone". npr.org. Retrieved October 30, 2017.
- "W.C. Handy Encounters the Blues". msbluestrail.org. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
- Herzhaft 1992, p. 334.
- Moore 2003, eBook.
- Volk 2003, p. 9.
- Sokolow 1996, p. 3.
- Russell 1997, p. 12.
- Fetherhoff 2014, eBook.
- Erlewine 1996, p. 372.
- Aldin 1997, pp. 7–8.
- Herzhaft 1992, p. 272.
- Aldin 1997, p. 9.
- Herzhaft 1992, pp. 272–273.
- Herzhaft 1992, p. 273.
- Dahl 1996, p. 202.
- Koda, Cub. "Robert Nighthawk – Biography". allmusic.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
- Danchin 2001, p. 16.
- Danchin 2001, p. 24.
- Danchin 2001, p. 56.
- Danchin 2001, p. 131.
- Grigg 1999, p. 6.
- Inaba 2011, p. 191.
- Danchin 2001, p. 36.
- Oliver 1988, p. 109.
- "100 Greatest Guitarists – #30. Elmore James". rollingstone.com. December 18, 2005. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
- Wald 2004, p. 139.
- Gioia 2008, p. 313.
- Danchin 2001, p. 168.
- Dicaire 1999, pp. 99–103.
- Gordon 2002, p. 38.
- Drozdowski, Ted (April 4, 2011). "An Insider's Guide to Muddy Waters' Guitar Sound". gibson.com. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
- Kemp, Mark. "Muddy Waters Bio". rollingstone.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
- Morrison, Nick (April 14, 2009). "Greasing Strings: Slide Guitar, Past and Present". npr.org. Retrieved October 15, 2017.
- Whitburn 1988, p. 435.
- Rubin 2007, pp. 44, 46.
- Prown & Newquist 1997, p. 29.
- Unterberger 2008, p. 351.
- Egan 2013, eBook.
- "Single Charts Results: Little Red Rooster". officialcharts.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
- Wyman 1991, p. 337.
- Wolkin 1996, p. 23.
- Ward 2016, eBook.
- Pareles, Jon (May 6, 1987). "Paul Butterfield Whose Band Added Chicago Blues to Rock". nytimes.com. Retrieved October 16, 2017.
- Erlewine 1996, p. 41.
- Prown & Newquist 1997, p. 38.
- Chilton, Martin (December 7, 2013). "Ry Cooder: A Master of Good Time Music". telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved October 15, 2017.
- Fricke, David (December 2, 2010). "100 Greatest Guitarists: David Fricke's Picks – #8. Ry Cooder". rollingstone.com. Retrieved October 15, 2017.
- Kirkeby 1992, pp. 1–2.
- Huey 1996, pp. 57–58.
- Prown & Newquist 1997, p. 142.
- Wilkinson, Alec (August 29, 2011). "Ry Cooder's Elegant Indignation". newyorker.com. Retrieved October 15, 2017.
- Wyatt 1997, eBook.
- James, Steve (March 25, 2016). "How to Play Slide Guitar: Bottleneck Basics". acousticguitar.com. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "A Lap Slide Lesson with Jerry Douglas". guitarplayer.com. April 19, 2005. Retrieved October 29, 2017.
- Owen, Jeff. "Standard Tuning: How EADGBE Came to Be". fender.com. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- Chapell, Jon. "Tuning for Slide Guitar: Standard or Open?". dummies.com. John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- Grossman 1992, p. 100.
- "Glossary of Guitar Terms". melbay.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
- Aledort, Andy (May 8, 2017). "Robert Johnson Lesson: Unlock the Guitar Mysteries of the Delta Blues Great". guitarworld.com. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Gruhn & Carver 2010, p. 526.
- Drozdowski, Ted (December 18, 2012). "How Resonator Guitars Work and Sound So Cool". gibson.com. Archived from the original on November 19, 2015. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
- Batey 2003, p. 75.
- "2012 Grammy Hall of Fame Inductees". grammy.com. Retrieved November 25, 2017.
- Herzhaft 1992, p. 20.
- Tipaldi 2002, p. 279.
- Stone, Robert L. (2010). Sacred steel : inside an African American steel guitar tradition. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-252-07743-2. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
- Herzhaft 1992, pp. 387–388.
- Lomax, John Avery; Lomax, Ruby T. (1940). "Sometimes I Get a Thinkin'". loc.gov. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
- Lewis, Uncle Dave. "Buddy Woods – Biography". allmusic.com. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
- Walters, Katherine Kuehler (June 15, 2010). "Turner, Babe Kyro Lemon [Black Ace]". tshaonline.org. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
- Volk 2003, p. 149.
- Danchin 2001, p. 230.
- "Freddie Roulette". namm.org. June 12, 2016. Retrieved November 26, 2017.
- "Freddie Roulette". allaboutbluesmusic. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
- Watts, Tee (December 9, 2015). "Concert Review – Benefit for Freddie Roulette". bluesblastmagazine.com. Retrieved November 26, 2017.
- Kelley 2003, p. 11.
- Weissman 2010, p. 82.
- Lake, Dave (June 9, 2015). "Bluesman CeDell Davis and His Butter Knife Guitar Style Has Legions of Famous Local Fans". archive.seattleweekly.com. Sound Publishing. Retrieved October 22, 2017.
- Fox, Darrin (September 20, 2006). "Syd Barrett 1946–2006". guitarplayer.com. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
- Shapiro & Glebbeek 1991, p. 531.
- Aldin, Mary Katherine (1997). Robert Lee McCoy: The Bluebird Recordings 1937–1938 (CD booklet). Robert Lee McCoy. New York City: RCA Records. OCLC 38226223. 07863 67416-2.
- Batey, Rick (2003). The American Blues Guitar: An Illustrated History (1st ed.). Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Hal Leonard. ISBN 0-634-02759-X. Retrieved November 20, 2017.
- Dahl, Bill (1996). "Robert Nighthawk". In Erlewine, Michael (ed.). All Music Guide to the Blues. San Francisco: Miller Freeman Books. ISBN 0-87930-424-3.
- Danchin, Sebastian (2001). Earl Hooker: Blues Master. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 1-57806-306-X.
- Dicaire, David (1999). Blues Singers: Biographies of 50 Legendary Artists of the Early 20th Century. New York City: Mc Farland. ISBN 978-0-7864-0606-7. Retrieved October 16, 2017.
- Egan, Sean (2013). The Mammoth Book of the Rolling Stones. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Running Press. ISBN 978-0-7624-4814-2. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
- Erlewine, Michael (1996). All Music Guide to the Blues. San Francisco: Miller Freeman Books. ISBN 0-87930-424-3.
- Fetherhoff, Bob (2014). The Guitar Story: From Ancient to Modern Times. BookBaby. ISBN 978-1-4835-1683-7. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Gioia, Ted (2008). Delta Blues (Norton Paperback 2009 ed.). New York City: W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-33750-1.
- Gordon, Robert (2002). Can't Be Satisfied: The Life and Times of Muddy Waters. New York City: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-32849-9.
- Grigg, Andy (1999). Earl Hooker: Simply the Best (CD notes). Earl Hooker. Universal City, California: MCA Records. MCAD-11811.
- Grossman, Stefan (1992). Complete Country Blues Guitar Book. Pacific, Missouri: Mel Bay. ISBN 978-1-61065-873-7. Retrieved November 9, 2017.
- Gruhn, George; Carver, Walter (2010). Gruhn's Guide to Vintage Guitars: An Identification Guide for American Fretted Instruments (3rd ed.). New York City: Hal Leonard. ISBN 978-0-87930-944-2. Retrieved November 25, 2017.
- Herzhaft, Gérard (1992). Encyclopedia of the Blues. Fayetteville, Arkansas: University of Arkansas Press. ISBN 1-55728-252-8.
- Huey, Steve (1996). "Ry Cooder". In Erlewine, Michael (ed.). All Music Guide to the Blues. San Francisco: Miller Freeman Books. ISBN 0-87930-424-3.
- Inaba, Mitsutoshi (2011). Willie Dixon: Preacher of the Blues. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-6993-6.
- Kelley, Kirby (2003). Beginning Electric Slide Guitar: An Introduction to Slide Techniques and Styles. Van Nuys, California: Alfred Publishing. ISBN 0-7390-3142-2. Retrieved October 29, 2017.
- Kirkeby, Marc (1992). Rising Sons Featuring Taj Mahal and Ry Cooder (Album notes). Rising Sons. New York City: Legacy Recordings. OCLC 990269418. CK 52828.
- Masden, Pete (2005). Slide Guitar. Backbeat Books. ISBN 0-87930-852-4.
- Moore, Allan (2003). The Cambridge Companion to Blues and Gospel Music. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-49453-4.
- Oliver, Paul (1988). Blues Off the Record : Thirty Years of Blues Commentary (Repr. ed.). New York City: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-80321-5.
- Prown, Pete; Newquist, Harvey P. (1997). Legends of Rock Guitar: The Essential Reference of Rock's Greatest Guitarists. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Hal Leonard. ISBN 978-0-7935-4042-6.
- Rubin, Dave (2007). Inside the Blues: 1942 to 1982. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Hal Leonard. ISBN 978-1-4234-1666-1.
- Russell, Tony (1997). The Blues: From Robert Johnson to Robert Cray. Dubai: Carlton Books. ISBN 1-85868-255-X.
- Ruymar, Lorene (1996). The Hawaiian Steel Guitar and Its Great Hawaiian Musicians. Anaheim, California: Centerstream Publishing. ISBN 1-57424-021-8. Retrieved September 12, 2017.
- Shapiro, Harry; Glebbeek, Cesar (1991). Jimi Hendrix: Electric Gypsy. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-05861-6.
- Sokolow, Fred (1996). Slide Guitar for the Rock Guitarist. Pacific, Missouri: Mel Bay. ISBN 978-1-61065-563-7. Retrieved October 8, 2017.
- Tipaldi, Art (2002). Children of the Blues: 49 Musicians Shaping a New Blues Tradition. Hal Leonard.
- Tracy, Steven C., Editor; Evans, David (1999). Write Me a Few of Your Lines: A Blues Reader. Amherst, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 1-55849-205-4.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- Unterberger, Richie; Koda, Cub (1996). "Blues Slide Guitar". In Erlewine, Michael (ed.). All Music Guide to the Blues. San Francisco: Miller Freeman Books. ISBN 0-87930-424-3.
- Unterberger, Richie (2008). The Unreleased Beatles: Music & Film. San Francisco, California: Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-0-87930-892-6.
- Volk, Andy (2003). Lap Steel Guitar. Anaheim, California: Centerstream Publications. ISBN 1-57424-134-6.
- Wald, Elijah (2004). Escaping the Delta: Robert Johnson and the Invention of the Blues. New York City: Amistad. ISBN 978-0-06-052427-2.
- Ward, Ed (2016). Michael Bloomfield: The Rise and Fall of an American Guitar Hero. Chicago: Chicago Review Press. ISBN 978-1-61373-331-8.
- Weissman, Dick (2010). A Guide to Non-Jazz Improvisation: Guitar Edition. Pacific, Missouri: Mel Bay.
- Whitburn, Joel (1988). Top R&B Singles 1942–1988. Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin: Record Research. ISBN 0-89820-068-7.
- Wolkin, Jan Mark (1996). "Michael Bloomfield". In Erlewine, Michael (ed.). All Music Guide to the Blues. San Francisco: Miller Freeman Books. ISBN 0-87930-424-3.
- Wyatt, Keith (1997). Stang, Aaron (ed.). Electric Slide Guitar: Beyond Basics. Miami, Florida: Warner Bros. ISBN 978-0-7692-0036-1. Retrieved October 7, 2017.
- Wyman, Bill (1991). Stone Alone: The Story of a Rock 'n' Roll Band. New York City: Penguin Group.