John Lee Hooker
|John Lee Hooker|
John Lee Hooker performing at the Long Beach Blues Festival, California, August 31, 1997
August 22, 1912|
Tutwiler, Tallahatchie County, Mississippi, U.S.
|Died||June 21, 2001
Los Altos, California, U.S.
John Lee Hooker (August 22, 1912 – June 21, 2001) was an American blues singer, songwriter, and guitarist. The son of a sharecropper, he rose to prominence performing an electric guitar-style adaptation of Delta blues. Hooker often incorporated other elements, including talking blues and early North Mississippi Hill country blues. He developed his own driving-rhythm boogie style, distinct from the 1930s–1940s piano-derived boogie-woogie.
Some of his best known songs include "Boogie Chillen'" (1948), "Crawling King Snake" (1949), "Dimples" (1956), "Boom Boom" (1962), and "One Bourbon, One Scotch, One Beer" (1966). Several of his later albums, including The Healer (1989), Mr. Lucky (1991), Chill Out (1995), and Don't Look Back (1997) were album chart successes in the U.S. and U.K. Additionally, Don't Look Back won a Grammy Award in 1998.
Hooker's date of birth is the subject of debate. He is believed to have been born in Tutwiler, Tallahatchie County, Mississippi, although some sources cite his birthplace as being near Clarksdale, Coahoma County, the youngest of the eleven children of William Hooker (1871–after 1923), a sharecropper and Baptist preacher, and Minnie Ramsey (circa 1880–date of death unknown). The Hooker official website, however, indicates he was born on August 22, 1917.
The Hooker children were home-schooled. Since they were only permitted to listen to religious songs, the spirituals sung in church were their earliest exposure to music. In 1921, his parents separated. The next year, his mother married William Moore, a blues singer who provided Hooker with his first introduction to the guitar (and whom John would later credit for his distinctive playing style). Moore was his first significant blues influence. He was a local blues guitarist, who learned in Shreveport, Louisiana, to play a droning, one-chord blues that was strikingly different from the Delta blues of the time. At the age of 14, John Lee Hooker ran away from home, reportedly never seeing his mother or stepfather again.
In the mid 1930s, Hooker lived in Memphis, Tennessee, where he worked on Beale Street at the New Daisy Theatre and occasionally performed at house parties. He worked in factories in various cities during World War II, eventually landing a job in 1943 at the Ford Motor Company in Detroit. He frequented the blues clubs and bars on Hastings Street, the heart of the black entertainment district on Detroit's east side. In a city noted for its pianists, guitar players were scarce. Hooker's popularity grew quickly performing in Detroit clubs and, seeking a louder instrument than his acoustic guitar, he bought his first electric guitar.
Hooker's recording career began in 1948, when Los Angeles-based Modern Records released a demo he had recorded for Bernie Besman in Detroit. The single, "Boogie Chillen'", became a hit and the biggest selling race record of 1949. Despite being illiterate, Hooker was a prolific lyricist. In addition to adapting traditional blues lyrics, he also wrote originals. In the 1950s, many black musicians saw little money from their record sales. So Hooker often recorded variations on his songs for new studios for an upfront fee. To get around his recording contract, he used various pseudonyms, such as John Lee Booker, for Chess Records and Chance Records in 1951–1952; Johnny Lee for De Luxe Records in 1953–54; John Lee, John Lee Cooker, Texas Slim, Delta John, Birmingham Sam and his Magic Guitar, Johnny Williams, and the Boogie Man.
His early solo songs were recorded by Bernie Besman. John Lee Hooker rarely played with a standard beat, instead, he changed tempo to fit the needs of the song. This often made it difficult to use backing musicians, who were not accustomed to Hooker's musical vagaries. As a result, Besman recorded Hooker, in addition to playing guitar and singing, stomping along with the music on a wooden pallet. For much of this time period he recorded and toured with Eddie Kirkland. Later sessions for Vee-Jay Records in Chicago used studio musicians on most of his recordings, including Eddie Taylor, who could handle his musical idiosyncrasies. "Boom Boom" and "Dimples", two popular Hooker numbers, were originally released on Vee-Jay.
Hooker performed as a street musician in the 1980 film The Blues Brothers. In 1989, he recorded the album The Healer with a number of guest musicians, including Carlos Santana and Bonnie Raitt. Hooker recorded several songs with Van Morrison, including "Never Get Out of These Blues Alive", "The Healing Game", and "I Cover the Waterfront". He also appeared on stage with Van Morrison several times, some of which was released on the live album A Night in San Francisco. On December 19, 1989, Hooker performed "Boogie Chillen'" with the Rolling Stones and Eric Clapton in Atlantic City, New Jersey. As part of the Rolling Stones' Steel Wheels tour, the show was broadcast live on cable television on a pay-per-view basis.
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Hooker fell ill just before a tour of Europe in 2001 and died in his sleep on June 21. He is believed to have been two months shy of his 89th birthday. He was interred at the Chapel of the Chimes in Oakland, California.
His last in-the-studio recording on guitar and vocal was of a song he wrote with Pete Sears called "Elizebeth", featuring members of his Coast to Coast Blues Band with Sears on piano. It was recorded on January 14, 1998 at Bayview Studios in Richmond, California. The last song Hooker recorded before his death was "Ali D'Oro", a collaboration with the Italian soul singer Zucchero, in which Hooker sang the chorus "I lay down with an angel." He is survived by eight children, nineteen grandchildren, eighteen great-grandchildren, a nephew and fiance Sidora Dazi. He has two children that followed in his footsteps, Zakiya Hooker and John Lee Hooker, Jr.
Among his many awards, Hooker has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame and in 1991 he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Two of his songs, "Boogie Chillen" and "Boom Boom" were included in the list of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's "500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll". "Boogie Chillen" is included as one of the Songs of the Century. He was also inducted in 1980 into the Blues Hall of Fame. In 2000, Hooker was awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award.
Music and legacy
Hooker's guitar playing was influenced by his stepfather William Moore. He played bass patterns with his thumb, stopping to emphasize the end of a line with a series of trills, done by rapid hammer-ons and pull-offs. "Boogie Chillen'" epitomizes this early North Mississippi sound. His vocal phrasing was less closely tied to specific bars than most blues singers. This casual, rambling style had been gradually diminishing with the onset of electric blues bands from Chicago but, even when not playing solo, Hooker retained it in his sound.
He maintained a solo career, popular with blues and folk music fans of the early 1960s and crossed over to white audiences, giving an early opportunity to the young Bob Dylan. As he got older, he added increasingly more people to his band, changing his live show from simply Hooker with his guitar to a large band, with Hooker singing. Though Hooker lived in Detroit during most of his career, he is not associated with the Chicago-style blues prevalent in large northern cities, as much as he is with the southern rural blues styles. His use of an electric guitar tied together the Delta blues with the emerging post-war electric blues.
Awards and recognition
- A Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
- Inducted into the Blues Hall of Fame in 1980.
- Inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1991.
- Two of his songs, "Boogie Chillen" and "Boom Boom" were named to the list of The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's 500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll. "Boogie Chillen" was also included on the list of the Recording Industry Association of America's Songs of the Century.
- Best Traditional Blues Recording, 1990 for I'm in the Mood (with Bonnie Raitt).
- Best Traditional Blues Recording, 1998 for Don't Look Back.
- Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals, 1998, Don't Look Back (with Van Morrison).
- Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 2000.
A-side / B-side
|1949||"Boogie Chillen'" / "Sally May"||Modern 627||—||1||—|
|"Hobo Blues" / "Hoogie Boogie"||Modern 663||—||5 / 9||—|
|"Crawlin' King Snake" / "Drifting from Door to Door"||Modern 714||—||6||—|
|1950||"Huckle Up Baby" / "Canal Street Blues"||Sensation 26||—||15||—|
|1951||"I’m in the Mood" / "How Can You Do It"||Modern 835||30||1||—|
|1958||"I Love You Honey" / "You’ve Taken My Woman"||Vee-Jay 293||—||29||—|
|1960||"No Shoes" / "Solid Sender"||Vee-Jay 349||—||21||—|
|1962||"Boom Boom" / "Drug Store Woman"||Vee-Jay 483||60||14||—|
|1964||"Dimples" / "I'm Leaving"||$tateside SS 297||—||—||23|
|1992||"Boom Boom" / "Homework"||Point Blank/
Virgin POB 3
|1993||"Boogie at Russian Hill" / "The Blues Will Never Die"||Point Blank/
Virgin POB 4
|"Gloria" (remake) / "It Must Be You"||Exile VANS 11||—||—||31|
|1995||"Chill Out (Things Gonna Change)" /
Virgin POB 10
|1998||"Baby Lee" (remake) / "Cuttin' Out" (remake) /
|Silvertone ORE CD 21||—||—||65|
|"—" denotes a release that did not chart|
|1967||House of the Blues||Marble Arch MAL 663||—||—||34|
|1971||Hooker 'n Heat||Liberty LST-35002||73||—||—|
|Endless Boogie||ABC ABCD-720||126||38||—|
|1972||Never Get Out of These Blues Alive||ABC ABCX-736||130||—||—|
|1989||The Healer||Chameleon D2-74808||62||—||63|
|1991||Mr. Lucky||Point Blank/
|1995||Chill Out||Point Blank/
Virgin 7243 8 40107 2 0
|1997||Don't Look Back||Point Blank/
Virgin 7243 8 42771 2 3
|1998||The Best of Friends||Point Blank/
Virgin 7243 8 46424 2 6
|2002||Winning Combinations: John Lee Hooker & Muddy Waters||Universal 008811264628||—||6||—|
|2004||Face to Face||Eagle ER 20023-2||—||3||—|
|2007||Hooker (box set)||Shout! Factory 826663-10198||—||14||—|
|2015||Two Sides of John Lee Hooker||Concord 888072375970||—||12||—|
|"—" denotes a release that did not chart|
- The Blues Brothers on Maxwell Street (Chicago) outside Aretha Franklin's restaurant (1980)
- John Lee Hooker & Furry Lewis DVD (1995)
- John Lee Hooker Rare Performances 1960–1984 DVD (2002)
- Come See About Me DVD (2004)
- John Lee Hooker – Bits and pieces about … DVD + CD (2006)
- Born probably in 1912, according to Bob Eagle and Eric S. LeBlanc in "Blues - A Regional Experience" (Praeger, USA 2013 ISBN 978-0-313-34423-7), p. 190; "Hooker was born on August 22, 1912 in Tutwiler"
- "John Lee Hooker biography". johnleehooker.com. Retrieved February 19, 2011.
- In the 1920 federal census, series T625/Roll 895/page 235, in the city of Tutwiler, Tallahatchie County, Mississippi, Supervisor's District 2, Enumeration District 87, Sheet #29 A, line 25, enumerated February 3, 1920, John Hooker is one of nine children living with William and Minnie Hooker. John is listed as 7 years of age at his last birthday. If accurate – and if his birthday is August 22 as he claimed – John Lee Hooker was born August 22, 1912.
- Dahl, Bill. "John Lee Hooker profile". AllMusic. Retrieved November 4, 2011.
- 1912, 1915, 1917, 1920, and 1923 have all been cited (Boogie Man, p. 22). 1917 is the one most commonly cited, though Hooker himself claimed, at times, 1920, which would have made him "the same age as the recorded blues". (p. 59)
- Palmer, Robert (1982). Deep Blues. United States: Penguin Books. pp. 242–243. ISBN 0-14-006223-8.
- According to Boogie Man, p. 24, "In 1928, Will Hooker Sr. and Jr. made a profit of twenty-eight dollars" from farming, making his death in 1923 impossible
- The 1920 federal census, series T625/Roll 895/page 235, in the city of Tutwiler, Tallahatchie County, Mississippi, Supervisor's District 2, Enumeration District 87, Sheet #29 A, lines 18-19, enumerated February 3, 1920, William and Minnie were 48 and 39 years of age, respectively. Given this information, Minnie's year of birth is ca. 1880, not 1875. Minnie was thought a "decade or so younger" than husband William (Boogie Man, p. 23), again giving further credibility to this census record as corroborative evidence concerning John Lee Hooker's origins.
- Conversation with the Blues by Paul Oliver, p. 188
See also: Guitar Facts by Bennett Joe, Trevor Curwen, Cliff Douse, Joe Bennett, p. 76
- Boogie Man p. 43.
- Wogan, Terry (1984). Shoes Off the Record. New York: Da Capo Press. pp. 116–118. ISBN 0-306-80321-6.
- Liner notes to Alternative Boogie: Early Studio Recordings, 1948-1952.
- Leadbitter, M. and Slaven, N. (1987). Blues Records 1943-1970: A Selective Discography. London: Record Information Services, pp. 579-595.
- Boogie Man, p. 121.
- Discovering the Blues of John Lee Hooker Adapted from: Blues For Dummies, by Lonnie Brooks, Cub Koda, Wayne Baker Brooks, Dan Aykroyd, ISBN 0-7645-5080-2, August 1998.
- "John Lee Hooker (1917 - 2001) - Find A Grave Memorial". findagrave.com.
- Blues Foundation (1980). "1980 Hall of Fame Inductees: John Lee Hooker". The Blues Foundation. Retrieved July 13, 2016.
- "Songs of the Century". CNN.com. March 7, 2001. Retrieved May 3, 2016.
- Whitburn, Joel (1988). Top R&B Singles 1942–1988. Record Research. p. 194. ISBN 0-89820-068-7.
- "John Lee Hooker – Singles". Official Charts. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
- "Gloria" recorded with Van Morrison
- "Baby Lee" recorded with Robert Cray
- "Cuttin' Out" recorded with Canned Heat
- "John Lee Hooker: Awards – Billboard Albums". AllMusic. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
- "John Lee Hooker – Albums". Official Charts. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
- Endless Boogie appeared in the R&B Albums chart
- Boogie Man: Adventures of John Lee Hooker in the American 20th Century, by Charles Shaar Murray, ISBN 0-14-016890-7.
- The Guinness Who's Who of Blues Edited by Colin Larkin. Second Edition 1995. Guinness Publishing Ltd ISBN 0-85112-673-1.
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