A latchkey kid or latchkey child is a child who returns from school to an empty home because their parent or parents are away at work, or a child who is often left at home with little parental supervision.
History of the term
The term refers to the latchkey of a door to a house. The key is often strung around the child's neck or left hidden under a mat (or some other object) at the rear door to the property. The term seems to first appear in a CBC radio program called "Discussion Club - Topic: How War Affects Canadian Children" in 1942, due to the phenomenon of children being left home alone during World War II, when the father would be enlisted into the armed forces and the mother would need to get a job. Given that the "Discussion Club" participants are all familiar with the term and allude to it being in colloquial usage, it likely predates 1942. In general, the term latchkey designates "those children between the ages of five and thirteen who care for themselves after the school day until their parents or guardians return home".
More specifically for their purposes, the San Marino (CA) Public Library has defined a Library Latchkey Child as "one who on a regular basis is required by their parents or guardian to remain at the public library for extended periods of time after school in lieu of day care. 'Regular basis' is defined as three or more days per week. 'Extended period' is defined as two or more hours per day" (American Library Association 12).
The term latchkey kid became commonplace to describe members of Generation X, who according to a 2004 marketing study, “went through its all-important, formative years as one of the least parented, least nurtured generations in U.S. history.” Latchkey kids were prevalent during this time, a result of increased divorce rates and increased maternal participation in the workforce, at a time before childcare options outside the home were widely available. These latchkey children, referred to as "day orphans" in the 1984 documentary, To Save Our Children to Save Our Schools, came predominately from middle or upper-class homes. The higher the educational attainment of the parents, the higher the odds the children of this time would be latchkey kids.
Effects on children
The effects of being a latchkey child differ with age. Loneliness, boredom and fear are most common for those younger than 10 years of age. In the early teens, there is a greater susceptibility to peer pressure, potentially resulting in such behaviors as alcohol abuse, drug abuse, sexual promiscuity and smoking. The behaviors might stem from "unspent energy, peer pressure to misbehave, or hostility because of the lack of appropriate adult attention". However, some children can exude positive effects, such as an early development of self-reliance, adaptation to difficult situations, and a desire to contribute to a visible need in the household.
Socioeconomic status and length of time left alone can bring forth other negative effects. In one study, middle school students left home alone for more than three hours a day reported higher levels of behavioral problems, higher rates of depression, and lower levels of self-esteem than other students.
Children from lower income families are associated with greater externalizing issues (such as conduct disorders and hyperactivity) and academic problems. This association was weaker for children from middle income families as compared to their supervised peers. In 2000, a German PISA study found no significant differences in the scholastic performance between "latchkey kids" and kids in a "nuclear family".
Positive effects of being a latchkey child include independence and self-reliance at a young age. Deborah Belle, author of The After-School Lives of Children: Alone and with Others While Parents Work suggests that being left home alone may be a better alternative to staying with baby-sitters or older siblings.
The legality of the latchkey children's "alone time" varies with country, state and local area. In the United States, state and local laws typically do not specify any particular age under 18 when a child can be legally left without supervision. However, some states do have specific age restrictions.
Parents can be held accountable by child welfare, child protective services organizations, or law enforcement if children come to harm while left without supervision if, in the opinion of the agency, the children's age or other considerations made such a choice inappropriate. Legal issues also continue to be important concerns for those who work in libraries. They worry about the potential liability should an unattended child be hurt, molested or abducted while at the facility. This issue becomes critical, particularly at closing time when "parents who are late picking up their children also create safety and possibly legal problems."
Community calling programs
Some communities offer services through the police departments and community organizations to check in on latchkey kids. Calls can be made by community organizations or by volunteers. Automatic calling programs such as Call Reassurance call households during the week after children arrive home and require the child to answer the phone and positively acknowledge that he or she is okay. If the call is not answered, automatic calls can likewise be sent to the parents, police, or other response centers.
- Replayed in CBC Broadcast "Rewind" on 2014-10-23
- "The Maven's Word of the Day". Random House. 1996-10-24. Retrieved 2006-06-16.
- Benne, M. Principles of children's services in public libraries. Chicago: American Library Association, 1991
- American Library Association (ALA). Association for Library Services to Children's Division. "Latchkey children" in the public library." Chicago, American Library Association.
- Clack, Erin. "Study probes generation gap.(Hot copy: an industry update)". HighBeam Research. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
- Thomas, Susan (21 October 2011). "All Apologies: Thank You for the 'Sorry'". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
- "A Teacher's Guide to Generation X". Edutopia. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
- Thomas, Susan (9 July 2011). "The Divorce Generation". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
- Toch, Thomas (19 September 1984). "The Making of 'To Save Our Schools, To Save Our Children': A Conversation With Marshall Frady". Education Week. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
- Corry, John (4 September 1984). "A LOOK AT SCHOOLS IN U.S.". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
- Barlow, David; Durand, V. Mark (2008). Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach. Cengage Learning. p. 414.
- "Early teens increasingly prone to smoke and drink alcohol." The Korea Herald. May 24, 1999.
- American Library Association (ALA). Association for Library Services to Children's Division. "Latchkey Children" in the public library." Chicago, American Library Association.
- Mertens, Steven B; Flowers, Nancy (May 2003). "Should Middle Grades Students Be Left Alone After School?" (PDF). Middle School Journal. 34 (5): 57–61. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 5, 2006.
- Marshall, Nancy (June 1997). "After-school time and children's behavioral adjustment". Merrill-Palmer quarterly (Wayne State University. Press) (43(3)): 497–514. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- "Zusammenfassung zentraler Befunde" (PDF). PISA (in German). KMK. 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-07-20. Retrieved 2006-08-03.
- Belle, Deborah (1999-04-01). The After-School Lives of Children: Alone and With Others While Parents Work. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 0-8058-2325-5.
- "Legal Age Restrictions For Latchkey Kids".
- "ORS 163.545 Child neglect in the second degree".
- Smith, K. Serving the difficult customer: a how to do it manual for library staff. New York: Neal Schuman Publishers, Inc.
- "Call Reassurance and Latchkey Kids". Assistive Technologies. 2006-12-14. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
- The Latchkey Generation: How Bad Was It?, from JSTOR Daily
- Josie Barnard talks about how it felt to be a latchkey kid, on BBC Radio 4's Home Truths programme.
- Debate about the need for high quality childcare in the UK
- The Library and the Latchkey - Education Resources Information Center Clearinghouse on Information Resources, Syracuse, New York.