List of C-family programming languages

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Dennis Ritchie invented the C programming language. Broadly speaking, C-family languages are those that use C-like block syntax (including curly braces to begin and end the block). The family spreads out over several programming paradigms, including procedural programming, object-oriented programming, functional programming, and generic programming, as well as having both native code and virtual machine runtime environments.

Language Year started Created by (at) Comments References
C 1969-1973 Dennis Ritchie (Bell Labs) Was an enhancement of Ken Thompson's B language.
Ratfor 1974 Brian Kernighan (Bell Labs) A hybrid of C and Fortran, implemented as a preprocessor for environments without easy access to C compilers.
C shell/tcsh late 1970s Bill Joy (UC Berkeley) Scripting language and standard Unix shell.
C++ 1979 Bjarne Stroustrup (Bell Labs) Named as "C with Classes" and renamed C++ in 1983; it began as a reimplementation of static object orientation in the tradition of Simula 67, and through standardization and wide use has grown to encompass generic programming as well as its original object-oriented roots.
AMPL 1985 Robert Fourer, David Gay and Brian Kernighan (Bell Labs) It is an algebraic modeling language with elements of a scripting language.
Objective-C 1986 Brad Cox and Tom Love It is an object-oriented dynamic language based heavily on Smalltalk. A loosely defined de facto standard library by the original developers has now largely been displaced by variations on the OpenStep FoundationKit.
C* 1987 Thinking Machines object-oriented, data-parallel superset of ANSI C
Perl 1988 Larry Wall Scripting language used extensively for system administration, text processing, and web server tasks.
Java 1991 James Gosling (Sun Microsystems) Created as the Oak, and released to the public in 1995. It is an OODL based inspired heavily by Objective-C, though with a syntax based somewhat on C++. It also compiles to its own bytecode, a standard part of the language specification. It is strongly typed, a feature that is enforced by the VM.
S-Lang 1991 John E. Davis A library with a powerful interpreter that provides facilities required by interactive applications such as display/screen management, keyboard input, keymaps, etc. [1]
SAC 1994 (Germany) Development spread to several institutions in Germany, Canada, and the UK. Functional language with C syntax. [2]
Alef 1995 Phil Winterbottom (Bell Labs) Created for systems programming on the Plan 9 from Bell Labs operating system; it was published in 1995 but eventually abandoned. It provided substantial language support for concurrent programming. [3]
Limbo 1995 Limbo succeeded Alef and is used in Inferno as Alef was used in Plan9.
PHP 1995 Rasmus Lerdorf Widely used as a server-side HTML scripting language. C-like syntax.
ECMAscript 1995 Brendan Eich (Netscape) Created as Mocha and LiveScript, announced in 1995, shipped the next year as JavaScript. Primarily a scripting language used in Web page development as well as numerous application environments such as Adobe Flash and QtScript. Though based on C and Java syntax, it is primarily a functional programming language based on Self.
C-- 1997 Simon Peyton Jones, Norman Ramsey generated mainly by compilers for very high-level languages
NQC ~1998 David Baum An embedded systems programming language for the Lego Mindstorms RCX 1.x platform; intended as a drop-in replacement for the LabVIEW-based ROBOLAB IDE. Later replaced with NXC, an enhanced version created for the Mindstorms NXT platform. [4]
C# 1999 Anders Hejlsberg (Microsoft) Created under the name "Cool", it is syntactically very similar to Java, though with a Smalltalk-like unified type system.
Ch 2001 Harry Cheng A C/C++ scripting language with extensions for shell programming and numerical computing. [5][6]
D 2001 Walter Bright (Digital Mars) Based on C++, but with an incompatible syntax having traits from other C-like languages like Java and C#.
Cyclone 2001 Greg Morrisett (AT&T Labs) Intended to be a safe dialect of the C language. It is designed to avoid buffer overflows and other vulnerabilities that are endemic in C programs, without losing the power and convenience of C as a tool for system programming.
LSL 2003  ? Created for the Second Life virtual world by Linden Lab.
Squirrel 2003 Alberto Demichelis A light-weight scripting language
Rust 2006 Graydon Hoare Rust emphasizes a concurrent-actor style.
Vala 2006 Jürg Billeter, Raffaele Sandrini Vala adds objects to C to support GNOME developers.
Go 2007 Rob Pike, Ken Thompson, and Robert Griesemer (Google) Released to public in 2009, it is a concurrent language with fast compilations, Java-like syntax, but no object-oriented features and strong typing.
OpenCL C 2009 Apple, Khronos Group OpenCL specifies a modified subset of the C programming language for writing programs to run on various compute devices (e.g. GPUs, DSPs)
C0 2010 Rob Arnold (CMU) A safe subset of C with checked pointers and bounds-checked arrays. Created for CMU introductory computer courses. [7]
Swift (programming language) 2014 Chris Lattner (Apple) Developed at Apple to replace Objective-C with a simpler language.
AWK 1977 Alfred Aho, Peter Weinberger & Brian Kernighan (Bell Labs) Designed for text processing and typically used as a data extraction and reporting tool.
BitC 2006 Johns Hopkins University Aims to support formal program verification.
LPC (programming language) 1995 Lars Pensjö Developed originally to facilitate MUD building on LPMuds. Though designed for game development, its flexibility has led to it being used for a variety of purposes.
Pike (programming language) 1994 Fredrik Hübinette An interpreted, general-purpose, high-level, cross-platform, dynamic programming language, with a syntax similar to that of C.
Verilog 1984  ? Standardized as IEEE 1364, is a hardware description language (HDL) used to model electronic systems. It is most commonly used in the design and verification of digital circuits.
Seed7 2005 Thomas Mertes An extensible general-purpose programming language.
Python (programming language) 1991 Guido van Rossum A widely used general-purpose, high-level programming language.
Processing (programming language) 2001 Casey Reas, Benjamin Fry An open source programming language and integrated development environment (IDE) built for the electronic arts, new media art, and visual design communities.
Split-C 1993  ? A parallel extension of the C programming language.
Unified Parallel C 2003  ? An extension of the C programming language designed for high-performance computing on large-scale parallel machines.
Cilk 1994 MIT Laboratory for Computer Science General-purpose programming language designed for multithreaded parallel computing.
Chapel (programming language) 2009 Cray Inc. Aims to improve the programmability of parallel computers in general and the Cray Cascade system in particular.
Fortress (programming language) 2006 Sun Labs An experimental programming language for high-performance computing, created by Sun Microsystems with funding from DARPA's High Productivity Computing Systems project. [8]
Scala (programming language) 2003 Martin Odersky An object-functional programming language for general software applications.
Haskell (programming language) 1990 Simon Peyton Jones, Lennart Augustsson, Dave Barton, Brian Boutel, Warren Burton, Joseph Fasel, Kevin Hammond, Ralf Hinze, Paul Hudak, John Hughes, Thomas Johnsson, Mark Jones, John Launchbury, Erik Meijer, John Peterson, Alastair Reid, Colin Runciman, Philip Wadler A standardized, general-purpose purely functional programming language, with non-strict semantics and strong static typing. Influenced C++11 and C#.
X10 (programming language) 2004 Kemal Ebcioğlu, Vijay Saraswat, and Vivek Sarka (IBM) Designed specifically for parallel computing using the partitioned global address space (PGAS) model. [9]
Io (programming language) 2002 Steve Dekorte A pure object-oriented programming language inspired by Smalltalk, Self, Lua, Lisp, Act1, and NewtonScript.
Agora (programming language) 1993  ? A reflective, prototype-based, object-oriented programming language that is based exclusively on message passing and not delegation.
Lua (programming language) 1993 Roberto Ierusalimschy, Waldemar Celes, Luiz Henrique de Figueiredo A lightweight multi-paradigm programming language designed as a scripting language with extensible semantics as a primary goal.
Lisaac 2003 Roberto Ierusalimschy, Waldemar Celes, Luiz Henrique de Figueiredo A statically typed prototype-based language conceived by Benoît Sonntag, in which the Isaac operating system is being written. The Lisaac transpiler produces optimized ANSI C code.
Falcon (programming language) 2003 Giancarlo Niccolai An open source, multi-paradigm programming language.
Ruby (programming language) 1995 Yukihiro Matsumoto A dynamic, reflective, object-oriented, general-purpose programming language.
Perl 6 2000 Larry Wall A member of the Perl family of programming languages.
Julia (programming language) 2012 Jeff Bezanson, Stefan Karpinski, Viral B. Shah, Alan Edelman A high-level dynamic programming language designed to address the requirements of high-performance numerical and scientific computing while also being effective for general purpose programming.
Windows PowerShell 2006 Microsoft A task automation and configuration management framework from Microsoft, consisting of a command-line shell and associated scripting language built on the .NET Framework.
Tcl 1988 John Ousterhout Commonly used for rapid prototyping, scripted applications, GUIs and testing.
Tea (programming language) 1997 Jorge Nunes A high level scripting language for the Java environment.
BCPL 1966 Martin Richards A procedural, imperative, and structured computer programming language.
B (programming language) 1969 Ken Thompson Designed for recursive, non-numeric, machine independent applications, such as system and language software.
Nim (programming language) 2008 Andreas Rumpf An imperative, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language.
Nemerle 2003 Andreas Rumpf A general-purpose high-level statically typed programming language designed for platforms using the Common Language Infrastructure (.NET/Mono).
ApeScript  ?  ? An interpreted procedural dynamic-typed language.
Amiga E 1993 Wouter van Oortmerssen A combination of many features from a number of languages, but follows the original C programming language most closely in terms of basic concepts.
Yoix 2000 Rich Drechsler and John Mocenigo A high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming language.
ZOPL early 1970s Geac Computer Corporation A programming language created for use on their mainframe computer systems used in libraries and banking institutions. It had similarities to C and Pascal.
Lite-C 2007 Atari Inc A programming language for multimedia applications and personal computer games, using a syntax subset of the C language with some elements of the C++ language.
Newsqueak early 1980s Rob Pike A concurrent programming language for writing application software with interactive graphical user interfaces. Newsqueak's syntax and semantics are influenced by the C language, but its approach to concurrency was inspired by C. [10]
Not eXactly C  ?  ? A high-level programming language for the Lego Mindstorms NXT. NXC, which is short for Not eXactly C, is based on Next Byte Codes, an assembly language. NXC has a syntax like C.
Not Quite C  ?  ? A programming language, application programming interface (API), and native bytecode compiler toolkit for the Lego Mindstorms, Cybermaster and LEGO Spybotics systems. It is based primarily on the C language but has specific limitations, such as the maximum number of subroutines and variables allowed.
Oak (programming language) 1991 James Gosling (Sun Microsystems) A programming language created initially for Sun Microsystems set-top box project. The language later evolved to become Java.
PROMAL 1985 Systems Management Associates A C-like programming language for MS-DOS, Commodore 64, and Apple II.
Handel-C 1996 Oxford University Computing Laboratory A high-level programming language which targets low-level hardware, most commonly used in the programming of FPGAs. It is a rich subset of C.
Dart (programming language) 2013 Lars Bak and Kasper Lund (Google) A class-based, single inheritance, object-oriented language with C-style syntax.
CINT 1997-1999?  ? An interpreted version of C/C++, much in the way BeanShell is an interpreted version of Java.
Cg (programming language)  ? Nvidia Based on the C programming language and although they share the same syntax, some features of C were modified and new data types were added to make Cg more suitable for programming graphics processing units. This language is only suitable for GPU programming and is not a general programming language.
nesC  ?  ? A component-based, event-driven programming language used to build applications for the TinyOS platform.
ColdC 1993 Greg Hudson A dynamically typed prototype-based object oriented system, with a syntax derived from the C programming language.
R (programming language) 1993 Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman A programming language and software environment for statistical computing and graphics.
SuperCollider 1996 James McCartney A dynamically typed, garbage-collected, single inheritance object-oriented and functional language similar to Smalltalk with a syntax similar to Lisp or the C programming language for real-time audio synthesis and algorithmic composition.
Hack (programming language) 2014 Julien Verlaguet, Alok Menghrajani, Drew Paroski (Facebook) A programming language for the HipHop Virtual Machine (HHVM).
Charm (programming language) 1996  ? An object oriented computer programming language with similarities to the RTL/2, Pascal and C languages in addition to containing some unique features of its own.
X Sharp 2009 COSMOS Development Team A programming language designed to bring some of C-like language syntax to assembly language.
WLanguage 1992 PC SOFT An integrated 4GL.
Claire (programming language) 1994 Yves Caseau A high-level functional and object-oriented programming language with rule processing abilities.
Groovy (programming language) 2003 James Strachan An object-oriented programming language for the Java platform.
Noop 2009 Google Attempts to blend the best features of "old" and "new" languages, while syntactically encouraging good programming practice.
Neko (programming language) 2005 Nicolas Cannasse (Motion-Twin) A high-level dynamically typed programming language
Axum (programming language) 2009 Microsoft A domain specific concurrent programming language, based on the Actor model.
Umple 2008 University of Ottawa A language for both object-oriented programming and modeling with class diagrams and state diagrams.
TOM (object-oriented programming language) 1990s  ? An object-oriented programming language that built on the lessons learned from Objective-C.
Telescript (programming language) 1990 Marc Porat An object-oriented programming language.