List of Egyptian deities

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Pharaoh Menkaure of the Fourth Dynasty, accompanied by the goddesses Bat and Hathor

Ancient Egyptian deities represent natural and social phenomena, as well as abstract concepts.[1] These gods and goddesses appear in virtually every aspect of ancient Egyptian civilization, and more than 1,500 of them are known by name. Many Egyptian texts mention deities' names without indicating their character or role, while other texts refer to specific deities without even stating their name, so a complete list of them is difficult to assemble.[2]

Major deities[edit]

Male[edit]

  • Aker – A god of the earth and the horizon[3]
  • Amun – A creator god, patron deity of the city of Thebes, and the preeminent deity in Egypt during the New Kingdom[4]
  • Anhur – A god of war and hunting[5][6]
  • Aten – Sun disk deity who became the focus of the monolatrous or monotheistic Atenist belief system in the reign of Akhenaten[7]
  • Atum – A creator god and solar deity, first god of the Ennead[8]
  • Bennu – A solar and creator deity, depicted as a bird[9]
  • Geb – An earth god and member of the Ennead[10]
  • Hapi – Personification of the Nile flood[11]
  • Horus – A major god, usually shown as a falcon or as a human child, linked with the sky, the sun, kingship, protection, and healing. Often said to be the son of Osiris and Isis.[12]
  • Khepri – A solar creator god, often treated as the morning form of Ra and represented by a scarab beetle[13]
  • Khnum (Khnemu) – A ram god, the patron deity of Elephantine, who was said to control the Nile flood and give life to gods and humans[14]
  • Khonsu – A moon god, son of Amun and Mut[15]
  • Maahes – A lion god, son of Bastet[16]
  • Montu – A god of war and the sun, worshipped at Thebes[17]
  • Nefertum – God of the lotus blossom from which the sun god rose at the beginning of time. Son of Ptah and Sekhmet.[18]
  • Nemty – Falcon god, worshipped in Middle Egypt,[19] who appears in myth as a ferryman for greater gods[20]
  • Neper – A god of grain[21]
  • Osiris – god of death and resurrection who rules the underworld and enlivens vegetation, the sun god, and deceased souls[22]
  • Ptah – A creator deity and god of craftsmen, the patron god of Memphis[23]
  • Ra – The sun god
  • Set – An ambivalent god, characterized by violence, chaos, and strength, connected with the desert. Mythological murderer of Osiris and enemy of Horus, but also a supporter of the king.[24]
  • Shu – Embodiment of wind or air, a member of the Ennead[25]
  • Sobek – Crocodile god, worshipped in the Faiyum and at Kom Ombo[26]
  • Sopdu – A god of the sky and of Egypt's eastern border regions[27]
  • Thoth – A moon god, and a god of writing and scribes, and patron deity of Hermopolis[28]
  • Wadj-wer – Personification of the Mediterranean sea or lakes of the Nile Delta[29]

Female[edit]

  • Amunet – Female counterpart of Amun and a member of the Ogdoad[3]
  • Anuket – A goddess of Egypt's southern frontier regions, particularly the lower cataracts of the Nile[30]
  • Bastet – Goddess represented as a cat or lioness, patroness of the city of Bubastis, linked with protection from evil[31]
  • Bat – Cow goddess from early in Egyptian history, eventually absorbed by Hathor[32]
  • Hathor – One of the most important goddesses, linked with the sky, the sun, sexuality and motherhood, music and dance, foreign lands and goods, and the afterlife. One of many forms of the Eye of Ra.[33]
  • Heket – Frog goddess said to protect women in childbirth[34]
  • Hesat – A maternal cow goddess[35]
  • Imentet – An afterlife goddess closely linked with Isis and Hathor[36]
  • Isis – Wife of Osiris and mother of Horus, linked with funerary rites, motherhood, protection, and magic. She became a major deity in Greek and Roman religion.[37]
  • Maat – Goddess who personified truth, justice, and order[38]
  • Menhit – A lioness goddess[39]
  • Mut – Consort of Amun, worshipped at Thebes[40]
  • Neith – A creator and hunter goddess, patron of the city of Sais in Lower Egypt[41]
  • Nekhbet (Nekhebit) – A vulture goddess, the tutelary deity of Upper Egypt[42]
  • Nephthys (Neb-t kha-t) – A member of the Ennead, the consort of Set, who mourned Osiris alongside Isis[43]
  • Nepit – A goddess of grain, female counterpart of Neper[44]
  • Nut – A sky goddess, a member of the Ennead[45]
  • Pakhet – A lioness goddess mainly worshipped in the area around Beni Hasan[46]
  • Renenutet – An agricultural goddess[47]
  • Satet – A goddess of Egypt's southern frontier regions[48]
  • Sekhmet – A lioness goddess, both destructive and violent and capable of warding off disease, protector of the pharaohs who led them in war, the consort of Ptah and one of many forms of the Eye of Ra.[49]
  • Tefnut – Goddess of moisture and a member of the Ennead[50]
  • Wadjet (Uatchit) – A cobra goddess, the tutelary deity of Lower Egypt[51]
  • Wosret – A goddess of Thebes[52]

Both male and female forms[edit]

  • Heh – Personification of infinity and a member of the Ogdoad[53]
  • Kek – The god of Chaos and Darkness, as well as being the concept of primordial darkness. Kek's female form is known as Kauket.
  • Nu – Personification of the formless, watery disorder from which the world emerged at creation and a member of the Ogdoad[54]
  • Ra (Re) – The foremost Egyptian sun god, involved in creation and the afterlife. Mythological ruler of the gods, father of every Egyptian king, and the patron god of Heliopolis.[55]
  • Tatenen – Personification of the first mound of earth to emerge from chaos in ancient Egyptian creation myths[56]
  • Anubis/Anput – The god/goddess of embalming and protector of the dead[57]

Minor deities[edit]

Male[edit]

Female[edit]

Male or female[edit]

Objects[edit]

  • Semi - A deified object found in the tenth division of Tuat[58]

Lesser-known deities[edit]

Male[edit]

Female[edit]

Male or female[edit]

Groups of deities[edit]

  • The Aai – 3 guardian deities in the ninth division of Tuat; they are Ab-ta, Anhefta, and Ermen-ta[58]
  • The Cavern deities – Many underworld deities charged with punishing the damned souls by beheading and devouring them.[179]
  • The Ennead – An extended family of nine deities produced by Atum during the creation of the world. The Ennead usually consisted of Atum, his children Shu and Tefnut, their children Geb and Nut, and their children Osiris, Isis, Set, and Nephthys.[180]
  • The four sons of Horus – Four gods who protected the mummified body, particularly the internal organs in canopic jars.[181]
  • The Gate deities – Many dangerous guardian deities at the gates of the underworld (flanked by divine Doorkeepers and Heralds), to be ingratiated by spells and knowing their names.[182]
  • The Hemsut (or Hemuset) – Protective goddesses of Fate, destiny, and of the creation sprung from the primordial abyss; daughters of Ptah, linked to the concept of ka[183][184]
  • The Her-Hequi – 4 deities in the fifth division of Tuat[58]
  • The Hours of the day deities – 12 divine embodiments of each hour of the day: partly major deities (1st: Maat, 7th: Horus) and partly lesser known ones (12th: "The One Who Gives Protection In The Twilight").[185]
  • The Hours of the night deities – 12 goddesses of each hour of the night, wearing a five-pointed star on their heads.[185]
  • The 42 judges of Maat – 42 deities including Osiris who judged the souls of the dead in the afterlife
  • The Khnemiu – 4 deities wearing red crowns in the eleventh division of Tuat[58]
  • The Ogdoad – A set of eight gods who personified the chaos that existed before creation. The Ogdoad commonly consisted of Amun, Amunet, Nu, Naunet, Heh, Hauhet, Kuk, and Kauket.[186]
  • The Renniu – 4 bearded gods in the eleventh division of Tuat[58]
  • The Setheniu-Tep – 4 deities wearing white crowns in the eleventh division of Tuat[58]
  • The Souls of Pe and Nekhen – A set of gods personifying the predynastic rulers of Upper and Lower Egypt.[187]
  • The 12 Thoueris goddesses[154]

Citations[edit]

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Works cited[edit]

  • Allen, James P. (2000). Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-77483-7.
  • Hart, George (2005). The Routledge Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, Second Edition. Routledge. ISBN 0-203-02362-5.
  • Porter, Bertha; Moss, Rosalind (1991). Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings. Griffith Institute, Ashmolean Museum Oxford. ISBN 978-0900416828.
  • Wilkinson, Richard H. (2003). The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05120-8.
  • Lorton, Claude Traunecker. transl. from the French by David (2001). The gods of Egypt (1st English-language ed., enhanced and expanded. ed.). Ithaca, N.Y [u.a.]: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-3834-9.
  • Budge, Sir Ernest A. Wallis (2010). An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary : (in two volumes, with an index of English words, king list and geographical list with indexes, list of hieroglyphic characters, Coptic and Semitic alphabets. New York: Cosimo Classics. ISBN 978-1-61640-460-4.
  • "Aswan History Facts and Timeline: Aswan, Egypt". http://www.world-guides.com/africa/egypt/aswan/aswan_history.html.
  • Petry, Alan W. Shorter ; with a new bibliography by Bonnie L. (1994). The Egyptian gods : a handbook (Rev. ed. ed.). San Bernardino (Calif.): the Borgo press. ISBN 0-89370-535-7.
  • "Gods of Egypt". http://www.touregypt.net/godsofegypt/.
  • Willockx, Sjef. "Amentet, Andjeti and Anubis: Three Ancient Egyptian Gods (2007)".
  • Mark, Joshua J. "Egyptian Gods - The Complete List". https://www.ancient.eu/article/885/egyptian-gods---the-complete-list/.
  • Nelson, Thomas (2017). The Woman's Study Bible: Receiving God's Truth for Balance, Hope, and Transformation. Biblica, Inc.
  • "GVC09-24: Mystical creatures and gods -Egyptian". http://winners.virtualclassroom.org/0924/egypt.html.
  • Durdin-Robertson, Lawrence (1979). Communion With The Goddes: Idols, Images, and Symbols of the Goddesses; Egypt Part III. Cesara Publications.
  • translations, translated by Raymond O. Faulkner ; with additional; Wasserman, a commentary by Ogden Goelet JR. ; with color illustrations from the facsimile volume produced in 1890 under the supervision of E.A. Wallis Budge ; introduced by Carol A.R. Andrews ; edited by Eva Von Dassow ; in an edition conceived by James (1994). The Egyptian Book of the dead : the Book of going forth by day : being the Papyrus of Ani (royal scribe of the divine offerings), written and illustrated circa 1250 B.C.E., by scribes and artists unknown, including the balance of chapters of the books of the dead known as the theban recension, compiled from ancient texts, dating back to the roots of Egyptian civilization (1st ed. ed.). San Francisco: Chronicle Books. ISBN 0-8118-0767-3.

Further reading[edit]