List of additives for hydraulic fracturing

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The differences between additives for hydraulic fracturing in different countries are the type of chemicals used (hazardous, non-hazardous), the disclosure of chemicals and the composition of fracturing fluid. In 2010, Halliburton announced the creation of food additive based hydraulic fracturing fluid in response to calls for transparency and demand for a "more environmentally friendly" unconventional hydrocarbon production.[1]

Europe[edit]

In Europe, Poland, Norway and Germany have the largest reserves of shale gas, and drillings are underway.[2]

United Kingdom[edit]

In the United Kingdom, the environmental regulator permits only chemical additives which are classed as non hazardous to groundwater for fracturing fluids.[3][4][5] All chemicals used in fracturing fluids used must be declared publicly,[6] while the composition must be disclosed if the regulator demands it.[7] The permitted additives for hydraulic fracturing fluid include polycrylamide, hydrochloric acid and a biocide.

CAS Number Chemical Constituent Commercial use [8]
9003-05-8 poly(2-prop-enamide) EOR friction reducer
7647-01-0 Hydrochloric acid Pre-fracturing to clean perforations, water pH adjuster
14808-60-7 Crystalline Silica (Quartz) Proppant
111-30-8 Glutaraldehyde Biocide
7647-14-5 Sodium Chloride Chem tracer
7727-37-9 Nitrogen Waterless hydraulic fracturing

United States[edit]

In the US, about 750 compounds have been listed as additives for hydraulic fracturing, also known as ingredients of pressurized fracking fluid,[9] in an industry report to the US Congress in 2011 after originally being kept secret for "commercial reasons".[10][11] The following is a partial list of the chemical constituents in additives that are used or have been used in fracturing operations, as based on the report of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, some are known to be carcinogenic.[12]

CAS Number Chemical Constituent Commercial use [8]
2634-33-5 1,2-Benzisothiazolin-2-one / 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one Insecticide Spray, Stain Remover
95-63-6 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene Automatic Transmission Sealer
123-91-1 1,4-Dioxane Wood Parquet Adhesive
3452-07-1 1-eicosene No record
629-73-2 1-hexadecene No record
112-88-9 1-octadecene No record
1120-36-1 1-tetradecene Stain Remover
10222-01-2 2,2 Dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide, a biocide No record
27776-21-2 2,2'-azobis-{2-(imidazlin-2-yl)propane}-dihydrochloride No record
73003-80-2 2,2-Dibromomalonamide No record
15214-89-8 2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulphonic acid sodium salt polymer No record
46830-22-2 2-acryloyloxyethyl(benzyl)dimethylammonium chloride No record
52-51-7 2-Bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol Deodorant, Conditioner
111-76-2 2-Butoxy ethanol Engine Cleaner
1113-55-9 2-Dibromo-3-Nitriloprionamide (2-Monobromo-3-nitriilopropionamide) No record
104-76-7 2-Ethyl Hexanol Diesel Fuel Treatment
67-63-0 2-Propanol / Isopropyl Alcohol / Isopropanol / Propan-2-ol Damar Varnish, Gloss
26062-79-3 2-Propen-1-aminium, N,N-dimethyl-N-2-propenyl-chloride, homopolymer Volumizing Conditioner
9003-03-6 2-propenoic acid, homopolymer, ammonium salt Moisturizer, Sunscreen
25987-30-8 2-Propenoic acid, polymer with 2 p-propenamide, sodium salt / Copolymer of acrylamide and sodium acrylate No record
71050-62-9 2-Propenoic acid, polymer with sodium phosphinate (1:1) No record
66019-18-9 2-propenoic acid, telomer with sodium hydrogen sulfite No record
107-19-7 2-Propyn-1-ol / Propargyl alcohol No record
51229-78-8 3,5,7-Triaza-1-azoniatricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]decane, 1-(3-chloro-2-propenyl)-chloride, Clean Pressed Powder
115-19-5 3-methyl-1-butyn-3-ol No record
127087-87-0 4-Nonylphenol Polyethylene Glycol Ether Branched / Nonylphenol ethoxylated / Oxyalkylated Phenol Chrome Wheel Cleaner
64-19-7 Acetic acid Silicone Sealant
68442-62-6 Acetic acid, hydroxy-, reaction products with triethanolamine No record
108-24-7 Acetic Anhydride No record
67-64-1 Acetone Solvent, Clear Finish Gloss
38193-60-1 Acrylamide – sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonate copolymer Moisture, Lotion
25085-02-3 Acrylamide – Sodium Acrylate Copolymer or Anionic Polyacrylamide No record
25987-30-8 2-Propenoic acid, polymer with 2-propenamide, sodium salt No record
69418-26-4 Acrylamide polymer with N,N,N-trimethyl-2[1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy Ethanaminium chloride No record
15085 −02-3 Acrylamide-sodium acrylate copolymer No record
68551-12-2 Alcohols, C12-C16, Ethoxylated (a.k.a. Ethoxylated alcohol) Floor Cleaner, Stain Remover
64742-47-8 Aliphatic Hydrocarbon / Hydrotreated light distillate / Petroleum Distillates / Isoparaffinic Solvent / Paraffin Solvent / Napthenic Solvent Tar Remover, Lubricant
64743-02-8 Alkenes No record
68439-57-6 Alkyl (C14-C16) olefin sulfonate, sodium salt Car Wash, Dog Shampoo
9016-45-9 Alkylphenol ethoxylate surfactants Engine Cleaner, Rubber Sealant
1327-41-9 Aluminum chloride Antiperspirant
73138-27-9 Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, ethoxylated No record
71011-04-6 Amines, Ditallow alkyl, ethoxylated No record
68551-33-7 Amines, tallow alkyl, ethoxylated, acetates No record
1336-21-6 Ammonia Stripper, Glue, Tire Repair
631-61-8 Ammonium acetate Haircolor Shine
68037-05-8 Ammonium Alcohol Ether Sulfate No record
7783-20-2 Ammonium bisulfate Ant Killer, Weed & Moss Control
10192-30-0 Ammonium bisulfite No record
12125-02-9 Ammonium chloride Brass & Copper Polish, Bleach
7632-50-0 Ammonium citrate No record
37475-88-0 Ammonium Cumene Sulfonate No record
1341-49-7 Ammonium hydrogen-difluoride Wheel Cleaner, Glass Etching
6484-52-2 Ammonium nitrate Moisture Control, Ink Cartridge
7727-54-0 Ammonium Persulfate / Diammonium peroxidisulphate Latex Paint, Maximizing Powder
1762-95-4 Ammonium Thiocyanate Liquid Hide Glue
7664-41-7 Aqueous ammonia Paint Stripper, Caulk
121888-68-4 Bentonite, benzyl(hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethylammonium stearate complex / organophilic clay Wine clearing agent, "Detox" Product
71-43-2 Benzene Fuel System Cleaner, Degreaser
119345-04-9 Benzene, 1,1'-oxybis, tetratpropylene derivatives, sulfonated, sodium salts Toilet Cleaner, Rust Neutralizer
74153-51-8 Benzenemethanaminium, N,N-dimethyl-N-[2-[(1-oxo-2-propenyl)oxy]ethyl]-, chloride, polymer with 2-propenamide No record
10043-35-3 Boric acid Roach Killer, Stain Remover
1303-86-2 Boric oxide / Boric Anhydride Carpenters Glue
71-36-3 Butan-1-ol Interior/Exterior Paint
68002-97-1 C10 – C16 Ethoxylated Alcohol Floor Finish Remover, Degreaser
68131-39-5 C12-15 Alcohol, Ethoxylated Graffiti Remover, Radiator Flush
10043-52-4 Calcium chloride Chlorinating Sanitizer, Ice Melt
124-38-9 Carbon dioxide Penetrant, Lubricator
68130-15-4 Carboxymethylhydroxypropyl guar No record
9012-54-8 Cellulase / Hemicellulase Enzyme
9004-34-6 Cellulose
10049-04-4 Chlorine dioxide
77-92-9 Citric Acid
94266-47-4 Citrus Terpenes
61789-40-0 Cocamidopropyl betaine
68155-09-9 Cocamidopropylamine Oxide
68424-94-2 Coco-betaine
7758-98-7 Copper(II) sulfate
31726-34-8 Crissanol A-55
14808-60-7 Crystalline Silica (Quartz)
7447-39-4 Cupric chloride dihydrate
1120-24-7 Decyldimethyl Amine
2605-79-0 Decyl-dimethyl Amine Oxide
3252-43-5 Dibromoacetonitrile
25340-17-4 Diethylbenzene
111-46-6 Diethylene glycol
22042-96-2 Diethylenetriamine penta (methylenephonic acid) sodium salt
28757-00-8 Diisopropyl naphthalenesulfonic acid
68607-28-3 Dimethylcocoamine, bis(chloroethyl) ether, diquaternary ammonium salt
7398-69-8 Dimethyldiallylammonium chloride
25265-71-8 Dipropylene glycol
139-33-3 Disodium Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetate
5989-27-5 D-Limonene
123-01-3 Dodecylbenzene
27176-87-0 Dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid
42504-46-1 Dodecylbenzenesulfonate isopropanolamine
50-70-4 D-Sorbitol / Sorbitol
37288-54-3 Endo-1,4-beta-mannanase, or Hemicellulase
149879-98-1 Erucic Amidopropyl Dimethyl Betaine
89-65-6 Erythorbic acid, anhydrous
54076-97-0 Ethanaminium, N,N,N-trimethyl-2-[(1-oxo-2-propenyl)oxy]-, chloride, homopolymer
107-21 −1 Ethane-1,2-diol / Ethylene Glycol
9002-93-1 Ethoxylated 4-tert-octylphenol
68439-50-9 Ethoxylated alcohol
126950-60-5 Ethoxylated alcohol
67254-71-1 Ethoxylated alcohol (C10-12)
68951-67-7 Ethoxylated alcohol (C14-15)
68439-46-3 Ethoxylated alcohol (C9-11)
66455-15-0 Ethoxylated Alcohols
84133-50-6 Ethoxylated Alcohols (C12-14 Secondary)
68439-51-0 Ethoxylated Alcohols (C12-14)
78330-21-9 Ethoxylated branch alcohol
34398-01-1 Ethoxylated C11 alcohol
61791-12-6 Ethoxylated Castor Oil
61791-29-5 Ethoxylated fatty acid, coco
61791-08-0 Ethoxylated fatty acid, coco, reaction product with ethanolamine
68439-45-2 Ethoxylated hexanol
9036-19-5 Ethoxylated octylphenol
9005-67-8 Ethoxylated Sorbitan Monostearate
9004-70-3 Ethoxylated Sorbitan Trioleate
64-17-5 Ethyl alcohol / ethanol
100-41-4 Ethyl Benzene
97-64-3 Ethyl lactate
9003-11-6 Ethylene Glycol-Propylene Glycol Copolymer (Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane)
75-21-8 Ethylene oxide
5877-42-9 Ethyloctynol
68526-86-3 Exxal 13
61790-12-3 Fatty Acids
68188-40-9 Fatty acids, tall oil reaction products w/ acetophenone, formaldehyde & thiourea
9043-30-5 Fatty alcohol polyglycol ether surfactant
7705-08-0 Ferric chloride
7782-63-0 Ferrous sulfate, heptahydrate
50-00-0 Formaldehyde
29316-47-0 Formaldehyde polymer with 4,1,1-dimethylethyl phenolmethyl oxirane
153795-76-7 Formaldehyde, polymers with branched 4-nonylphenol, ethylene oxide and propylene oxide
75-12-7 Formamide
64-18-6 Formic acid
110-17-8 Fumaric acid
65997-17-3 Glassy calcium magnesium phosphate
111-30-8 Glutaraldehyde
56-81-5 Glycerol / glycerine
9000-30-0 Guar Gum
64742-94-5 Heavy aromatic petroleum naphtha
9025-56-3 Hemicellulase
7647-01-0 Hydrochloric Acid / Hydrogen Chloride / muriatic acid Toilet Bowl Cleaner
7722-84-1 Hydrogen peroxide
79-14-1 Hydroxy acetic acid
35249-89-9 Hydroxyacetic acid ammonium salt
9004-62-0 Hydroxyethyl cellulose
5470-11-1 Hydroxylamine hydrochloride
39421-75-5 Hydroxypropyl guar
35674-56-7 Isomeric Aromatic Ammonium Salt
64742-88-7 Isoparaffinic Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Synthetic
64-63-0 Isopropanol
98-82-8 Isopropylbenzene (cumene)
68909-80-8 Isoquinoline, reaction products with benzyl chloride and quinoline
8008-20-6 Kerosene
64742-81-0 Kerosine, hydrodesulfurized
63-42-3 Lactose
64742-95-6 Light aromatic solvent naphtha
1120-21-4 Light Paraffin Oil
14807-96-6 Magnesium Silicate Hydrate (Talc)
1184-78-7 methanamine, N,N-dimethyl-, N-oxide
67-56-1 Methanol
68891-11-2 Methyloxirane polymer with oxirane, mono (nonylphenol) ether, branched
8052-41-3 Mineral spirits / Stoddard Solvent
141-43-5 Monoethanolamine
44992-01-0 N,N,N-trimethyl-2[1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy Ethanaminium chloride
64742-48-9 Naphtha (petroleum), hydrotreated heavy
91-20-3 Naphthalene
38640-62-9 Naphthalene bis(1-methylethyl)
93-18-5 Naphthalene, 2-ethoxy-
68909-18-2 N-benzyl-alkyl-pyridinium chloride
68139-30-0 N-Cocoamidopropyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-2-hydroxypropylsulfobetaine
7727-37-9 Nitrogen, Liquid form
68412-54-4 Nonylphenol Polyethoxylate
121888-66-2 Organophilic Clays
64742-65-0 Petroleum Base Oil
64741-68-0 Petroleum naphtha
70714-66-8 Phosphonic acid, (phosphonomethyl)iminobis2,1-ethanediylnitrilobis(methylene)tetrakis-, ammonium salt
8000-41-7 Pine Oil
60828-78-6 Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), a-[3,5-dimethyl-1-(2-methylpropyl)hexyl]-w-hydroxy-
25322-68-3 Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), a-hydro-w-hydroxy / Polyethylene Glycol
24938-91-8 Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), α-tridecyl-ω-hydroxy-
51838-31-4 Polyepichlorohydrin, trimethylamine quaternized
56449-46-8 Polyethlene glycol oleate ester
62649-23-4 Polymer with 2-propenoic acid and sodium 2-propenoate
9005-65-6 Polyoxyethylene Sorbitan Monooleate
61791-26-2 Polyoxylated fatty amine salt
127-08-2 Potassium acetate
12712-38-8 Potassium borate
1332-77-0 Potassium borate
20786-60-1 Potassium Borate
584-08-7 Potassium carbonate
7447-40-7 Potassium chloride
590-29-4 Potassium formate
1310-58-3 Potassium Hydroxide
13709-94-9 Potassium metaborate
24634-61-5 Potassium sorbate
112926-00-8 Precipitated silica / silica gel
57-55-6 Propane-1,2-diol, or Propylene glycol
107-98-2 Propylene glycol monomethyl ether
68953-58-2 Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
62763-89-7 Quinoline,2-methyl-, hydrochloride
15619-48-4 Quinolinium, 1-(phenylmethl),chloride
7631-86-9 Silica, Dissolved
5324-84-5 Sodium 1-octanesulfonate
127-09-3 Sodium acetate
95371-16-7 Sodium Alpha-olefin Sulfonate
532-32-1 Sodium benzoate
144-55-8 Sodium bicarbonate
7631-90-5 Sodium bisulfate
7647-15-6 Sodium bromide
497-19-8 Sodium carbonate
7647-14-5 Sodium Chloride
7758-19-2 Sodium chlorite
3926-62-3 Sodium chloroacetate
68-04-2 Sodium citrate
6381-77-7 Sodium erythorbate / isoascorbic acid, sodium salt
2836-32-0 Sodium Glycolate
1310-73-2 Sodium Hydroxide
7681-52-9 Sodium hypochlorite
7775-19-1 Sodium Metaborate .8H2O
10486-00-7 Sodium perborate tetrahydrate
7775-27-1 Sodium persulfate
9003-04-7 Sodium polyacrylate
7757-82-6 Sodium sulfate
1303-96-4 Sodium tetraborate decahydrate
7772-98-7 Sodium thiosulfate
1338-43-8 Sorbitan Monooleate
57-50-1 Sucrose
5329-14-6 Sulfamic acid
112945-52-5 Synthetic Amorphous / Pyrogenic Silica / Amorphous Silica
68155-20-4 Tall Oil Fatty Acid Diethanolamine
8052-48-0 Tallow fatty acids sodium salt
72480-70-7 Tar bases, quinoline derivs., benzyl chloride-quaternized
68647-72-3 Terpene and terpenoids
68956-56-9 Terpene hydrocarbon byproducts
533-74-4 Tetrahydro-3,5-dimethyl-2H-1,3,5-thiadiazine-2-thione (a.k.a. Dazomet)
55566-30-8 Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate (THPS)
75-57-0 Tetramethyl ammonium chloride
64-02-8 Tetrasodium Ethylenediaminetetraacetate
68-11-1 Thioglycolic acid
62-56-6 Thiourea
68527-49-1 Thiourea, polymer with formaldehyde and 1-phenylethanone
108-88-3 Toluene
81741-28-8 Tributyl tetradecyl phosphonium chloride
68299-02-5 Triethanolamine hydroxyacetate
112-27-6 Triethylene glycol
52624-57-4 Trimethylolpropane, Ethoxylated, Propoxylated
150-38-9 Trisodium Ethylenediaminetetraacetate
5064-31-3 Trisodium Nitrilotriacetate
7601-54-9 Trisodium orthophosphate
57-13-6 Urea
25038-72-6 Vinylidene Chloride/Methylacrylate Copolymer
7732-18-5 Water Deionized water
1330-20-7 Xylene Carburetor Cleaner, Asphalt Primer
068604-95-5 Aliphatic acids Wall & Trim Enamel
078330-20-8 Aliphatic Ethoxylated Alcohols Leather Cleaner
000000-33-9 Alkyl aryl polyethoxy alcohols Coppersmiths Polish
000000-17-6 Alkylaryl Sulfonate Detergent, Stain Remover
064742-47-8 Distillates, petroleum, hydrotreated light Tar Remover, Sealant
000110-43-0 Methyl n-amyl & ethyl ketones Hobby Cement, Sealant
Oxyalkylated alkylphenol
Petroleum distillate blend
Polyethoxylated alkanol
Polymeric Hydrocarbons
Salt of amine-carbonyl condensate
Salt of fatty acid/polyamine reaction product
Sugar
Surfactant blend

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Soraghan, Mike (15 November 2010). "Halliburton Announces Ecofriendly Fracking Fluid, More Disclosure". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 April 2017. Halliburton Co., which is fighting U.S. EPA about disclosure of its hydraulic fracturing fluid, today announced that it will publicly disclose detailed information on its website about the chemicals used in its fracturing fluids. The Houston-based oilfield services company announced the creation of a new fracturing fluid that uses chemicals "sourced entirely from the food industry." 
  2. ^ Dr Dave Healy (July 2012). "Hydraulic Fracturing or 'Fracking': A Short Summary of Current Knowledge and Potential Environmental Impacts" (PDF). Department of Geology & Petroleum Geology, University of Aberdeen: 18–19. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  3. ^ "The Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) Regulations 2010". UK Government. 2010. Retrieved 2016-08-28. 
  4. ^ "The Pollution Prevention and Control (Scotland) Regulations 2012". www.legislation.gov.uk. Queen's Printer for Scotland (QPS). Retrieved 1 April 2017. 
  5. ^ "DIRECTIVE 2006/118/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 12 December 2006 on the protection of groundwater against pollution and deterioration". eur-lex.europa.eu. EUR-Lex - 32006L0118 - EN - EUR-Lex. 12 December 2006. Retrieved 18 October 2014. It is necessary to distinguish between hazardous substances, inputs of which should be prevented, and other pollutants, inputs of which should be limited. Annex VIII to Directive 2000/60/EC, listing the main pollutants relevant for the water environment, should be used to identify hazardous and non-hazardous substances which present an existing or potential risk of pollution. 
  6. ^ "Onshore oil and gas exploration in the UK: regulation and best practice" (PDF). DECC/BEIS. p. 46. Retrieved 13 April 2017. Operators will disclose the chemical additives of fracturing fluids on a well-by-well basis. 
  7. ^ Mair, Robert (June 2012). Shale gas extraction in the UK: A review of hydraulic fracturing (PDF) (Report). The Royal Society and the Royal Academy of Engineering. Retrieved 3 April 2017. 
  8. ^ a b NLM (August 2015). "Household Products Database". Health and Safety Information on Household Products. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 11 November 2015. 
  9. ^ GWPC & IOGCC (2015). "What chemicals are used in a hydraulic fracturing job". Chemical Disclosure Registry. FracFocus. Retrieved 11 November 2015. 
  10. ^ Nicholas Kusnetz (April 8, 2011). "Fracking Chemicals Cited in Congressional Report Stay Underground". ProPublica. Retrieved July 11, 2011. 
  11. ^ Chemicals Used in Hydraulic Fracturing (PDF) (Report). Committee on Energy and Commerce U.S. House of Representatives. April 18, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 4, 2013. 
  12. ^ "Natural Gas Development Activities and High‐volume Hydraulic Fracturing" (PDF). New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. 30 September 2009. pp. 45–51.