List of largest locomotives

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As railroads around the world haul larger quantities of freight efficiently, the title of world's largest locomotive has often been passed to new generations of rolling stock. Currently, with what information is published, the most powerful articulated and single unit locomotive is the HXD1, the strongest-pulling is the IORE, and the heaviest is the Union Pacific Coal GTEL. The information is incomplete on some locomotives (for example, the BJ 6001), thus, the current leaders listed in each category may not be the actual leaders.

Standard[edit]

There are many ways in which a locomotive can be the largest: the heaviest, longest, most cylinders, most power, or most wheels. It is often defined as the longest in length, but there is even a debate on whether or not to include the tender, which is equivalent to the fuel tank of a diesel, in the measurement. To establish the "largest" category, several factors take precedence: overall weight, which gives traction over driving axles; size (length & height of engine itself); and power, which may be in terms of raw horsepower, tractive effort, available power at axles (shaft horsepower) or, in the case of steam locomotives, available steam on a sustained basis.

Name Railway Series Manufacturer Dates Drive Wheel arrangement Weight Tractive Effort/Force Power Notes
EMD SD70ACe-T4 Union Pacific Railroad

BNSF Railway

3000-3099 (Union Pacific) EMD 2015-present Diesel-electric Co'Co' 218 tonnes (240 short tons) 200,000 pounds-force (890 kN) starting

175,000 pounds-force (778 kN) continuous

4,400 horsepower (3,281 kW) N/A
Shenhua Mining Group HXD1 Shenhua Mining Group HXD1.7 CRRC Zhuzhou 2013 Electric 3xBo'Bo' 276 tonnes (304 short tons) 256,282 pounds-force (1,140 kN) 19,303 horsepower (14,394 kW)

continuous rating

The most powerful articulated electric locomotive in the world.
4E5K Russian Railways N/A Novocherkassk Electric Locomotive Plant 2014–present Electric 4xBo'Bo' 384 tonnes (423 short tons) 304,840 pounds-force (1,356 kN) 17,838 horsepower (13,302 kW) 1-hour rating Four sections modification of E5K.
GT1s Russian Railways N/A Sinara transport machines N/A Gas turbine-Electric N/A 360 tonnes (397 short tons) 220,313 pounds-force (980 kN) 11,285 horsepower (8,415 kW) Currently the most powerful non-electric locomotive ever produced.
Little Joe The Milwaukee Road EF-4 and EP-4 General Electric 1950-80 Electric 2-D+D-2 247.5 tonnes (273 short tons) 75,700 pounds-force (337 kN) 5,110 horsepower (3,811 kW) Max speed of 68 mph, used for freight and passenger.
Eurotunnel Class 9 Getlink 9000 Euroshuttle Locomotive Consortium 1993-2002 electric Bo-Bo-Bo 132 tonnes (146 short tons) 90,000 pounds-force (400 kN) starting;

70,000 pounds-force (311 kN) continuous

9,400 horsepower (7,010 kW) Always used in pairs (one at each end of the train). Early versions were 7,500 horsepower (5,593 kW) but most have been rebuilt to 7 MW.
AD43C Iranian Railways(RAI) 2001-2100 ALSTOM 2001 Diesel Electric Co'Co' 120 tonnes (132 short tons) 122,000 pounds-force (543 kN) 4,300 horsepower (3,207 kW) about 50 locomotives are stopped because of failures in the RK215 diesel engine
Ae 6/6 SBB, Switzerland 11401-11520 SLM, MFO/BBC 1952; 1955–66 electric Co-Co 120 tonnes (132 short tons) 88,125 pounds-force (392 kN) 5,766 horsepower (4,300 kW) continuous still in operation (October 2012)
Ae 6/8 BLS, Switzerland 201-208 SLM / Sécheron 1939 electric (1'Co)(Co1') 140 tonnes (154 short tons) 79,360 pounds-force (353 kN) 5,914 horsepower (4,410 kW) 1-hour rating 2 remain in working order as heritage locos
Ae 8/8 BLS, Switzerland 271-275 SLM / BBC 1959-66 electric (Bo)(Bo)+(Bo)(Bo) 160 tonnes (176 short tons) 105,885 pounds-force (471 kN) 8,683 horsepower (6,475 kW) 1-hour rating 1 preserved in working order
Ae 8/14 SBB, Switzerland 11852 SLM, MFO/BBC 1939 electric (1'A)A1'A(A1')+(1'A)A1'A(A1') 236 tonnes (260 short tons) 110,160 pounds-force (490 kN) 10,945 horsepower (8,162 kW) 1-hour rating;

10,255 horsepower (7,647 kW) continuous

Exhibit at Swiss Transport Museum
Re 4/4 BLS, Switzerland Re 425 161-Re 425 195) SLM / BBC 1964-83 electric Bo'Bo' 80 tonnes (88 short tons) 70,590 pounds-force (314 kN) 6,678 horsepower (4,980 kW) continuous in operation (October 2012)
Re 465 BLS, Switzerland Re 465 001-465 0018 SLM, ABB 1994-97 electric Bo-Bo 84 tonnes (93 short tons) 71,940 pounds-force (320 kN) 9,390 horsepower (7,002 kW) short term

8,410 horsepower (6,271 kW) continuous;

Similar locomotives with slightly different technical data are in operation with SBB (Re 460; 119 pc/ NSB (El 18; 22 pc)/ VR (Sr2; 46 pc)/ KCRC (Hong Kong; 2 pc)
Re 6/6 SBB, Switzerland 11601-11689 SLM, MFO/BBC/Sécheron 1972, 1975–80 electric Bo-Bo-Bo 120 tonnes (132 short tons) 89,475 pounds-force (398 kN) 10,460 horsepower (7,800 kW) 1-hour rating;

9,705 horsepower (7,237 kW) continuous

At the time of construction (1972) one of the world's most powerful locomotives, still in operation (June 2016), revised classification Re 620
PRR GG1 Pennsylvania Rail Road (PRR), Penn Central, Conrail, Amtrak & NJ Transit 4800-4938, 900-929 Altoona Works, General Electric 1934–43 Electric 2-C+C-2 (4-6-6-4) 216.4 tonnes (239 short tons) 65,500 pounds-force (291 kN) 4,629 horsepower (3,452 kW) Most scrapped; the prototype and 15 production locomotives preserved in museums
Class 461 Železnice Srbije, Serbia ŽS461-0/1, ŽS461-2 Electroputere Craiova, Romania 1965–91 Electric Co'Co' 120 tonnes (132 short tons) N/A 7,638 horsepower (5,696 kW) Operational in Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, Hungary & Macedonia.
XA Triplex Virginian Railway 700 Baldwin 1916 Steam 2-8-8-8-4 532 tonnes (586 short tons) 199,550 pounds-force (888 kN) simple;

166,600 pounds-force (741 kN) compound

N/A Rebuilt into separate locomotives; Maximum speed approx. 10 mph
Erie Class P-1 Erie Railroad 2603-2605,

later 5014-5016

Baldwin Locomotive Works 1914-1916 Steam 2-8-8-8-2 531 tonnes (585 short tons) 176,256 pounds-force (784 kN) N/A Maximum speed approx. 10 mph
2-10-10-2 Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway

Virginian Railway

3000-3009 (ATSF)

800-809 (Virginian)

Baldwin Locomotive Works (ATSF)

American Locomotive Company (Virginian)

1911-1912, 1918 Steam 2-10-10-2 415 tonnes (457 short tons) 175,000 pounds-force (778 kN) simple;

147,200 pounds-force (655 kN) compound

N/A Weight and performance figures listed for the Virginian variant, as that locomotive was the heavier and more powerful of the two.
Norfolk & Western Y6 class Norfolk & Western N/A Roanoke Shops 1940s Steam 2-8-8-2 449 tonnes (495 short tons) 166,000 pounds-force (738 kN) 5,600 horsepower (4,176 kW) Strongest-pulling steam locomotive still in existence
Union Pacific 9000 class Union Pacific 9000-9087 American Locomotive Company 1926-1930 Steam 4-12-2 355 tonnes (391 short tons) 97,664 pounds-force (434 kN) 4,750 horsepower (3,542 kW) N/A
Challenger Union Pacific 3950-3999 ALCO 1936–43 Steam 4-6-6-4 485 tonnes (535 short tons) 97,350 pounds-force (433 kN) 5,000 horsepower (3,728 kW) Union Pacific 3985 operated 1981-2010 for company PR and occasional excursion service, and is currently not operational
Big Boy Union Pacific 4000-4024 ALCO 1941-–44 Steam 4-8-8-4 548 tonnes (604 short tons) 135,375 pounds-force (602 kN) 6,290 horsepower (4,690 kW) Several on static display.

No. 4014 has been moved from Pomona, Calif., to Cheyenne, Wyo. for restoration.

Yellowstone Northern Pacific

DM&IR

B&O Railroad

220-237 (DM&IR) Baldwin Locomotive Works 1928-1945 Steam 2-8-8-4 566 tonnes (624 short tons) 140,093 pounds-force (623 kN) 6,250 horsepower (4,661 kW) N/A
Allegheny Chesapeake and Ohio Railway (C&O) & Virginian Railway (VGN) 1600-1659 (C&O),

900-907 (VGN)

Lima Locomotive Works 1941–48 Steam 2-6-6-6 544 tonnes (600 short tons) 110,000 pounds-force (489 kN) 7,500 horsepower (5,593 kW) Two on static display
PRR Q2 Pennsylvania Railroad 6131, 6175-6199 Altoona Works 1941–45 Steam 4-4-6-4 456 tonnes (503 short tons) 115,816 pounds-force (515 kN) with booster 7,987 horsepower (5,956 kW) Most powerful steam locomotive ever static tested
PRR S1 Pennsylvania Railroad 6100 Altoona Works 1939 Steam 6-4-4-6 487 tonnes (537 short tons) 76,403 pounds-force (340 kN) 7,200 horsepower (5,369 kW) Fast passenger locomotive; the magazine Popular Mechanics cites 1941 a speed of 133.4 mph (214.7 km/h)
H220 Victorian Railways H Class Victorian Railways / [Newport Workshop] 1941–1958 Steam Boiler, 3 Cylinder 4-8-4 265 tonnes (292 short tons) 55,060 pounds-force (245 kN) 3,600 horsepower (2,685 kW) The most powerful steam locomotive, at the time built in, Australia. 1 Built. Preserved at Newport, Victoria
PRR S2 Pennsylvania Railroad 6200 Baldwin Locomotive Works 1944 Steam Turbine Direct-drive 6-8-6 470 tonnes (518 short tons) 70,500 pounds-force (314 kN) 6,900 horsepower (5,145 kW) Most powerful steam turbine locomotive ever built
M1 Chesapeake and Ohio Railway (C&O) 500-502 Baldwin Locomotive Works 1947–50 Steam Turbine Electric 2-C1-2-C1-B

(4-8-0-4-8-4)

428 tonnes (472 short tons) 98,000 pounds-force (436 kN) 6,000 horsepower (4,474 kW) turbine;

4,960 horsepower (3,699 kW) generators

Nicknamed "Sacred Cows". Sold back to Baldwin in 1950 and scrapped.
Jawn Henry Norfolk and Western Railway (N&W) 2300 Baldwin Locomotive Works 1954-58 Steam Turbine Electric C+C-C+C 404 tonnes (445 short tons) 175,000 pounds-force (778 kN) 4,500 horsepower (3,356 kW)
Struck from the N&W roster on January 4, 1958
Big Blow Union Pacific 1-30 (control cab),

1B-30B (turbine unit)

General Electric 1958–61 Gas turbine-electric C-C+C-C 425 tonnes (468 short tons) 212,312 pounds-force (944 kN) 8,469 horsepower (6,315 kW);

over 10,000 hp at lower altitude and ambient temperatures (only turbine)

Two preserved in museums. Surpassed by GT1s
EMD DDA40X Union Pacific 6900-6946 Electro-Motive Division of General Motors 1969–71 Diesel-electric D-D 244 tonnes (269 short tons) 113,940 pounds-force (507 kN) starting;

103,000 pounds-force (458 kN) continuous

6,600 horsepower (4,922 kW) One operational, 13 in various museums; largest operational single-unit diesel locomotive and the most powerful
Voith Maxima N/A N/A Voith 2006–14 Diesel-hydraulic Co'Co' 136 tonnes (150 short tons) 91,730 pounds-force (408 kN) 5,000 horsepower (3,728 kW) continuous (Maxima 40CC) Voith Maxima 40CC is the most powerful single-engine diesel-hydraulic locomotive ever built
BJ 6001 China Railways 北京6001 Beijing Feb. 7th 1969 Diesel-hydraulic D'D' N/A N/A 5,900 horsepower (4,400 kW) Most powerful diesel-hydraulic locomotive ever built
SJ Dm3 SJ N/A ASEA 1953–71 Electric 1'D+D+D1' 273 tonnes (301 short tons) 211,320 pounds-force (940 kN) 9,655 horsepower (7,200 kW) Highest continuous tractive effort when built, most powerful locomotive using jackshafts
DB Class 103 Deutsche Bahn 103 101-245 AEG, BBC, Henschel, Krauss-Maffei, Krupp, Siemens AG 1970–73 Electric Co'Co' 114 tonnes (126 short tons) 70,140 pounds-force (312 kN) 16,270 horsepower (12,133 kW) or 13,900 horsepower (10,365 kW) short term;

10,433 horsepower (7,780 kW) 1-hour rating; 9,977 horsepower (7,440 kW) continuous rating

One of the most powerful electric locomotives ever built, it also is the most powerful single-frame locomotive ever build (now its maximum short term power is limited to 12,000 horsepower (8,948 kW)); immense short term power: tractive effort of 312 kN up to a speed of 140 km/h (87 mph)
DB Class 151 Deutsche Bahn 151 001-170 AEG, BBC, Henschel, Krauss-Maffei, Krupp, Siemens AG 1972–78 Electric Co'Co' 118 tonnes (130 short tons) 88,800 pounds-force (395 kN) 8,432 horsepower (6,288 kW) Powerful freight locomotive in the 1970s with high continuous tractive effort
DB Class 101 Deutsche Bahn 101 001-145 Adtranz 1996–99 Electric Bo'Bo' 83 tonnes (91 short tons) 67,443 pounds-force (300 kN) 8,583 horsepower (6,400 kW) continuous Maximum speed 220 km/h (137 mph)
EuroSprinter Deutsche Bahn, ÖBB N/A Krauss-Maffei, Siemens 1996–2001 Electric Bo'Bo' 86 tonnes (95 short tons) 67,000 pounds-force (298 kN) 9,790 horsepower (7,300 kW) short term;

8,583 horsepower (6,400 kW) continuous

Maximum speed 230 km/h (143 mph);
Taurus Rh 1216 050-5: 357 km/h (222 mph) world record for conventional electric locomotives
DSB EG DB Schenker Rail 3103-3113 Siemens Mobility 1999–2000 Electric Co'Co' 132 tonnes (146 short tons) 89,930 pounds-force (400 kN) 8,717 horsepower (6,500 kW) continuous One of the most powerful single-frame electric locomotives in operation in Europe
060-EA Romanian Railways(CFR) and diverse private railways in Romania and Hungary 40 (060-EA): 120km/h
41 (060-EA1): 160km/h
42: 200km/h
ASEA (first ten pieces)

Electroputere Craiova (the rest, approx. 1000 pieces)
1965-91 Electric Co'Co' 120 tonnes (132 short tons) 93,000 pounds-force (414 kN) 6,839 horsepower (5,100 kW) Powerful locomotive in the 1970s; high continuous tractive effort
Softronic Transmontana Romanian Railways (CFR) and diverse private railways in Romania and Hungary 480 (Romania)

610 (Hungary)

Softronic Craiova 2010–present Electric Co'Co' 120 tonnes (132 short tons) 97,800 pounds-force (435 kN) 8,851 horsepower (6,600 kW) 1-hour rating;

8,046 horsepower (6,000 kW) continuous

Based on the ASEA 060-EA, but with asynchronous traction motors, IGBT and computerized control
JR Freight Class EF200 JR Freight N/A Hitachi Ltd. 1990– Electric Bo'Bo'Bo' 100.8 tonnes (111 short tons) 59,000 pounds-force (262 kN) 8,046 horsepower (6,000 kW) Most powerful single-frame narrow-gauge locomotive in series production
EMD SD90MAC Union Pacific 8500-8561 Electro-Motive Diesel 1996–2002 Diesel-Electric C-C 210 tonnes (231 short tons) 200,000 pounds-force (890 kN) starting;

165,000 pounds-force (734 kN) continuous

6,300 horsepower (4,698 kW) Retired from service, some on lease with EMLX
GE AC6000CW Union Pacific; CSX Transportation; BHP Billiton 600-699, 5000-5016,

6070-6077, 7500-7579 (being overhauled and renumbered 69xx)

General Electric 1996–2001 Diesel-Electric Co'Co' 210 tonnes (231 short tons) 188,000 pounds-force (836 kN) starting;

166,000 pounds-force (738 kN) continuous

6,250 horsepower (4,661 kW) Actual HP output on early production units is 4350 hp due to use of the 7FDL engine.
Indian locomotive class WAG-7 Indian Railways 27001-27999, 28000-28770, 24501-24700 Chittaranjan Locomotive Works, India, BHEL, India 1992 Electric Co'Co' 132 tonnes (146 short tons) 135,000 pounds-force (601 kN) 8,200 horsepower (6,115 kW) N/A
Indian locomotive class WAG-9 Indian Railways Chittaranjan Locomotive Works, Electric Locomotive Works, Bhusawal 1996– Electric Co'Co' 123 tonnes (136 short tons) 100,000 pounds-force (445 kN);

73,000 pounds-force (325 kN) continuous

6,600 horsepower (4,922 kW)
Indian locomotive class WAG-9H Indian Railways Chittaranjan Locomotive Works, Electric Locomotive Works, Bhusawal 2000– Electric Co'Co' 132 tonnes (146 short tons) 120,000 pounds-force (534 kN)
Continuous:73,000 pounds-force (325 kN)
6,600 horsepower (4,922 kW)
China Railways HXN3 China Railways HXN30001-

HXN30300

Dalian Locomotive, EMD 2008– Diesel-Electric Co'Co' 150 tonnes (165 short tons) 140,000 pounds-force (623 kN) starting;

134,000 pounds-force (596 kN) continuous

6,300 horsepower (4,698 kW) Most powerful diesel-electric locomotive in active production.
China Railways HXN5 China Railways HXN50001-

HXN50300

GE, CSR Qishuyan Locomotive 2008– Diesel-Electric Co'Co' 150 tonnes (165 short tons) 140,000 pounds-force (623 kN) starting;

127,000 pounds-force (565 kN) continuous

6,250 horsepower (4,661 kW) Most powerful diesel-electric locomotive in active production.
China Railways HXD1 China Railways HXD10001-

HXD10220

CSR Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive, Siemens 2006–08 Electric Bo'Bo'+Bo'Bo' 200 tonnes (220 short tons) 170,000 pounds-force (756 kN) starting;

111,000 pounds-force (494 kN) continuous

12,874 horsepower (9,600 kW) N/A
China Railways HXD2 China Railways HXD20001-

HXD20180

Datong Electric Locomotive, Alstom 2006–08 Electric Bo'Bo'+Bo'Bo' 200 tonnes (220 short tons) 170,000 pounds-force (756 kN) 13,410 horsepower (10,000 kW) N/A
China Railways HXD3 China Railways HXD30001-HXD30890, HXD38001-38150 Toshiba, Dalian Locomotive 2006–09 Electric Co'Co' 150 tonnes (165 short tons) 130,000 pounds-force (578 kN) 9,655 horsepower (7,200 kW) N/A
China Railways HXD1B China Railways HXD1B0001-HXD1B0500 CSR Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive, Siemens 2009– Electric Co'Co' 150 tonnes (165 short tons) N/A 12,874 horsepower (9,600 kW) One of the most powerful single-frame locomotives currently in series production.
China Railways HXD2B China Railways HXD2B0001-HXD2B0500 Datong Electric Locomotive, Alstom 2009– Electric Co'Co' 150 tonnes (165 short tons) 131,000 pounds-force (583 kN) starting;

125,000 pounds-force (556 kN) continuous

12,874 horsepower (9,600 kW) One of the most powerful single-frame locomotives currently in series production.
China Railways HXD3B China Railways HXD3B0001-HXD3B0500 Dalian, Bombardier 2009– Electric Co'Co' 150 tonnes (165 short tons) 128,000 pounds-force (569 kN) starting;

114,000 pounds-force (507 kN)

12,874 horsepower (9,600 kW) 1-hour rating One of the most powerful single-frame locomotives currently in series production.
China Railways HXD1C China Railways HXD1C0001-HXD1C0990 CSR Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive, Siemens 2009– Electric Co'Co' 150 tonnes (165 short tons) 170,000 pounds-force (756 kN) starting;

111,000 pounds-force (494 kN) continuous

9,655 horsepower (7,200 kW) N/A
China Railways HXD2C China Railways HXD2C0001- Datong Electric Locomotive, Alstom 2010– Electric Co'Co' 150 tonnes (165 short tons) 130,000 pounds-force (578 kN) starting; 90,000 pounds-force (400 kN) continuous 9,655 horsepower (7,200 kW) N/A
China Railways HXD3C China Railways HXD3C0001- Dalian, Bombardier 2010– Electric Co'Co' 150 tonnes (165 short tons) 130,000 pounds-force (578 kN) starting; 83,000 pounds-force (369 kN) 9,655 horsepower (7,200 kW) N/A
IORE Malmbanan IORE 101 - 126 Bombardier 2000–04 Electric Co'Co'

+Co'Co'

360 tonnes (397 short tons) 314,740 pounds-force (1,400 kN) 14,483 horsepower (10,800 kW)
continuous rating (for a pair)
The most powerful double-frame locomotive in series production. It also has the largest tractive effort among all locomotives ever built. Possible to operate halves which is not usually done.
VL85 Russian Railways 270 Novocherkassk Electric Locomotive Plant 1983-94 Electric Bo'Bo'Bo'

+Bo'Bo'Bo'

300 tonnes (331 short tons) 209,522 pounds-force (932 kN) 12,550 horsepower (9,359 kW) continuous; 13,437 horsepower (10,020 kW) short term N/A
Union Pacific Coal GTELs Union Pacific 80 (later 8080) Union Pacific Omaha Shops 1961 Diesel-Electric + Gas Turbine-Electric A1A-A1A

+2-D-D-2

661 tonnes (729 short tons) N/A 7,000 horsepower (5,220 kW) (2000 hp Diesel + 5000 hp turbine) Home-built experimental coal-fired gas turbine. Assembled from ALCO PA-1 UP #607, GN W1 #5018, and the tender from Challenger #3990. 215 feet (66 m) overall length; 1,457,280 pounds (661,011 kg) total weight. Unsuccessful; set aside in 1964 and scrapped in 1968.
6029 New South Wales Government Railways AD60 Class New South Wales Government Railways / [Beyer, Peacock and Company] 1952–1954, 1956 Steam Boiler, 4 Cylinder 4-8-4+4-8-4 255 tonnes (281 short tons) 59,575 pounds-force (265 kN) 5,930 horsepower (4,422 kW) Largest steam locomotive operating in Australia
Virginian Railway EL-3A Virginian Railway 100-109 ALCO + Westinghouse 1925-1926 Electric 1-D-1+1-D-1+1-D-1 624 tonnes (688 short tons) 277,500 pounds-force (1,234 kN) 7,125 horsepower (5,313 kW) (1-hour rating);

6,000 horsepower (4,474 kW) continuous

152.25 feet (46 m) overall length.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Diebert, Timothy S. & Strapac, Joseph A. (1987). Southern Pacific Company Steam Locomotive Conpendium. Shade Tree Books. ISBN 0-930742-12-5. 

External links[edit]