List of rebellions in the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Multiple rebellions and closely related events have occurred in the United States, beginning from the colonial era up to present day. Events that are not commonly named strictly a rebellion (or using synonymous terms such as "revolt" or "uprising"), but have been noted by some as equivalent or very similar to a rebellion (such as an insurrection), or at least as having a few important elements of rebellion (such an armed occupation of government property), are also included in this list. Anti-government acts by individuals are not included.

Name: Date: Location: Events: Rebel Groups: Result: Notes
Bacon's Rebellion 1676 Colony of Virginia Bacon's forces attacked many of the neighboring Native tribes before driving governor William Berkeley from the capitol of Jamestown, burning the city.[1] Virginian settlers led by Nathaniel Bacon Suppressed by the Virginian colonial authorities after receiving reinforcements from privateer Thomas Larimore. The rebel forces, being composed of a mix of classes and races – many slaves and indentured whites among them – inspired the passing of the Virginia Slave Codes of 1705.[2]
Boston Revolt April 18, 1689 Dominion of New England Popular uprising against the rule of Edmund Andros, the governor of the Dominion of New England. Dominion officials were arrested. Members of the Church of England were also taken into custody if they were believed to sympathize with the administration of the dominion.[3] Boston colonists Militia took control of Boston, reestablishing the Colony of Massachusetts Bay and Ending the Dominion of New England.

Massachusetts's charter was permanently revoked in 1691.

Leisler's Rebellion 1689–1691 Province of New York German American merchant and militia captain Jacob Leisler seized control of the southern portion of colonial New York and ruled it from 1689 to 1691.[4] Leislerians Nine Years War militia members rebelled, took control of New York City and made merchant Jacob Leisler governor. The crown retook control two years later and executed Leisler.[5]
War of the Regulation 1765 – May 16, 1771 Colony of North Carolina War of the Regulation
Battle at the Yadkin River
Battle of Alamance
Regulators Result – Decisive government victory.[6] Royal governor of North Carolina, William Tryon and General Hugh Waddell (general) with 1,500 men; 2,300+ Regulators Led by Commanders and leaders Herman Husband, James Hunter, James Few (POW), Charles Harrington; Benjamin Merrill (POW) – Executed
American Revolution 1765–1783 North America American Revolutionary War
Boston campaign
Boston Massacre
Pine Tree Riot
Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen American Colonies rejected British colonial rule, overthrew the authority of the British Crown, and founded the United States of America.
Shays' Rebellion August 1786 – June 1787 Western Massachusetts Paper Money Riot Anti-austerity protesters and discontented Revolutionary War veterans led by Daniel Shays Rising up against economic injustices and suspension of civil rights by Massachusetts.[7] Won economic reforms in a landslide election shortly after protestors were dispersed by a privately raised militia at the Springfield Armory.[8] Contributed to the convocation of the Constitutional Convention after the government established by the Articles of Confederation could not raise troops.
Whiskey Rebellion 1791–1794 Western Pennsylvania Frontier tax protesters Tax protest in the United States beginning in 1791, over 175 distillers from Kentucky were convicted of violating the tax law.[9] Suppressed by an army personally led by George Washington No specific events
Fries's Rebellion 1799–1800 Rebel farmers Armed tax revolt among Pennsylvania Dutch farmers. Thirty men went on trial in Federal court.[10]
State of Muskogee 1799–1803 Florida William Augustus Bowles, various tribes of Southeastern Native Americans Bowles attempted to unite all the Native Americans to form a single country.[11] Andrew Jackson destroyed the capitol Miccosukee—the largest town in Florida at the time—in 1817.
1811 German Coast Uprising January 8–10, 1811 Territory of Orleans Rebel slaves Between 64 and 125 enslaved men marched from sugar plantations near present-day LaPlace on the German Coast toward the city of New Orleans.[12] Militia companies were used to hunt down and kill the insurgents.
Nat Turner's slave rebellion August 21 – 23, 1831 Southampton County, Virginia Rebel slaves Led by Nat Turner, rebel slaves killed anywhere from 55 to 65 people.[13] The rebellion was put down within a few days.[14] Local blacks were massacred. Led to discriminatory legislation against both free blacks and slaves
Dorr Rebellion 1841–42 Rhode Island Attempt to force a new government of Rhode Island under a new constitution that allowed more men to vote[15] Dorrites Charterite victory, but later legal expansion of voting rights
1842 Slave Revolt in the Cherokee Nation 1842 Indian Territory Rebel slaves Slaves escape and fight police, eventually captured.[16]
Anti-Rent War 1839–1845 Upstate New York Anti-Renters The tenants could not pay the amounts demanded, could not secure favorable terms, and could not obtain relief in the courts, so they revolted against the patroon system.[17] There were trials of leaders of the revolt.
Taos Revolt January 19 – July 9, 1847 New Mexico Cienega Affair
Las Vegas Affair
Red River Canyon Affair
Second Battle of Mora
Mexico
Local rebels
New Mexicans and Pueblo allies rebel against the United States' occupation of present-day northern New Mexico during the Mexican-American War.[18] The rebels fought but after being defeated they abandoned open warfare.
John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry October 16–18, 1859 Harpers Ferry, Virginia Abolitionists John Brown, Shields Green, John Henry Kagi and 21 known followers Abolitionist John Brown initiates an armed slave revolt.[19] Eleven rebels killed and eight captured by U.S. Marines led by Col. Robert E. Lee, Lt. J.E.B. Stuart, and Lt. Israel Greene.
American Civil War April 12, 1861 – May 9, 1865 Southern United States Eastern Theater of the American Civil War
Western Theater of the American Civil War
Lower Seaboard Theater of the American Civil War
Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War
Pacific Coast Theater of the American Civil War
Confederate States of America Seven Southern slave states seceded from the United States of America in response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as president.[20] Four more Southern states seceded in response to Lincoln's call for 75,000 volunteers to put down the rebellion.[21] These states formed the Confederate States of America. After four years of bloody warfare and over one million total casualties, the Confederates were defeated and Union reestablished.[22] See Reconstruction for aftermath.
New York City draft riots July 13–16, 1863 Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York Riots expressing discontent with new draft law; white attack on blacks because of economic competition.[23] Residents of New York City New York Guard and Union Army troops restored order. Largest civil and racially-charged insurrection in American history.[24]
Battle of Liberty Place September 14, 1874 New Orleans, Louisiana White League Attempted insurrection by the Crescent City White League against the Reconstruction Louisiana state government.[25] Federal troops restored the elected government. Part of anti-Reconstruction violence against the Union.
Election Riot of 1874 November 3, 1874 Eufaula, Alabama White League White supremacists take Republicans out of office and declared the Democrats as winners[26] Part of anti-Reconstruction violence against the Union.
Greenwood, New York, insurrection of 1882 February 1882 New York Governor Alonzo Cornell proclaimed a state of insurrection after local residents resisted the seizure of property to pay for railroad bonds from the Rochester, Hornellsville, and Pine Creek Railroad.[27] Residents of Greenwood refused with violence and threats of more violence in response to the governor's attempts to get the citizens to pay a tax levied to repay money that Greenwood had borrowed to help construction of a never-built railroad. Citizens of Greenwood Taxes paid, insurrection ended at threat of calling out militia. Molly Maguires said to be involved.
Wilmington insurrection of 1898 November 10, 1898 Wilmington, North Carolina Waddell's Army

Segregationist rioters

Successful removal of local government, retaining segregationist policies.[28]
Green Corn Rebellion August 2–3, 1917 Seminole County, Oklahoma Rebel farmers The uprising was a reaction by radicalized European-Americans, tenant farmers, Seminoles, Muscogee Creeks and African-Americans to an attempt to enforce the Selective Draft Act of 1917 during World War I.[29] The country rebels met with a well-armed posse of townsmen, with whom shots were exchanged and three people killed.
Coal Wars c.1890 – 1930 Eastern United States and Colorado Coal Creek War
Colorado Coalfield War
Battle of Blair Mountain
Miners and unions The Coal Wars, or the Coal Mine Wars, were a series of armed labor conflicts in the United States, they occurred mainly in the East, particularly in Appalachia.[30]
Battle of Athens (1946) August 1–2, 1946 McMinn County, Tennessee Angered citizens, including World War II veterans Citizens assaulted buildings in response to voter intimidation and election corruption.[31] This later resulted in reforms.
San Juan Nationalist revolt October 30, 1950 Puerto Rico Jayuya Uprising
Utuado Uprising
Puerto Rican Nationalist Party Nationalist revolt that took place on October 30, 1950, in the town of Jayuya, Puerto Rico.[32] The top leaders of the Nationalist party were arrested, including Albizu Campos and Blanca Canales, and sent to jail to serve long prison terms.
Black Power movement 1960s – 1980s Nationwide Glenville shootout
1969 Greensboro uprising
Black Guerilla Family
Black Liberation Army
Black Panther Party
Black Revolutionary Assault Team
George Jackson Brigade
M19CO
MOVE
Symbionese Liberation Army
Weather Underground
White Panther Party
Radicalization of the Civil Rights Movement.
Red Power movement 1960s – 1970s Wounded Knee incident American Indian Movement Radicalization of a Native American movement.
Attica Prison riot September 9–13, 1971 Attica Correctional Facility, Attica, New York Prison riot after the killing of George Jackson Inmates Prison is retaken by the New York State Police on orders from Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller.[33] No specific events
2014 Bundy Standoff April 5–14, 2014 Bunkerville, Nevada Armed confrontation between Cliven Bundy's militia allies and the Bureau of Land Management over Bundy's refusal to pay fees for grazing his cattle on federal land, as Bundy asserted the federal government had no right to own the land.[34] Bundy also alleged that the BLM attempted to "round up his cattle".[35] Oath Keepers

Three Percenters Other local militia groups tied to the American militia movement

Bureau of Land Management ends attempt to round up cattle but continues actions in court. Bundy's son and friends would later occupy a wildlife refuge in Oregon for similar goals. Related to the Occupation of the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge
Occupation of the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge January 2, 2016 – February 11, 2016 Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Harney County, Oregon Seizure and occupation of federal property by an armed group.[36] The participants were acting on their view that the federal government is constitutionally required to turn over most of the federal public land they manage through federal agencies, to the individual states.[37] Radical right militias led by Ammon Bundy Occupation ended by police followed by criminal proceedings and convictions. Most participants, including Ammon and Cliven Bundy, would be acquitted in federal court. Related to the Bundy standoff.
Capitol Hill Occupied Protest June 8, 2020 – July 1, 2020 Seattle, Washington Protesters take over The Seattle Police Department's East Precinct and the surrounding region, declaring an autonomous zone. The city government was both unwilling and unable to control agitation, with the Seattle mayor describing the atmosphere to be "more like a block party atmosphere" than an "armed takeover."[38] contrasting with other reports that said that there were "roving bands of masked protesters smashing windows and looting"[39] and the Seattle Police Chief saying that there are "Rapes, robberies and all sorts of violent acts have been occurring in the area"[40] George Floyd protesters The zone was cleared of occupants by police on July 1. Part of the Defund the Police movement
2021 United States Capitol attack January 6, 2021 United States Capitol, Washington, DC Supporters of President Donald Trump, some of whom were armed, stormed the capitol building after a rally held in Washington D.C by the President, his sons,[41] and his personal attorney, Rudy Giuliani.[42] They broke through barriers, broke down doors, busted through windows, and stole public property.[41] The supporters obtained access to the Senate Floor, balconies, and offices; and sat at the Senate President's desk.[41] Supporters of President Donald Trump
Far-Right groups: Oath Keepers, Proud Boys, Three Percenters, Groyper Army, America First Movement and others
Failure to overturn the presidential election; delay of counting electoral votes by several hours;[43] resumption of presidential transition leading up to the inauguration of Joe Biden.
Second impeachment of Trump.[44]
Other political, legal, and social repercussions.
Part of the attempts to overturn the 2020 United States presidential election
Most severe assault on the Capitol since the 1814 burning of Washington by the British Army.[45]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Africans in America/Part 1/Bacon's Rebellion". www.pbs.org. Retrieved 2022-12-22.
  2. ^ "Green Spring Plantation - Historic Jamestowne Part of Colonial National Historical Park (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 2022-12-22.
  3. ^ Landrigan, Leslie (2014-04-18). "The Great Boston Revolt of 1689". New England Historical Society. Retrieved 2022-12-22.
  4. ^ Webb, Stephen Saunders (1998). Lord Churchill's coup : the Anglo-American empire and the Glorious Revolution reconsidered. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. ISBN 0-585-25250-5. OCLC 45731654.
  5. ^ McCormick, Charles H. (1989). Leisler's rebellion. New York: Garland Pub. ISBN 0-8240-6190-X. OCLC 19589768.
  6. ^ Fitch, William Edward (1989). Some neglected history of North Carolina. Heritage Books. OCLC 1152949722.
  7. ^ "Shays' Rebellion [ushistory.org]". www.ushistory.org. Retrieved 2022-12-22.
  8. ^ Szatmary, David P. (1980). Shays' Rebellion : the making of an agrarian insurrection. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. p. 105. ISBN 0-87023-295-9. OCLC 5564258.
  9. ^ Slaughter, Thomas P. (1986). The Whiskey Rebellion : Frontier Epilogue to the American Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-977187-5. OCLC 770873834.
  10. ^ "PA German Hoenig/Heaney/Haney - Genealogy.com". www.genealogy.com. Retrieved 2022-12-22.
  11. ^ "William Augustus Bowles". Georgia Press. Retrieved 2022-12-22.
  12. ^ Touchstone, Blake; Sternberg, Mary Ann. "Along the River Road: Past and Present on Louisiana's Historic Byway". The Journal of Southern History. 63 (4): 12. doi:10.2307/2211784. ISSN 0022-4642.
  13. ^ "Nat Turner to Be Included on Monument in Richmond". Newsweek. 2017-09-21. Retrieved 2022-12-22.
  14. ^ "Nat Turner". HISTORY. Retrieved 2022-12-22.
  15. ^ Saelee, Mike. "Research Guides: Dorr Rebellion: Topics in Chronicling America: Introduction". guides.loc.gov. Retrieved 2022-12-22.
  16. ^ "Slave Revolt of 1842 | The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture". Oklahoma Historical Society | OHS. Retrieved 2022-12-22.
  17. ^ Persico, Joseph E. (October 1974). "Feudal Lords On Yankee Soil". American Heritage. Rockville, MD: American Heritage Publishing Company.
  18. ^ "Taos, New Mexico Revolt – Legends of America". www.legendsofamerica.com. Retrieved 2022-12-22.
  19. ^ "Harpers Ferry, John Brown's Raid on", Encyclopedia of U.S. Political History, CQ Press, 2010, retrieved 2022-12-22
  20. ^ "1861 | Time Line of the Civil War | Articles and Essays | Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints | Digital Collections | Library of Congress". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Retrieved 2022-12-22.
  21. ^ McPherson, James M. (1988). Battle cry of freedom : the Civil War era. Frank and Virginia Williams Collection of Lincolniana. New York. ISBN 0-19-503863-0. OCLC 15550774.
  22. ^ Heidler, pp. 703–06.
  23. ^ Harris, Leslie M. (2003). In the shadow of slavery : African Americans in New York City, 1626-1863. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-31775-5. OCLC 646067953..
  24. ^ Foner, Eric (2002). Reconstruction : America's unfinished revolution, 1863-1877 (1st ed.). New York: Perennial Classics. ISBN 0-06-093716-5. OCLC 48074168.
  25. ^ Reed, Adolf Jr. (June 1993). "The battle of Liberty Monument - New Orleans, Louisiana white supremacist statue". The Progressive. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2010.
  26. ^ Whitmire, Kyle (2022-01-16). "Ambushed in Eufaula: Alabama's forgotten race massacre". al. Retrieved 2022-12-22.
  27. ^ "Fight over Uncollected Taxes in Steuben County, NY". genealogytrails.com. Retrieved 2022-12-22.
  28. ^ "1898 Wilmington race riot report - Page 1". digital.ncdcr.gov. Retrieved 2022-12-22.
  29. ^ "Green Corn Rebellion | The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture". Oklahoma Historical Society | OHS. Retrieved 2022-12-22.
  30. ^ "Coal Mine Wars". www.coalminewars.net. Archived from the original on 2013-09-02.
  31. ^ Egerton, John (1995). Speak now against the day : the generation before the civil rights movement in the South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-4557-4. OCLC 32348195.
  32. ^ "Puerto Rican Nationalist | Taller Boricua". tallerboricua.org. Retrieved 2022-12-22.
  33. ^ "Uprising at Attica prison begins". HISTORY. Retrieved 2022-12-22.
  34. ^ "1998 U S Dist Lexis 23835". Scribd. Retrieved 2022-12-22.
  35. ^ Turner, Christi (2014-04-11). "Rancher vs the BLM: A 20-year standoff ends with tense roundup". www.hcn.org. Retrieved 2022-12-22.
  36. ^ Berry, Harrison. "Militia Group Seizes Malheur National Wildlife Refuge Headquarters". Idaho Press. Retrieved 2022-12-22.
  37. ^ Fantz, Ashley (January 6, 2016). "Oregon standoff: What the armed group wants and why". CNN. Archived from the original on March 2, 2022. Retrieved December 22, 2022.
  38. ^ McBride, Jessica (June 12, 2020). "Seattle Autonomous Zone Videos: What It's Like Inside the CHAZ". Heavy.com. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
  39. ^ Bowles, Nellie (7 August 2020). "Abolish the Police? Those Who Survived the Chaos in Seattle Aren't So Sure". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 7, 2020.
  40. ^ Ngo, Andy (June 11, 2020). ""twitter.com"". Twitter. Retrieved October 19, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  41. ^ a b c Washington Post Staff. "Woman dies after shooting in U.S. Capitol; D.C. National Guard activated after mob breaches building". Washington Post.
  42. ^ Blake, Aaron. "Analysis | 'Let's have trial by combat': How Trump and allies egged on the violent scenes Wednesday". Washington Post.
  43. ^ Woodward, Alex (January 7, 2021). "What happened in Washington DC yesterday? A timeline of insurrection". The Independent. Retrieved January 8, 2021.
  44. ^ "Rep Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez: 'We came close to half of the House nearly dying' during riots". ABC7 New York. January 10, 2021. Retrieved January 11, 2021.
  45. ^ Multiple sources:
    • Holpuch, Amanda (January 6, 2021). "US Capitol's last breach was more than 200 years ago". The Guardian. Archived from the original on January 11, 2021. Retrieved January 24, 2021. For the first time on Wednesday, it was the site of an armed insurrection incited by the sitting president. ... Not since 1814 has the building been breached. Then, it was by British troops who set fire to the building during a broader attack on Washington in the war of 1812.
    • Puckett, Jason; Spry Jr., Terry (January 6, 2021). "Has the US Capitol ever been attacked before?". WXIA-TV. Tegna Inc. VERIFY. Archived from the original on January 13, 2021. Retrieved January 24, 2021. While this is the first large-scale occupation of the U.S. Capitol since 1814, there have been several other instances of violence at the U.S. Capitol, particularly in the 20th century.
    • Fisher, Marc; Flynn, Meagan; Contrera, Jessica; Loennig, Carol D. (January 7, 2021). "The four-hour insurrection: How a Trump mob halted American democracy". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 13, 2021. Retrieved January 24, 2021. The attack, which some historians called the most severe assault on the Capitol since the British sacked the building in 1814