George Floyd protests
|George Floyd protests|
|Part of the 2020–2021 United States racial unrest and the Black Lives Matter movement|
|Date||May 26, 2020 – present|
(1 year, 3 months and 4 weeks)
(sporadic protests in other countries)
|Methods||Protests, demonstrations, civil disobedience, civil resistance, online activism, strike action, riots|
|Deaths, arrests and damages|
|Death(s)||25 (As of October 31, 2020)|
The George Floyd protests are ongoing protests and riots against police brutality and racism that began in Minneapolis in the United States on May 26, 2020. The civil unrest and protests began as part of international reactions to the murder of George Floyd, a 46-year-old African American man who was murdered during an arrest after Derek Chauvin, a Minneapolis Police Department officer, knelt on Floyd's neck for 9 minutes and 29 seconds as three other officers looked on and prevented passers-by from intervening. Chauvin and the other three officers involved were later arrested. On April 20, 2021, Chauvin was found guilty of second-degree unintentional murder, third-degree murder, and second-degree manslaughter. He was later sentenced to 22.5 years in prison with possibility of supervised release after 15 years for second-degree murder on June 25, 2021.
The George Floyd protest movement began hours after his murder as bystander video and word of mouth began to spread. Protests first emerged at the East 38th and Chicago Avenue street intersection in Minneapolis, the location of Floyd's arrest and death, and other locations in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area of Minnesota. Protests quickly spread nationwide and to over 2,000 cities and towns in over 60 countries in support of the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement. Polls in summer 2020 estimated that between 15 million and 26 million people had participated at some point in the demonstrations in the United States, making the protests the largest in U.S. history.
While the majority of protests have been peaceful, demonstrations in some cities escalated into riots, looting, and street skirmishes with police and counter-protesters. Some police responded to protests with instances of notable violence, including against reporters. At least 200 cities in the U.S. had imposed curfews by early June 2020, while more than 30 states and Washington, D.C. activated over 96,000 National Guard, State Guard, 82nd Airborne, and 3rd Infantry Regiment service members. The deployment, when combined with preexisting deployments related to the COVID-19 pandemic and other natural disasters, constituted the largest military operation other than war in U.S. history. By the end of June, at least 14,000 people had been arrested and, by November 2020, 25 people had died in relation to the unrest. It was later estimated that between May 26 and August 22, 93% of individual protests were "peaceful and nondestructive" and The Washington Post estimated that by the end of June, 96.3% of 7,305 demonstrations involved no injuries and no property damage. Nevertheless, arson, vandalism, and looting between May 26 and June 8 were tabulated to have caused $1–2 billion in insured damages nationally—the highest recorded damage from civil disorder in U.S. history, surpassing the record set during the 1992 Los Angeles riots.
The protests precipitated a worldwide debate on policing and racial injustice that has led to numerous legislative proposals on federal, state, and municipal levels in the U.S. intended to combat police misconduct, systemic racism, qualified immunity and police brutality, while the Trump administration drew widespread criticism for what critics called its hard line rhetoric and aggressive, militarized response. The protests led to a wave of monument removals and name changes throughout the world and occurred during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and amid the 2020 U.S. presidential election season. Protests continued through 2020 and into 2021, most notably in Minneapolis at the 38th and Chicago Avenue street intersection where Floyd was murdered that activists have referred to as George Floyd Square. Several demonstrations coincided with the criminal trial of Chauvin in March and April 2021 and the one-year anniversary of Floyd's death in May 2021.
Police brutality protests in the United States
Cases of police misconduct and fatal use of force by law enforcement officers in the U.S., particularly against African Americans, have long led the civil rights movement and other activists to protest against a lack of police accountability in incidents they see as involving excessive force. Many protests during the civil rights movement were in response to the perception of police brutality, including the 1965 Watts riots which resulted in the deaths of 34 people, mostly African Americans. The largest post-civil rights movement protest in the 20th century was the 1992 Los Angeles riots, which were in response to the acquittal of police officers responsible for excessive force against Rodney King, an African American man.
In 2014, the shooting of Michael Brown by police in Ferguson, Missouri resulted in local protests and unrest while the death of Eric Garner in New York City resulted in numerous national protests. After Eric Garner and George Floyd repeatedly said "I can't breathe" during their arrests, the phrase became a protest slogan against police brutality. In 2015 the death of Freddie Gray in Baltimore police custody resulted in riots in the city and nationwide protests as part of the Black Lives Matter movement. Several nationally publicized incidents occurred in Minnesota, including the 2015 shooting of Jamar Clark in Minneapolis; the 2016 shooting of Philando Castile in Falcon Heights; and the 2017 shooting of Justine Damond. In 2016, Tony Timpa was killed by Dallas police officers in the same way as George Floyd. In March 2020, the fatal shooting of Breonna Taylor by police executing a search warrant at her Kentucky apartment was also widely publicized.
Measures taken against the COVID-19 pandemic, including closure of non-essential businesses and implementation of stay-at-home orders, had significant economic and social impact on many Americans as millions had lost their jobs and were made more economically vulnerable.
Murder of George Floyd
According to a police statement, on May 25, 2020, at 8:08 p.m. CDT, Minneapolis Police Department (MPD) officers responded to a 9-1-1 call regarding a "forgery in progress" on Chicago Avenue South in Powderhorn, Minneapolis. MPD Officers Thomas K. Lane and J. Alexander Kueng arrived with their body cameras turned on. A store employee told officers that the man was in a nearby car. Officers approached the car and ordered George Floyd, a 46-year-old African American man, who according to police "appeared to be under the influence", to exit the vehicle, at which point he "physically resisted". According to the MPD, officers "were able to get the suspect into handcuffs, and noted he appeared to be suffering medical distress. Officers called for an ambulance." Once Floyd was handcuffed, he and Officer Lane walked to the sidewalk. Floyd sat on the ground at Officer Lane's direction. In a short conversation, the officer asked Floyd for his name and identification, explaining that he was being arrested for passing counterfeit currency, and asked if he was "on anything". According to the report officers Kueng and Lane attempted to help Floyd to their squad car, but at 8:14 p.m., Floyd stiffened up and fell to the ground. Soon, MPD Officers Derek Chauvin and Tou Thao arrived in a separate squad car. The officers made several more failed attempts to get Floyd into the squad car.
Floyd, who was still handcuffed, went to the ground face down. Officer Kueng held Floyd's back and Lane held his legs. Chauvin placed his left knee in the area of Floyd's head and neck. A Facebook Live livestream recorded by a bystander showed Officer Derek Chauvin kneeling on Floyd's neck. Floyd repeatedly tells Chauvin "Please" and "I can't breathe", while a bystander is heard telling the police officer, "You got him down. Let him breathe." After some time, a bystander points out that Floyd was bleeding from his nose while another bystander tells the police that Floyd is "not even resisting arrest right now", to which the police tell the bystanders that Floyd was "talking, he's fine". A bystander replies saying Floyd "ain't fine". A bystander then protests that the police were preventing Floyd from breathing, urging them to "get him off the ground ... You could have put him in the car by now. He's not resisting arrest or nothing." Floyd then goes silent and motionless. Chauvin does not remove his knee until an ambulance arrives. Emergency medical services put Floyd on a stretcher. Not only had Chauvin knelt on Floyd's neck for about seven minutes (including four minutes after Floyd stopped moving) but another video showed an additional two officers had also knelt on Floyd while another officer watched.
Although the police report stated that medical services were requested prior to the time Floyd was placed in handcuffs, according to the Minneapolis Star Tribune, Emergency Medical Services arrived at the scene six minutes after getting the call.[improper synthesis?] Medics were unable to detect a pulse, and Floyd was pronounced dead at the hospital. An autopsy of Floyd was conducted on May 26, and the next day, the preliminary report by the Hennepin County Medical Examiner's Office was published, which found "no physical findings that support a diagnosis of traumatic asphyxia or strangulation". Floyd's underlying health conditions included coronary artery disease and hypertensive heart disease. The initial report said that "the combined effects of Mr. Floyd being restrained by the police, his underlying health conditions and any potential intoxicants in his system likely contributed to his death." The medical examiner further said Floyd was "high on fentanyl and had recently used methamphetamine at the time of his death".
On May 26, Chauvin and the other three officers were fired. He was charged with third-degree murder and second-degree manslaughter; the former charge was later changed to second-degree murder.
On June 1, a private autopsy commissioned by the family of Floyd ruled the death a homicide and found that Floyd had died due to asphyxiation from sustained pressure, which conflicted with the original autopsy report done earlier that week. Shortly after, the official post-mortem declared Floyd's death a homicide. Video footage of Officer Derek Chauvin applying 8 minutes 15 seconds of sustained pressure to Floyd's neck generated global attention and raised questions about the use of force by law enforcement. On June 25, Chauvin was sentenced to 22 years and 6 months in prison with possibility of supervised release after serving two-thirds of his sentence or 15 years for second-degree murder.
In Minneapolis–Saint Paul
Organized protests began in Minneapolis on May 26, the day after George Floyd's murder and when a video of the incident had circulated widely in the media. By midday, people had gathered by the thousands and set up a makeshift memorial. Organizers of the rally emphasized keeping the protest peaceful. Protesters and Floyd's family demanded that all four officers at the scene of his arrest and death be charged with murder and that judicial consequences were swift. That evening, the protest rally turned into a march to the Minneapolis Police Department's third precinct station where the officers were believed to work. After the main protest group disbanded on the night of May 26, a much smaller group, numbering in the hundreds, spray-painted the building, threw rocks and bottles, broke a window at the station, and vandalized a squad car. A skirmish soon broke out between the vandals and protesters trying to stop them. At around 8 p.m., police fired tear gas and rubber bullets at demonstrators, some of whom had thrown water bottles at police officers.
Protests were held at several locations throughout the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area in subsequent days. The situation escalated the nights of May 27 to 29 where widespread arson, rioting, and looting took place, which were noted as a contrast to daytime protests that were characterized as mostly peaceful events. Some initial acts of property destruction on May 27 by a 32-year-old man with ties to white supremacist organizations, who local police investigators said was deliberately inciting racial tension, led to a chain reaction of fires and looting. The unrest, including people overtaking the Minneapolis third precinct police station and setting it on fire the night of May 28, garnered significant national and international media attention. After state officials mobilized Minnesota National Guard troops in its largest deployment since World War II, the violent unrest subsided and mostly peaceful protests resumed. However, the violence by early June 2020 had resulted in two deaths, 604 arrests, an estimated $550 million in property damage to 1,500 locations, making the Minneapolis–Saint Paul events alone the second-most destructive period of local unrest in United States history, after the 1992 Los Angeles riots.
In Minneapolis, protesters barricaded the street intersection at East 38th Street and Chicago Avenue where Floyd died and transformed it into a makeshift memorial site, which was adorned with public art installments and described as like a "shrine". Thousands of visitors protested and grieved at the site. When Minneapolis city officials attempted to negotiate the re-opening of the intersection in August 2020, protesters demanded that before removing cement barricades the city meet a list of 24 demands, which included holding the trial for the four officers at the scene of Floyd's death.
On September 11, 2020, hundreds rallied outside a downtown Minneapolis court building were a pretrial hearing was held for the four police officers at the scene of Floyd's death. On October 7, 2020, several protests were held in Minneapolis to express anger over Chauvin's release from jail pending trial after he posted bond for his $1 million bail. Minnesota Governor Tim Walz deployed 100 National Guards troops, 100 Minnesota state police troops, and 75 conservation officers. Fifty-one arrests were reported that might, mostly for misdemeanor offenses, such as unlawful assembly.
In early 2021, Minneapolis and Hennepin County officials spent $1 million on fencing and other barricades for police stations and other government buildings to prepare for potential civil unrest during the trial of Derek Chauvin in March. State and local officials also made plans to deploy thousands of police officers and National Guard soldiers. In early March, in the days preceding Chauvin's trial, local organizers staged peaceful protests with thousands of people marching in the streets. The situation at George Floyd Square in Minneapolis grew tense when a person was fatally shot inside the protester-held "autonomous zone" during an altercation on March 6, 2021. In March and April 2021, groups of protesters gathered at George Floyd Square and outside Hennepin County Government Center in Minneapolis during Chauvin's trial, but the streets of Minneapolis were largely empty of mass demonstrations like those in late May and early June 2020.
In April 2021, 3,000 National Guard troops and law enforcement officers were called from neighboring states in preparation for potential unrest over the outcome of the Derek Chauvin trial. On April 20, 2021, Derek Chauvin was found guilty of murdering George Floyd. By then, Floyd's death had resulted in one of the largest civil rights protest movements in recent decades, and the Minneapolis–Saint Paul region had experienced a prolonged series of protests and intermittent unrest over issues of police brutality and racial injustice. As news of the Chauvin's guilty verdict spread on April 20, 2021, a crowd of one-thousand people marched in downtown Minneapolis and others gathered at 38th and Chicago Avenue to celebrate the outcome.
Following Chauvin's verdict, many activists in Minneapolis did not perceive that "Justice for Floyd" was final as J. Alexander Kueng, Thomas Lane and Tou Thao still awaited trial, and issues of systemic racism and police reform had not been addressed satisfactorily. George Floyd Square occupation protest organizers, who had transformed the street intersection where Floyd died into an "autonomous zone" adored with public art, said they would continue to protest. Activists changed a marquee that had counted down the days to Chauvin's trial to read, "Justice served?", and chanted, “One down! Three to go!”, in reference to the looming trials of officers of the other three officers who participated in Floyd's arrest and subsequent death. The street intersection area had been a "continuous site of protest" since the day Floyd died, and at nearly a year after his death, thousands of people from multiple countries had visited the active, ongoing protest and memorial site there.
People gathered at multiple locations in Minneapolis for the announcement of Chauvin's sentencing on June 25, 2021, when he received a 22.5-year prison term. Family and civil rights activists expressed disappointment and said it should have been for the 30-year maximum, and they advocated for passage of the federal George Floyd Justice in Policing Act legislation. Several demonstrations were held in Minneapolis the evening of June 25. Civil rights activists and protesters noted the forthcoming civil rights case against the four police officers at the scene of Floyd's death, and the criminal case against former officers Kueng, Lane, and Thao scheduled for March 2022.
Elsewhere in the United States
Protests outside the Minneapolis area were first reported on May 27 in Memphis and Los Angeles. It is unclear if demonstrators were reacting to the graphic video of Floyd's death or the culmination of a string of black American deaths, preceded by Ahmaud Arbery in Atlanta on February 23 and Breonna Taylor in Louisville on March 13. By May 28, protests had sprung up in several major U.S. cities with demonstrations increasing each day. By June, protests had been held in all U.S. states. At least 200 cities had imposed curfews, and at least 27 states and Washington, D.C. activated over 62,000 National Guard personnel in response to the unrest.
In Seattle, starting in early June, protesters occupied an area of several city blocks after the police vacated it, declaring it the Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone, where according to protesters "the police are forbidden, food is free and documentaries are screened at night". On June 11, President Trump challenged mayor Jenny Durkan and governor Jay Inslee to "take back your city", and implying, according to Durkan, the possibility of a military response.
On June 10, thousands of academics, universities, scientific institutions, professional bodies and publishing houses around the world shut down to give researchers time to reflect and act upon anti-Black racism in academia. Organizations involved with #ShutDownSTEM day included Nature Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the American Physical Society.
On June 14, an estimated 15,000 people gathered outside the Brooklyn Museum at Grand Army Plaza for the Liberation March, a silent protest in response to police brutality and violence against black transgender women. Frustrated by the lack of media coverage over the deaths of Nina Pop, who was stabbed in Sikeston, Missouri on May 3 and Tony McDade, who was shot by police in Tallahassee, Florida on May 27, artist and drag performer West Dakota and her mentor, drag queen Merrie Cherry, decided to organize a silent rally inspired by the 1917 NAACP Silent Parade. The march generated widespread media attention as one of the largest peaceful protests in modern New York City history.
On June 19, Juneteenth, the International Longshore and Warehouse Union (ILWU) shut down ports on the West Coast in solidarity with protesters. An educator from the University of Washington said that the union has a history of protest and leftist politics since its founding: "[The ILWU] understood that division along the lines of race only benefited employers, because it weakened the efforts of workers to act together and to organize together. The UAW also asked members to join the protests by standing down for 8 minutes and 46 seconds, the amount of time Chauvin was initially reported to have held his knee to Floyd's neck.
On June 17, in response to the protests, three different police reform plans, plans from the Republicans, the Democrats, and the White House, were unveiled aiming to curb police brutality and the use of violence by law enforcement. On June 25, NPR reported that the hopes for passage were doubtful because they were "short-circuited by a lack of bipartisan consensus on an ultimate plan [and] the issue is likely stalled, potentially until after the fall election".
Protests continued over the weekend of June 19 in many cities, and observations of Juneteenth gained a new awareness. Jon Batiste, bandleader for The Late Show with Stephen Colbert, took part in a Juneteenth day of protests, marches, rallies and vigils to "celebrate, show solidarity, and fight for equal rights and treatment of Black people" in Brooklyn. Batiste also appeared in concert with Matt Whitaker in a performance presented in partnership with Sing For Hope, performed on the steps of the Brooklyn Public Library.
By the end of June, more than 4,700 demonstrators had occurred in the United States—a daily average of 140—with an estimate of 15 million and 26 million total participants. Protests had occurred in over 40% of the counties in the United States. Protests in the aftermath of Floyd's death were then considered the largest in United States history.
As of July 3, protests were ongoing. On July 4, the Independence Day holiday in the United States, several protests were held, including in several cities were protests had been going on since the day after Floyd's death. On July 20, the Strike for Black Lives, a mass walkout intended to raise awareness of systemic racism, featured thousands of workers across the United States walking off their jobs for approximately 8 minutes, in honor of Floyd.
Over the Labor Day holiday weekend, which the Saturday marked 100 nights of protests since Floyd's death, marches and rallies where held in many cities. In Miami, Florida, protesters on September 7, 2020, commemorated Floyd's death and pressured local authorities to enact changes to policing policies, such as banning chokeholds during arrests.
To mark what would have been Floyd's 47th birthday, groups across the United States staged protest events on October 14, 2020. Rallies and vigils were held in Minneapolis, Brooklyn, and Los Angeles, among other places. In Portland, Oregon, were Black Lives Matters protests had been held daily since Floyd's death, demonstrators staged a sit-in.
For some Black Americans, particularly a group interviewed in George Floyd's hometown in Houston, Texas, the protests over Floyd's death transformed to greater political activity and increased voter turnout in the November 2020 election. Terrance Floyd, George's brother, and other family members rallied voters in support of the candidacy of Joe Biden, and they made an appearance with the Biden family at a campaign event in Tallahassee, Florida. Terrence Floyd also rallied voters in New York City on the November 3, 2020, Election Day.
By December, the protest movement was still "deeply rooted" at George Floyd Square, an occupied protest of the East 38th Street and Chicago Avenue intersection in Minneapolis where Floyd was killed."
In many parts of the United States, protests over Floyd's death gradually diminished over time. In Portland, Oregon, however, Floyd's death resulted in a yearlong period of "near-continuous protests" over racial injustice and police violence, at times featuring clashes between demonstrators and authorities and resulting in property damage.
In Boston, activists rallied on March 4, 2021, to demand the conviction of all four officers at the scene of Floyd's death and for local authorities to investigate past cases where police officers used excessive force. Two days later, thousands marched in Boston to call for justice for Floyd as part of a coordinated, 17-state set of rallies. In Salt Lake City, activists protested Floyd's death by staging a car caravan on March 6, 2021. Prayer vigils seeking justice for Floyd were held in conjunction with the Chauvin trial at several locations. In Houston, Texas, Floyd's family held an event on April 9, 2021. In Maryland, a group gathered to pray that “Mr. George Floyd and family get justice for his death”, as the jury began deliberations in the Chauvin criminal trial on April 19, 2021.
People in many cities in the United States reacted to Chauvin's murder conviction on April 20, 2021, with largely peaceful demonstrations. Some jurisdictions had proactively mobilized National Guard troops and declared states of emergency in preparation for possible violence, and some businesses had boarded up to prevent potential looting. Many activists perceived the guilty verdict as just one step in the process to obtain justice over Floyd's death. At nearly a year after Floyd's death, civil rights activists continued to call for passage of the federal George Floyd Justice in Policing Act. Many activists believed that "justice for George Floyd" required changing the systems of policing and criminal justice in a way that would have prevented his death.
On April 23, 2021, in Austin, Texas, activists rallied outside the state's capitol to call for passage of the Texas’ George Floyd Act—reform legislation introduced to ban chokeholds and require officers to intervene to stop excessive use of force—that had stalled in the state legislature. On May 6, 2021, Black mothers led a march in Washington, D.C, to encourage passage federal police reform legislation named after Floyd. On May 19, 2021, in Nevada, protesters jammed phone lines to the state legislature after police reform legislation introduced as result of the global protest movement begun by Floyd's death did not advance.
By late May 2021, Floyd's death, and the video of it, had given way to a yearlong, nationwide movement featuring the largest mass protests in United States history. To commemorate the one-year anniversary of his death in a several-day event titled "One Year, What's Changed", the George Floyd Memorial Foundation, a non-profit organization founded by Floyd's family, planned marches and rallies in Minneapolis, New York, and Houston for May 23, 2021, and called for two days of virtual activism everywhere in the United States in support of federal police reform legislation.
At a rally in New York City outside Brooklyn Borough Hall on May 23, 2021, Terrance Floyd, George's brother, called on the crowd to continue advocating for police reform and for communities to “stay woke”. Civil rights activist Al Sharpton said, "convicting Chauvin is not enough", and encouraged congress to pass the George Floyd Justice in Policing Act, as well as continued activism ahead of the criminal trials of Lane, Kueng, and Thao and the federal civil rights trial of all four officers.
By May 25, 2021, the anniversary of Floyd's murder, the United States had experienced a yearlong movement to address racial injustice in policing. Several street protests were held in many locations in the United States to mark the anniversary. In New York City, protesters marched and then knelt for 9 minutes and 29 seconds while blocking traffic. A rally in Portland, Oregon, was peaceful in the afternoon, but at night, 150 demonstrators set fire to a dumpster outside the Multnomah County Justice Center and damaged other property. Police declared the gathering a riot and made five arrests. Most demonstrations—which included street marches, prayer services, and festivals—in the United States were peaceful. At many rallies, protesters expressed disappointment with the lack of change to policing policies and budgets, and some said they would continue protesting and advocating for their desired goals.
Solidarity protests over Floyd's death quickly spread worldwide. Protests in Canada, Europe, Oceania, Asia, and Africa rallied against what they perceived as racial discrimination and police brutality, with some protests aimed at United States embassies. Protesters globally also called on lawmakers in the United States to address the issues of police violence and the police-state structure.
Over the weekend of June 7 and 8, surfers around the world held a "Paddle Out", a Hawaiian mourning tradition, for George Floyd and all the lives lost to police violence. Thousands observed the tradition in Honolulu, Hawaii, La Jolla, Hermosa Beach and Santa Monica, California, Galveston, Hackensack, New Jersey, Rockaway Beach, New York, Biarritz, France, Senegal and Australia.
Floyd's death came as the global Black Lives Matter movement had been slowly building for years, but outrage over what was captured in a bystander's video and Floyd's dying words, "I can't breathe", resulted in solidarity protests in more than 50 countries and led to what was described as a "social awaking" on issues of racial injustice and brought renewed attention on past police brutality cases. As a jury deliberated in Chauvin's criminal trial, a vigil for Floyd was held on April 19, 2021, in Melbourne, Australia. By the conclusion of the criminal trial of Derek Chauvin on April 20, 2021, millions of people worldwide had viewed video footage of Floyd's murder and protests were ongoing internationally over issues of police brutality and systemic racism. The murder conviction of Chauvin was celebrated by activists in many countries and several of them expressed their desire for further progress on racial justice and police accountability issues.
For some, the so-called "George Floyd effect" had demonstrators and activists connecting historic racism and social injustice to contemporary, local examples of police brutality. Movements spawned by Floyd's death, which served as a catalyst, were still active in Australia, Brazil, India, Japan, New Zealand, Nigeria, United Kingdom, and elsewhere by May 2021. In Canada and France, where Floyd's death initiated protests, activists were unsatisfied with the levels of reform made by officials at nearly a year after Floyd's death.
Protesters in London rallied outside the United State embassy on May 22, 2021. Protesters remarked that the Chauvin murder conviction was "a small amount of justice of what [George Floyd] really deserves". The protest was among of new set of peaceful protests in the United Kingdom to mark the one-year anniversary of Floyd's death. On May 25, 2021, protesters took the streets in Germany and demonstrators took a knee in and raised their fists at rallies in Glasgow, London, and Edinburgh. Rallies were held outside U.S. Embassies in Greece and Spain.
At least 200 cities in the U.S. had imposed curfews by early June, while more than 30 states and Washington, D.C. activated over 96,000 National Guard and State Guard service members. The deployment constituted the largest military operation other than war in U.S. history.
United States President Donald Trump controversially threatened to deploy the 82nd Airborne and 3rd Infantry Regiment in response to the unrest. On June 3 he said "If a city or state refuses to take the actions necessary to defend the life and property of their residents, then I will deploy the United States military and quickly solve the problem." This would require invoking the Insurrection Act of 1807, last used to quell the 1992 Los Angeles riots on May 1, 1992, by Executive Order 12804. Arkansas senator Tom Cotton also pushed for the U.S. Army's 101st Airborne Division to be deployed to quell the unrest, calling protesters "Antifa terrorists". Massachusetts Representative Seth Moulton said federal troops should "lay down [their] arms" if deployed in the United States.
On June 4, federal agencies added about 1.7 miles (2.7 km) of fencing around the White House, Lafayette Square, and The Ellipse. Protesters used the fencing to post signs and artwork expressing their views. On June 11, the fencing was taken down, and some signs were collected by Smithsonian Museum curators from the National Museum of African American History and Culture. U.S. Customs and Border Protection, authorized to provide aerial surveillance "to assist law enforcement and humanitarian relief efforts" when requested, provided drone imagery during the protests.
As of June 5, 2020, 2,950 federal law enforcement personnel from a dozen agencies, including the Secret Service, Capital Police, Park Police, Customs and Border Protection, FBI's Hostage Rescue Team, Bureau of Prisons' Special Operations Response Team, DEA's Special Response Team, ATF, and Marshals Service's Special Operations Group, have been dispatched to assist local authorities, with most of them being garrisoned in D.C. The DEA's legal authority was specifically expanded by the Department of Justice beyond usual limits to include surveillance of protesters and the ability to arrest for non-drug related offenses. In response, Representatives Jerry Nadler and Karen Bass of the House Judiciary Committee denounced the move and requested a formal briefing from DEA Acting Administrator Timothy Shea.
From at least July 14, 2020, unidentified federal officers wearing camouflage used unmarked vans to detain protesters in Portland, Oregon—sometimes without explaining the reason for their arrest. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) called these actions unconstitutional kidnappings. In The Nation, Jeet Heer also called the actions unconstitutional and wrote that "The deployment of unidentified federal officers is particularly dangerous in... Portland and elsewhere in America, because it could easily lead to right-wing militias' impersonating legal authorities and kidnapping citizens."
On June 26, 202, President Trump signed an executive order permitting federal agencies to provide personnel "to assist with the protection of Federal monuments, memorials, statues, or property". Following the executive order, the Department of Homeland Security sent officers from Customs and Border Protection to Portland, Oregon, Seattle, and Washington, D.C. This was a departure from Homeland Security's normal role of protecting against threats from abroad. Critics accused federal authorities of overstepping their jurisdiction and using excessive force against protesters. Oregon governor Kate Brown called for federal agents to scale back their response and criticized Trump's actions: "President Trump deploying armed federal officers to Portland only serves to escalate tensions and, as we saw yesterday, will inevitably lead to unnecessary violence and confrontation." Portland mayor Ted Wheeler demanded the agents be removed after citizens were detained far from the federal property agents were sent to protect.
In the wake of the George Floyd protests, Republicans in state legislatures nationwide pushed for legislation targeting protestors. The bills, which conflate peaceful protests, riots and looting, imposed harsher punishment on individuals found guilty of unlawful assembly and public disorder, as well as provided immunity for motorists that hit protestors. The Florida anti-riot law was struck down as unconstitutional by a federal district judge, on the grounds of vagueness, freedom of assembly, freedom of speech, and due process. The law also made it a felony to destroy historically commemorative objects and structures, and in response to calls to "defund the police" requires police departments to justify budget reductions.
Violence and controversies
As of June 22, 2020, police have made 14,000 arrests in 49 cities since the protests began, with most arrests being locals charged with low-level offenses such as violating curfews or blocking roadways. As of June 8, 2020, at least 19 people have died during the protests. Several protests over Floyd's death, including one in Chicago, turned into riots. On May 29, 2020, civil rights leader Andrew Young stated that riots, violence, and looting "hurt the cause instead of helping it". George Floyd's family has denounced the violent protests. A study conducted by the Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project found that about 93% of 7,750 protests from May 26 through August 22 remained peaceful and nondestructive.
There have been numerous reports and videos of aggressive police actions using physical force including "batons, tear gas, pepper spray and rubber bullets on protesters, bystanders and journalists, often without warning or seemingly unprovoked". These incidents have provoked "growing concern that aggressive law enforcement tactics intended to impose order were instead inflaming tensions". The police responded that such tactics are necessary to prevent vandalism and arson, and that police officers themselves have been assaulted with thrown rocks and water bottles. Amnesty International issued a press release on May 31, 2021, calling for the police to end excessive militarized responses to the protests. A project by ProPublica compiled 68 videos during the George Floyd protests of police officers who used what appeared to researchers to be excessive levels of force. By a year later, police departments had disciplined 10 officers in connection to those captured on video.
At least 104 incidents of vehicles driving into crowds of protesters, including eight involving police officers, were recorded from May 27 to September 5, with 39 drivers charged. According to experts some incidents involved frightened drivers surrounded by protesters while other incidents involved angry drivers or were politically motivated. Since 2015, such actions have been encouraged against Black Lives Matter protests by "Run Them Over" and "All Lives Splatter" memes online, as well as items posted on Fox News and on social media by police officers. In Buffalo, three Buffalo Police Department officers were struck by a car, and in Minneapolis, a Minnesota National Guard soldier fired 3 rounds at a speeding vehicle that was driving towards police officers and soldiers.
There have been allegations of foreign influence stoking the unrest online, with the role of outside powers being additive rather than decisive as of May 31. Several analysts have said that there was a lack of evidence for foreign meddling – whether to spread disinformation or sow divisiveness – but suggest that the messaging and coverage from these countries has more to do with global politics.
Police attacks on journalists
According to the U.S. Press Freedom Tracker, at least 100 journalists have been arrested while covering the protests, while 114 have been physically attacked by police officers. Although some journalists have been attacked by protesters, over 80% of incidents involving violence against the news media were committed by law enforcement officers. The Committee to Protect Journalists has accused police officers of intentionally targeting news crews in an attempt to intimidate them from covering the protests. Some journalists covering the protests in Minneapolis had their tires slashed by Minnesota State Patrol troopers and Anoka County sheriff's deputies.
Injuries caused by police projectiles
During the week of May 30, 2020, 12 people, including protesters, journalists and bystanders, were partially blinded after being struck with police projectiles. By June 21, at least 20 people had suffered serious eye injuries. The American Academy of Ophthalmology has called on police departments to stop using rubber bullets for crowd control, writing in a statement that "Americans have the right to speak and congregate publicly and should be able to exercise that right without the fear of blindness."
As unrest grew in the days after Floyd's death, there was speculation by federal, state, and local officials that various extremist groups using the cover of the protests to foment general unrest in the United States. Officials initially provided few details to the public about the claims.
A number of Trump administration officials and politicians such as New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio and FBI Director Christopher A. Wray alleged in early June 2020 that "anarchists" and "far-left extremist" groups, including "Antifa", were exploiting the situation or were responsible for violence. However, there was no evidence that antifa-aligned individuals played a role in instigating the protests or violence or that antifa played a significant role in the protests, and the Trump administration provided no further evidence for its claims.
The vast majority of protests in the aftermath of Floyd's death were peaceful; among the 14,000 arrests made, most were for minor offenses such as alleged curfew violations or blocking a roadway. An analysis of state and federal criminal charges of demonstrators in the Minneapolis area found that disorganized crowds had no single goal or affiliation, many opportunist crowds amassed spontaneously during periods of lawlessness, and that people causing destruction had contradictory motives for their actions. Other analysis found that persons involved in visible crimes such as arson or property damage were not ideologically organized, although some were motivated by anger towards police. Episodes of looting were committed by "regular criminal groups" and street gangs and were motivated by personal gain rather than ideology. A large number of white nationalists did not appear in response to the protests, although "a handful of apparent lone actors" were arrested for attempting to harm protesters. However, there was a scattered number of armed paramilitary-style militia movement groups and there were "several cases where members of these groups discharged firearms, causing chaos or injuring protesters".
According to the Institute for Research and Education on Human Rights (IREHR), which mapped the appearance of various right-wing or far-right actors or extremist groups at rallies throughout the United States, there were 136 confirmed cases of right-wing participation at the protests by June 19, 2020, with many more unconfirmed. Boogaloo, Three Percenters, Oath Keepers, Proud Boys, neo-Confederates, white nationalists, and an assortment of militias and vigilante groups reportedly had a presence at some protests, mostly in small towns and rural areas.
Boogaloo groups, who are generally pro-gun, anti-government, and far-right accelerationists, have reportedly been present at least 40 George Floyd protests, several reportedly linked with violence. Their continued presence online has caused Facebook and TikTok to take action against their violent and anti-government posts. On July 25, 2020, 28-year old armed Black Lives Matter protester Garrett Foster was shot and killed in an altercation with a motorist in Downtown Austin. Foster identified with the boogaloo movement and had expressed anti-racist, libertarian, and anti-police views in his Facebook posts. Police said initial reports indicate that Foster was carrying an AK-47 style rifle, and was pushing his fiancée's wheelchair moments before he was killed.
By late 2020, the United States Attorney's office had charged three alleged adherents of Boogaloo Bois movement who attempted to capitalize on the unrest in Minneapolis in late May. Two had pled guilty by May 2021. According to the federal charging documents, the 30-year-old Michael Robert Solomon of New Brighton, Minnesota, who pled guilty to federal charges, recruited Boogaloo adherent participation via Facebook and at least five others travelled to Minneapolis to participate in the unrest. One of the persons, Benjamin Ryan Teeter, a 22-year old from Hampstead, North Carolina, also pled guilty to several federal criminal charges. Officials believed Teeter travelled to Minneapolis in the days after Floyd's death to participate in rioting and looting and that he also had plans to destroy a courthouse with Solomon. A 26-year-old man from Boerne, Texas, who self-identified as a local leader of the Boogaloo movement, also faced federal riot charges for allegedly shooting 13 rounds from an AK-47-style machine gun into the Minneapolis third police precinct building while people were inside, looting it, and helping to set it on fire the night of May 28, 2020.
Misperception of pervasiveness of violence
A December 2020 poll found 47% of Americans incorrectly believed that the majority of the protests were violent, and 16% were unsure. An estimated 93%–96.3% of demonstrations were peaceful and nondestructive, involving no injuries or no property damage. However, police made arrests in about 5% of protest events (deploying chemical irritants in 2.5% of events); 3.7% of protest events were associated with property damage or vandalism (including damages by persons not involved in the actual demonstration); and protesters or bystanders were injured or killed in 1.6% of events.
The video recorded of Floyd's arrest and death by Darneil Frazier on her mobile phone quickly went viral after she posted to Facebook a few hours later in the early morning hours of May 26. Public outrage over the contents of the video became an inflection point that sparked the largest civil-rights protests in U.S. history as Americans confronted topics of structural racism and police reform. Protests had continued for over a year after Floyd's death.
Numerous individuals and celebrities used social media to document the protests, spread information, promote donation sites, and post memorials to George Floyd. Following Floyd's death, a 15-year-old started a Change.org petition titled "Justice for George Floyd", demanding that all four police officers involved be charged. The petition was both the largest and fastest-growing in the site's history, reaching over 13 million signatures. During this time, multiple videos of the protests, looting, and riots were shared by journalists and protesters with many videos circulating widely on social media websites.
A remix of Childish Gambino's song "This is America" and Post Malone's "Congratulations" was used heavily by protesters sharing footage of protests and police action on TikTok. Others used personal Twitter pages to post video documentation of the protests to highlight police and protesters actions, as well as points of the protests they felt would not be reported. One example was a viral photo that appears to show white women protesters standing with their arms locked between Louisville Metro Police Officers and protesters, with the caption describing the image and "This is love. This is what you do with your privilege."
Viral images of officers "taking a knee" with protesters and engaging in joint displays against police brutality, highlighted by hashtags such as #WalkWithUs, have circulated widely on social media. These acts have been identified by some cultural critics as copaganda, or "feel-good images" to boost public relations. Official social media accounts of police departments boosted positive images of collaboration. In some cases, these displays of solidarity, such as police kneeling, have been recognized as occurring moments before police teargassed crowds or inflicted violence on them. An article in The Fader characterized these acts as public relations tactics which were being undermined by police violence, "It feels like we go past the point of no return several times each day."
American K-pop fan accounts hijacked right wing and pro-Trump hashtags on social media, flooding trending hashtags with images and videos of their favorite artists. Users attempting to look up the hashtags #WhiteLivesMatter, #WhiteoutWednesday and #BlueLivesMatter were met with messages and video clips of dancing idols. After the Dallas Police Department asked Twitter users to submit videos of protesters' illegal activity to its iWatch Dallas app, submissions of K-pop videos led to the temporary removal of the app due to "technical difficulties".
On May 28, hacktivist group Anonymous released a video to Facebook and the Minneapolis Police Department entitled "Anonymous Message To The Minneapolis Police Department", in which they state that they are going to seek revenge on the Minneapolis Police Department, and "expose their crimes to the world". According to Bloomberg, the video was initially posted on an unconfirmed Anonymous Facebook page.
Facebook's decision not to remove or label President Trump's tweet of "When the looting starts, the shooting starts" prompted complaints from Facebook employees that political figures were getting a special exemption from the site's content policies. Actions included internal petition, questioning the CEO at an employee town hall, some resignations, and an employee walkout.
On June 3, as U.S. protests gained momentum, Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey tweeted a recommendation for users to download end-to-end encryption (E2EE) messaging app Signal. On June 6, an estimated half million people joined protests in 550 places in the United States. By June 11, The New York Times reported that protest organizers relied on the E2EE app "to devise action plans and develop strategies for handling possible arrests for several years" and that downloads had "skyrocketed" with increased awareness of police monitoring leading protesters to use the app to communicate among themselves. During the first week of June, the encrypted messaging app was downloaded over five times more than it had been during the week prior to the death of George Floyd. Citizen, a community safety app, also experienced a high spike in downloads.
Minnesota Governor Tim Walz speculated that there was "an organized attempt to destabilize civil society", initially saying as many as 80% of the individuals had possibly come from outside the state, and the mayor of St. Paul, Melvin Carter, said everyone arrested in St. Paul on May 29 was from out of state. However, jail records showed that the majority of those arrested were in-state. At a press conference later the same day, Carter explained that he had "shared... arrest data received in [his] morning police briefing which [he] later learned to be inaccurate".
Numerous eyewitness accounts and news reporters indicated that tear gas was used to disperse protesters in Lafayette Square. Despite this evidence, U.S. Park Police officials said, "USPP officers and other assisting law enforcement partners did not use tear gas or OC Skat Shells to close the area at Lafayette Park", adding that they only used "pepper balls" and "smoke canisters". Donald Trump's presidential campaign demanded news outlets retract reports of "tear gas" use. President Trump called the reports "fake" and said "they didn't use tear gas."
On the night of May 31, exterior lights on the north side of the White House went dark as usual at 11:00 pm, while protesters were demonstrating outside. The Guardian mistakenly reported that "in normal times, they are only ever turned off when a president dies." A 2015 stock photograph of the White House, edited to show the lights turned off, was shared tens of thousands of times online, including by Hillary Clinton. While the photograph did not depict the building at the time of the protests, Deputy White House Press Secretary Hogan Gidley confirmed that the lights "go out at about 11 p.m. almost every night".
On June 6, the New York Post reported that a NYPD source said $2.4 million of Rolex watches had been looted during protests from a Soho Rolex store. However, the store in question was actually a Watches of Switzerland outlet that denied anything was stolen. Rolex confirmed that "no watches of any kind were stolen, as there weren't any on display in the store."
A June 12 article by The Seattle Times found that Fox News published a photograph of the Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone that had been digitally altered to include a man armed with an assault rifle. The Fox News website also used a photograph of a burning scene from the Minnesota protests to illustrate their articles on Seattle's protests. Fox removed the images and issued an apology, stating the digitally altered image was a collage that "did not clearly delineate" splicing.
False stories about "Antifa buses" caused panic in rural counties throughout the country. The Associated Press has cataloged at least five separate rural counties where locals have warned of imminent attacks, although none of the rumors have been substantiated. As a result of the rumors, several people have been harassed, including a Spokane multi-racial family on a camping trip in Forks, Washington. Hundreds of members of armed self-proclaimed militias and far right groups gathered in Gettysburg National Military Park on Independence Day in response to a fake online claim that antifa protesters were planning on burning the U.S. flag.
Some social media users spread images of damage from other protests or incidents, falsely attributing the damage to the George Floyd protests. Some users claimed a man videoed breaking the windows of an AutoZone in Minneapolis on May 27 was an undercover Saint Paul Police officer; the Saint Paul Police Department denied these claims through a statement on Twitter. Additionally, SPPD released a montage of surveillance videos in an effort to prove that the officer who was accused of smashing the windows was actually 9 mi (14 km) away when the incident occurred. The man accused of smashing the windows of the AutoZone was later identified by authorities as a white supremacist agitator.
Twitter suspended hundreds of accounts associated with spreading a false claim about a communications blackout during protests in Washington, D.C., or a claim that authorities had blocked protesters from communicating on their smartphones. Also, some accounts shared a photo of a major fire burning near the Washington Monument, which was actually an image from a television show.
George Soros, a billionaire investor and philanthropist, has been falsely accused by far-right and conservative conspiracy theorists on social media and in online advertisements of orchestrating and funding the protests.
A week into the protests, The Washington Post stated that the current situation suggests that the status quo was undergoing a shock, with the article stating "the past days have suggested that something is changing. The protests reached into every corner of the United States and touched nearly every strand of society." Joe Biden told Politico that he had experienced an awakening and thought other White Americans had as well, saying: "Ordinary folks who don't think of themselves as having a prejudiced bone in their body, don't think of themselves as racists, have kind of had the mask pulled off." Large amounts of journalistic and academic sources have viewed the protests as forcing Americans to face racial inequality, police brutuality and other racial and economic issues. Many have stated that the current unrest is due to the current political and cultural system of overlooking, ignoring and oppression of Black Americans, calling it a racial reckoning. Politico said the murder of George Floyd, captured on video, had "prompted a reckoning with racism [...] for a wide swath of white America." Deva Woodly, Associate Professor of Politics at The New School for Social Research, wrote: "We are living in a world-historical moment." NPR said that "a change of attitude seems to have swept through the national culture like a sudden wind." CNN's Brianna Keilar said that "[y]ou are watching America's reckoning" as she outlined the "profound change" the country had experienced, including that in mid-June 15 of the 20 bestselling books were about race.
In late June, The Christian Science Monitor's editorial board wrote: "It may still be too soon to say the U.S. has reached a true inflection point in its treatment of its citizens of African descent. But it has certainly reached a reflection point." Reuters reported that Black candidates in June's primaries had benefited from "a national reckoning on racism." By early July, The Washington Post was running a regularly updated section titled "America's Racial Reckoning: What you need to know." On July 3, The Washington Post said that "the Black Lives Matter protests following the police killings of Breonna Taylor, George Floyd and Rayshard Brooks focused the world's attention on racial inequities, structural racism and implicit bias."
According to the American Political Science Review, the George Floyd protests led to a reduction in favorability toward the police among politically liberal Americans, and further exacerbated racial and political tensions and attitudes regarding the "race and law enforcement" debate in the U.S.
According to Fortune, the economic impact of the protests has exacerbated the COVID-19 recession by sharply curtailing consumer confidence, straining local businesses, and overwhelming public infrastructure with large-scale property damage. A number of small businesses, already suffering from the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, were harmed by vandalism, property destruction, and looting. Curfews instated by local governments – in response to both the pandemic and protests – have also "restricted access to the downtown [areas]" to essential workers, lowering economic output. President Donald Trump, after announcing a drop in overall unemployment from 14.7% to 13.3% on June 5, stated that strong economic growth was "the greatest thing [for race relations]" and "George Floyd would have been proud [of the unemployment rate]". That same day reports from the Bureau of Labor Statistics estimated the unemployment rate among African Americans (covering the first two weeks of protests) was up 0.1%, rising to 16.8%.
The U.S. stock market remained unaffected or otherwise increased from the start of the protests on May 26 to June 2. The protest's first two weeks coincided with a 38% rise in the stock market. A resurgence of COVID-19 (facilitated by mass protests) could exacerbate the 2020 stock market crash according to economists at RBC. The protests have disrupted national supply chains over uncertainty regarding public safety, a resurgence of COVID-19, and consumer confidence. Several Fortune 500 retail companies, with large distribution networks, have scaled back deliveries and shuttered stores in high-impact areas. Mass demonstrations – of both peaceful and violent varieties – have been linked to diminished consumer confidence and demand stemming from the public health risks of group gatherings amid COVID-19.
Large-scale property damage stemming from the protests has led to increased insurance claims, bankruptcies, and curbed economic activity among small businesses and state governments. Insurance claims arising from property damage suffered in rioting is still being assessed, but is thought to be significant, perhaps record-breaking. Estimates of property damages from fires and looting in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul area were $550 million to 1,500 property locations. Private insurance covered less than half of the estimated damages, which had a disproportionate effect on small business owners, many of who were immigrants and people of color. Among the losses in Minneapolis was Minnehaha Commons, an under-construction, $30 million redevelopment project for 189 units of affordable housing, which was destroyed by fire after being torched on May 27, 2020. A community organization in Atlanta's Buckhead neighborhood said that between $10 million and $15 million in property damage (excluding losses from looting) was incurred over the weekend of May 29–31, mostly along storefronts along Peachtree Street and Phipps Plaza. The damage to downtown Chicago's central business district (near the Magnificent Mile) was reported to have sustained "millions of dollars in damage" according to Fortune.
Public financing and funding, particularly on the state level, has also been impacted by the protests. The COVID-19 recession has eroded large parts of state budgets which have, subsequently, struggled to finance the police overtime pay, security costs, and infrastructure repairs related to the demonstrations. State governments have, since June, announced budget cuts to police departments as well as increased funding to other public safety measures. Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti announced on June 5 he will seek up to $150 million in cuts to the Los Angeles Police Department budget.
On May 31, Walmart temporarily closed several hundred of its stores as a precaution. Amazon announced it would redirect some delivery routes and scale back others as a result of the widespread unrest.
Monuments and symbols
A makeshift memorial emerged at the East 38th Street and Chicago Avenue intersection in Minneapolis where Floyd was killed. Minneapolis officials renamed a stretch two block stretch of Chicago Avenue as George Floyd Perry Jr Place and designated it as one of seven cultural districts in city.
Scrutiny of, discussion of removal, and removal of civic symbols or names relating to the Confederate States of America (frequently associated with segregation and the Jim Crow era in the United States) has regained steam as protests have continued. On June 4, 2020, Virginia governor Ralph Northam announced the Robert E. Lee Monument in Richmond would be removed.
On June 5, making specific reference to events in Charlottesville in 2017, the United States Marine Corps banned the display of the Confederate Battle Flag at their installations. The United States Navy followed suit on June 9 at the direction of Michael M. Gilday, the Chief of Naval Operations.
Birmingham, Alabama Mayor Randall Woodfin ordered the removal of the Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument in Linn Park. The Alabama Attorney General has filed suit against the city of Birmingham for violating the Alabama Memorial Preservation Act.
A statue of America's first president, George Washington, has been torn down and American flag was burned by rioters in Portland, Oregon. Portland Public Schools was responding after protesters pulled down the Thomas Jefferson statue in front of Jefferson High School. Several protesters tore down the statue of the third President of the United States and wrote: "slave owner" and "George Floyd" in spray paint at its white marble base. PPS officials said they recognize that the act is part of a larger and very important national conversation. The statues targeted included a bust of Ulysses S. Grant and statue of Theodore Roosevelt. BLM activist Shaun King tweeted that statues, murals, and stained glass windows depicting a white Jesus should be removed. Protesters defaced a statue of Philadelphia abolitionist Matthias Baldwin with the words "murderer" and "colonizer". Protesters in San Francisco vandalized a statue of Miguel de Cervantes, a Spanish writer who spent five years as a slave in Algiers.
Vandals defaced the statue of Winston Churchill in London's Parliament Square and Queen Victoria's statue in Leeds. The Lincoln Memorial, the World War II Memorial and the statue of General Casimir Pulaski were vandalized during the George Floyd protests in Washington, D.C. On June 7, the statue of Edward Colston was toppled and thrown into Bristol Harbour by demonstrators during the George Floyd protests in the United Kingdom. BLM activists in London are calling for the removal of 60 statues of historical figures like Prime Ministers Charles Grey and William Gladstone, Horatio Nelson, Sir Francis Drake, King Charles II of England, Oliver Cromwell and Christopher Columbus. Protesters in Belgium have vandalized statues of King Leopold II of Belgium.
In Washington, D.C., a statue of Mahatma Gandhi in front of the Indian Embassy was vandalized on the intervening night of June 2 and 3. The incident prompted the embassy to register a complaint with law enforcement agencies. Taranjit Singh Sandhu, the Indian Ambassador to the United States, called the vandalism "a crime against humanity". In London, another statue of Gandhi was vandalized by Black Lives Matter protesters along with the statue of Winston Churchill.
On June 12, the city council in Hamilton, New Zealand removed the statue of Captain John Hamilton, a British officer who was killed during the New Zealand Wars in 1864. A local Māori elder Taitimu Maipi, who had vandalized the statue in 2018, has also called for the city to be renamed Kirikiriroa. New Zealand Deputy Prime Minister Winston Peters called the scrutiny of colonial-era memorials a "wave of idiocy".
On June 22, a crowd of rioters unsuccessfully attempted to topple Clark Mills' 1852 bronze equestrian statue of Andrew Jackson in Lafayette Square in President's Park, directly north of the White House in Washington, D.C. Several days later, the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) charged four men with destruction of federal property for allegedly trying to bring down the statue. The Justice Department alleged that a video showed one of the men breaking off and destroying the wheels of the cannons located at the base of the statue as well as pulling on ropes when trying to bring down the statue.
Soon afterwards, the DOJ announced the arrest and charging of a man who was not only allegedly seen on video climbing up onto the Jackson statue and affixing a rope that was then used to try to pull the statue down, but had on June 20 helped destroy Gaetano Trentanove's 1901 Albert Pike Memorial statue near Washington's Judiciary Square by pulling it from its base and setting it on fire. The DOJ's complaint alleged that the man had been captured on video dousing the federally-owned Pike statue with a flammable liquid, igniting it as it lay on the ground and using the fire to light a cigarette.
On June 30, after the Mississippi Legislature obtained a two-thirds majority in both houses to suspend rules in order to pass a bill addressing the Confederate Battle Flag on the Mississippi state flag, Governor Tate Reeves signed a bill that relinquished the state flag, mandated its removal from public premises within 15 days, and established a commission to propose a new flag design that excluded the Confederate Battle Flag and included the motto "In God We Trust". The flag contained the infamous Confederate symbol in the canton (upper left corner) of the flag, and was the last U.S. state flag to do so.
In the response to the protests, Congress mandated the creation of a Commission on the Naming of Items of the Department of Defense that Commemorate the Confederate States of America or Any Person Who Served Voluntarily with the Confederate States of America in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021. President Trump cited this provision in his veto of the NDAA, resulting in the only veto override of his presidency.
Impact on police activity
The New York City Police Department reported a 411% increase in police retirement application in the first week of July. As a result, the Department has limited new retirement applications to 40 a day.
On July 11, at least 150 Minneapolis police officers reported nondescript injuries as well as symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, leading over half of them to leave their jobs with more likely to follow. The Minneapolis police have denied there being any serious injuries inflicted on officers.
Changes to police policies
In the wake of Floyd's killing, state and local governments evaluated their police department policies, and the response to protests, for themselves. For example, California Governor Gavin Newsom called for new police crowd control procedures for the state, and the banning of the police use of carotid chokeholds, which starve the brain of oxygen. The Minneapolis police department banned police from using chokeholds; Denver's police department also banned the use of chokeholds without exception, and also established new reporting requirements whenever a police officer holds a person at gunpoint.
In June 2020, Democrats in Congress introduced the George Floyd Justice in Policing Act of 2020, a police reform and accountability bill that contains measures to combat police misconduct, excessive force, and racial bias in policing. The impetus for the bill were the killings of Floyd, Breonna Taylor, and other African Americans at the hands of police. It passed the House of Representatives one month after Floyd's killing, 236 to 181, with support from Democrats and three Republicans. A Republican reform bill was blocked in the U.S. Senate by all but two Democrats; neither party negotiated the contents of the bill with the other. Speaker Nancy Pelosi summarized Democratic opposition to the Senate bill: "it's not a question that it didn't go far enough; it didn't go anywhere".
On June 16, President Trump signed an executive order on police reform that incentivized departments to recruit from communities they patrol, encourage more limited use of deadly force, and prioritize using social workers and mental health professionals for nonviolent calls. The order also created a national database of police officers with a history of using excessive force.
On September 10, Ted Wheeler, the mayor and police commissioner of Portland, Oregon, banned city police from using tear gas for riot control purposes, but reiterated that police would respond to violent protests forcefully. Portland has seen over a 100 consecutive days of protests since they began on May 28.
Push to abolish police
Nine members of the Minneapolis City Council — a veto-proof majority — pledged on June 7 to dismantle the Minneapolis Police Department, despite opposition from Mayor Frey. U.S. representative Ilhan Omar stated, "the Minneapolis Police Department has proven themselves beyond reform. It's time to disband them and reimagine public safety in Minneapolis." Despite pledges by city council members to the end the Minneapolis Police Department, a proposed amendment to the Minneapolis city charter which was approved by the Minneapolis City Council on June 26 would only rename the police department and change its structure if approved by voters. In August, the review of another proposal to dismantle the department was delayed by 90 days, meaning it wouldn't be voted on in the November ballot because it passed the statutory deadline of August 21. The budget for the department was passed in December and the funding was reduced by $7.7 million.
Impact on television and films
In the media industry, the protests have spurred scrutiny for cop shows and led to the cancellation of popular television shows referred to by critics as copaganda. With long-standing criticism that it presented an unbalanced view of law enforcement in favor of police, encouraged police to engage in more dramatic behavior for the camera, and degraded suspects who had not yet been convicted of any crime, the Paramount Network canceled the 33rd season of the TV show Cops and pulled it from broadcast. The television network A&E canceled a similar show, Live PD, which was also found to have destroyed footage documenting the police killing of Javier Ambler in Austin, Texas, in 2019. The streaming service HBO Max temporarily pulled the film Gone with the Wind until video that explains and condemns the film's racist depictions could be produced to accompany it. In the United Kingdom, the BBC pulled the famed "The Germans" episode of Fawlty Towers from its UKTV streaming service, but later reinstated it after criticism from series star and co-writer John Cleese. He later criticized their use of the word "fury" to describe his comments. This was later removed by the BBC. The episode, which included racial slurs about the West Indies cricket team, now features a disclaimer at the beginning warning of "offensive content and language". The BBC also removed the Little Britain series and its spinoff Come Fly with Me from the iPlayer and BritBox services as well as Netflix for its use of blackface.
The week of June 24, 2020, several animated series that had black, mixed or non-white characters voiced by white actors, including Big Mouth, Central Park, Family Guy and The Simpsons, announced those characters would be recast with people of color. That same week, episodes of 30 Rock, The Office, It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia, Community, The Golden Girls, and Peep Show that involved characters using blackface were either removed or edited from syndication and streaming services.
Impact on brand marketing
In reaction to the higher sensitivity by customers for racial issues in the aftermath of Floyd's death, multiple companies decided to rebrand some products. The brands Aunt Jemima, Uncle Ben's, and Fair & Lovely made adaptations to eliminate racial stereotypes. In sports, the NFL football team in Washington, D.C. dropped the "Redskins" nickname and the MLB baseball team in Cleveland said it would discontinue the "Indians" nickname after the 2021 season and adopt the "Guardians" nickname. In June 2020, Disney announced that their theme park attraction Splash Mountain, which had been themed to the 1946 film Song of the South, controversial for its depiction of African-Americans, would be re-themed based on the 2009 film The Princess and the Frog, which had Disney's first depiction of a black princess.
Artistic impressions of George Floyd's likeness became an icon of the protest movement that resulted from his death. Paintings of Floyd appeared on exterior walls in many cities in the United States and around the world. A mapping project of protest art after Floyd's death had by May 19, 2021, documented 2,100 entries of George Floyd-related and anti-racism art around the world, though much of it was from the Minneapolis and Saint Paul area. Many works appeared on plywood that covered up boarded-up windows and doors as result of unrest.
The protests occurred during the global COVID-19 pandemic, leading officials and experts to express concerns that the demonstrations could lead to further spread of SARS-CoV-2. The demonstrations thus sparked debate among commentators, political leaders, and health experts over coronavirus restrictions on gatherings. In June 2020 the CDC released the "Considerations for Events and Gatherings" which assesses large gatherings where it is difficult for people to stay at least six feet apart, and where attendees travel from outside the local area as "highest risk". Public health experts and mayors urged demonstrators to wear face coverings, follow physical separation (social distancing) practices, engage in proper hand hygiene, and seek out COVID-19 testing.
Subsequent studies and public health reports showed that the protests in 2020 did not drive an increase in COVID-19 transmission. Epidemiologists and other researchers attributed this to the location of the demonstrations outdoors (where the virus is less likely to spread as compared to indoors); because many protesters wore masks; and because persons who demonstrated made up a small portion of the overall U.S. population (about 6% of adults). Outdoor events were analyzed to have a substantially lower risk of spreading the virus than indoor ones, and transient contact was considered less risky than extended close contact.
Some protesters that were arrested were detained in crowded, indoor environments and did not have protective masks, which prompted concern over potential jail-spread of SARS-CoV-2. Some law enforcement personnel in New York City who responded to protests were criticized for failing to wear face masks. An outbreak was detected among Houston, Texas, police department officers, but it was not clear if the officer's were exposed on or off of their police duty.
While many U.S. states experienced growth in new cases during the initial wave of protests, these upticks are thought to be attributed to reopenings of workplaces, bars, restaurants, and other businesses.
U.S. president Donald Trump demanded that state governors "dominate" protesters and, on May 29, tweeted "when the looting starts, the shooting starts", which Twitter marked as "glorifying violence". Trump later said he was not advocating violence, noting that the tweet could be read as either a threat or a statement of fact and that he intended for it to be read as "a combination of both".
The protests were the subject of extensive media coverage, documentaries, and television specials. The documentary Say His Name: Five Days of George Floyd, released in February 2021, contained footage of protests and unrest in a neighborhood of Minneapolis in the five days that elapsed between Floyd's death and the criminal charges being filed against Derek Chauvin. In August 2020, the occupied protests at 38th Street and Chicago Avenue in Minneapolis was the subject of a multi-part PBS News Hour series, "George Floyd Square: The epicenter of a protest movement that’s swept the world" and in December 2020, it was the subject of a monthlong series by Minnesota Public Radio, "Making George Floyd's Square: Meet the people transforming 38th and Chicago".
Several documentaries and news specials were broadcast to coincide with first anniversary of Floyd's death. The ABC-produced After Floyd: The Year that Shook America examined the "generation-defining movement" of Floyd's death and Our America: A Year of Activism reflected on the year-long period of activism on social justice issues that followed. PBS-produced Race Matters: America After George Floyd reported on ongoing protests in communities over issues of police brutality a year after Floyd's death.
The Minneapolis-based Star Tribune newspaper received the 2021 Pulitzer Prize for the breaking news it reported of Floyd's death and the resulting aftermath. Danielle Frazier, the then 17-year old who filmed Floyd's arrest and death on her cellphone, received a Pulitzer special citation recognition in 2021 for her video.
A protest march in Minneapolis on May 26, 2020
Protesters in Oakland, California on May 29, 2020
Protesters in Washington, D.C. in front of the White House on May 30, 2020
Georgia National Guard medics treat a protester injured by tear gas on June 2, 2020
Protesters in Seattle on June 3, 2020
Protesters in Philadelphia on June 6, 2020
Protesters in Denver on June 6, 2020
- 2020–21 United States election protests
- 1965 Watts riots – A black motorist resisting arrest ignited days of widespread violence in the Watts neighborhood and its surrounding areas of Los Angeles.
- Long, hot summer of 1967 – Protests and riots, described as "battles" by newspapers headlines, in which the statement "When the looting starts, the shooting starts" was first coined by Miami police chief Walter E. Headley.
- 1968 Democratic National Convention protests – Protests against the Vietnam War that were later described as a "police riot".
- 1980 Miami riots – Protests after an unarmed black salesman was beaten to death by police officers in 1979 and the officers involved were acquitted in May 1980.
- 1992 Los Angeles riots – Protests after police officers involved in the beating of Rodney King, a black man, were acquitted by the court in April 1992.
- 2014 Ferguson unrest – The large-scale unrest after the fatal shooting of Michael Brown by police.
- 2015 Baltimore protests – Protests following the arrest and subsequent death of Freddie Gray.
- 2020 Kenosha protests – Protests after the shooting of Jacob Blake in Kenosha, Wisconsin
- 2021 Daunte Wright protests – Protests after the killing of Daunte Wright
- Class conflict
- List of incidents of civil unrest in the United States
- Mass racial violence in the United States
- Owermohle, Sarah (June 1, 2020). "Surgeon general: 'You understand the anger'". Politico. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
- VOA News. "Anti-Racism Protests Continue in US | Voice of America - English". voanews.com. Voice of America. Retrieved July 7, 2020.
- Bronner, Laura (June 25, 2020). "Why Statistics Don't Capture The Full Extent Of The Systemic Bias In Policing". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved July 8, 2020.
- Cheung, Helier (June 8, 2020). "Why US protests are so powerful this time". BBC News. Retrieved July 8, 2020.
- Sabur, Rozina; Sawer, Patrick; Millward, David (June 7, 2020). "Why are there protests over the death of George Floyd?". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved July 8, 2020.
- Olson, Emily (June 27, 2020). "Antifa, Boogaloo boys, white nationalists: Which extremists showed up to the US Black Lives Matter protests?". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
- St. Anthony, Neal (May 18, 2021). "Minneapolis Foundation raising $20 million for riot-hurt small businesses". Star Tribune. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- Kingson, Jennifer A. (September 16, 2020). "Exclusive: $1 billion-plus riot damage is most expensive in insurance history". Axios. Retrieved October 10, 2020.
- Taylor, Derrick Bryson (June 2, 2020). "George Floyd Protests: A Timeline". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 2, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
- Levenson, Eric (March 29, 2021). "Former officer knelt on George Floyd for 9 minutes and 29 seconds -- not the infamous 8:46". CNN. Retrieved March 29, 2021.
- "Prosecutors say officer had knee on George Floyd's neck for 7:46 rather than 8:46". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. June 18, 2020. Retrieved November 5, 2020.
- Cooper, Gael Fashingbauer. "Music industry players including Mick Jagger, Quincy Jones respond to George Floyd's death with Blackout Tuesday: 'This is what solidarity looks like'". CNET. Retrieved November 5, 2020.
- Hennessey, Kathleen; LeBlanc, Steve (June 4, 2020). "8:46: A number becomes a potent symbol of police brutality". AP News. Archived from the original on June 9, 2020. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
But the timestamps cited in the document's description of the incident, much of which is caught on video, indicate a different tally. Using those, Chauvin had his knee on Floyd for 7 minutes, 46 seconds, including 1 minute, 53 seconds after Floyd appeared to stop breathing.
- Carrega, Christina; Lloyd, Whitney (June 3, 2020). "Charges against former Minneapolis police officers involved in George Floyd's death". ABC News. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
- Navarrette, Ruben Jr. "Haunting question after George Floyd killing: Should good cops have stopped a bad cop?". USA Today.
- "플로이드 실제로 목 눌린 시간은 7분 46초". 서울신문 (in Korean). Retrieved June 21, 2020.
- Condon, Bernard; Richmond, Todd; Sisak, Michael R. (June 3, 2020). "What to know about 4 officers charged in George Floyd's death". WLS-TV. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- Webber, Amy Forliti, Steve Karnowski and Tammy (April 20, 2021). "Ex-cop Derek Chauvin guilty of murder and manslaughter in death of George Floyd". CTVNews. Retrieved April 21, 2021.
- Eric Levenson and Ray Sanchez (June 25, 2021). "Derek Chauvin sentenced to 22.5 years in death of George Floyd". CNN. Retrieved June 25, 2021.
- Burch, Audra D. S.; Harmon, Amy; Tavernise, Sabrina; Badger, Emily (April 21, 2021). "The Death of George Floyd Reignited a Movement. What Happens Now?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 22, 2021.
- Wagner, Jeff (June 18, 2020). "'It's Real Ugly': Protesters Clash With Minneapolis Police After George Floyd's Death". WCCO.
- Burch, Audra D. S.; Cai, Weiyi; Gianordoli, Gabriel; McCarthy, Morrigan; Patel, Jugal K. (June 13, 2020). "How Black Lives Matter Reached Every Corner of America". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
- Luscombe, Richard; Ho, Vivian (June 7, 2020). "George Floyd protests enter third week as push for change sweeps America". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
- "George Floyd Protests on Race and Policing: Juneteenth Celebrations Across U.S." Wall Street Journal. June 19, 2020.
- Croft, Jay. "Some Americans mark Fourth of July with protests". CNN. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
- Buchanan, Larry; Bui, Quoctrung; Patel, Jugal K. (July 3, 2020). "Black Lives Matter May Be the Largest Movement in U.S. History". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 4, 2020.
- "Riot declared as Portland protests move to City Hall on 3-month anniversary of George Floyd's death". Oregon Live. August 25, 2020. Retrieved August 30, 2020.
- Lovett, Ian (June 4, 2020). "1992 Los Angeles Riots: How the George Floyd Protests Are Different". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
- "Widespread unrest as curfews defied across US". BBC News. May 31, 2020. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
- Baker, Mike; Dewan, Shaila (June 2, 2020). "Facing Protests Over Use of Force, Police Respond With More Force". The New York Times. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
- Kindy, Kimberly; Jacobs, Shayna; Farenthold, David (June 5, 2020). "In protests against police brutality, videos capture more alleged police brutality". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- Taylor, Derrick Bryson (June 8, 2020). "George Floyd Protests: A Timeline". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
- Bekiempis, Victoria (July 3, 2020). "Troops sent to DC during George Floyd protests had bayonets, top general says". The Guardian. Retrieved December 20, 2020.
- Norwood, Candice (June 9, 2020). "'Optics matter.' National Guard deployments amid unrest have a long and controversial history". PBS NewsHour.
- Warren, Katy; Hadden, Joey (June 4, 2020). "How all 50 states are responding to the George Floyd protests, from imposing curfews to calling in the National Guard". Business Insider. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
- Sternlicht, Alexandra. "Over 4,400 Arrests, 62,000 National Guard Troops Deployed: George Floyd Protests By The Numbers". Forbes. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
- "National Guard response to civil unrest". National Guard Press Release. June 8, 2020.
- Pham, Scott (June 2, 2020). "Police Arrested More Than 11,000 People At Protests Across The US". BuzzFeed News.
- "Associated Press tally shows at least 9,300 people arrested in protests since killing of George Floyd". Associated Press. June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
- Craig, Tim. "'The United States is in crisis': Report tracks thousands of summer protests, most nonviolent" – via www.washingtonpost.com.
- "This summer's Black Lives Matter protesters were overwhelmingly peaceful, our research finds". The Washington Post. 2020.
- "Vandalism, looting after Floyd's death sparks at least $1 billion in damages:report". The Hill. September 17, 2020. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
- Fandos, Nicholas (June 6, 2020). "Democrats to Propose Broad Bill to Target Police Misconduct and Racial Bias". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
- Hawkins, Derek (June 8, 2020). "9 Minneapolis City Council members announce plans to disband police department". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- For criticism of the Trump administration's response, see:
- Rampell, Catherine (June 4, 2020). "Opinion | The lawless law-and-order president". The Washington Post.
- Conway, George (June 5, 2020). "Opinion | The president's inhumanity is deeper than we knew". The Washington Post.
- Stephens, Bret (June 5, 2020). "Opinion | Donald Trump Is Our National Catastrophe". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- McManus, Doyle (June 3, 2020). "Column | Donald Trump, urban warfare strategist, shares pacification tips". Los Angeles Times.
- Lipson, David (June 5, 2020). "Analysis | The tectonic plates of Donald Trump's presidency appear to be shifting". abc.net.au.
- Kristof, Nicholas (June 3, 2020). "Opinion | Trump Uses the Military to Prove His Manhood". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- "Opinion | A president dividing a nation". Times of Malta. June 6, 2020. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- King, Colbert (June 6, 2020). "Opinion | It's Washington's D-Day, and the city is under siege by Trump's forces". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- Delaney, Arthur (June 6, 2020). "Trump's Presidency Is Reaping What His White Grievance Politics Sowed". Huffington Post. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- Lynch, Suzanne (June 5, 2020). "Trump urges suppression of protests over Floyd killing". The Irish Times. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- Chang, Alvin. "How centuries of racist images came down in one year – a visual guide". the Guardian. Retrieved May 22, 2021.
- McCullough, Marie (June 27, 2020). "COVID-19 has not surged in cities with big protests, but it has in states that reopened early. Here are some possible reasons". Philadelphia Inquirer.
- Edsall, Thomas B. (June 3, 2020). "The George Floyd Election: How the protests come to be viewed may determine who the next president is".
- Schuman, David (January 25, 2021). "'We Look At Our Protest As Art': Future Of George Floyd Square Becoming Clearer". WCCO.
- Mannix, Andy (April 20, 2021). "Minneapolis streets erupt in elation over guilty verdicts for Derek Chauvin". Star Tribune. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
- Staff (April 20, 2021). "Crowds cheer, celebrate after Chauvin convicted of murder and manslaughter". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
- "The Counted: People killed by police in the US". The Guardian.
- Hinton, Elizabeth (2016). From the War on Poverty to the War on Crime: The Making of Mass Incarceration in America. Harvard University Press. pp. 68–72. ISBN 9780674737235.
- Sastry, Anjuli; Bates, Karen (April 26, 2017). "When LA Erupted In Anger: A Look Back At The Rodney King Riots". NPR. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
- Luibrand, Shannon (August 7, 2015). "Black Lives Matter: How the events in Ferguson sparked a movement in America". CBS News. Archived from the original on June 24, 2016. Retrieved December 18, 2016.
- Ellis, Ralph; Kirkos, Bill (June 16, 2017). "Officer who shot Philando Castile found not guilty". CNN. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
- Miller, Trace (June 1, 2020). "'This Rage That You Hear Is Real': On the Ground at the Dallas Protests". D Magazine.
- Haines, Errin (May 11, 2020). "Family seeks answers in fatal police shooting of Louisville woman in her apartment". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 24, 2020.
- "Emergency Executive Order 20-04" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
- "Emergency Executive Order 20-20" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on April 20, 2020. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
- Richmond, Todd (May 28, 2020). "George Floyd had started a new life in Minnesota before he was killed by police". Boston Globe. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
- Ries, Brian (June 2, 2020). "8 notable details in the criminal complaint against ex-Minneapolis Police Officer Derek Chauvin". cnn.com. Cable News Network. Archived from the original on May 29, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
- Michelle M Frascone; Sweasy, Amy (May 29, 2020). "State of Minnesota v. Derek Michael Chauvin" (PDF).
- Hauser, Christine (May 26, 2020). "F.B.I. to Investigate Arrest of Black Man Who Died After Being Pinned by Officer". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 26, 2020. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
- Dakss, Brian (May 26, 2020). "Video shows Minneapolis cop with knee on neck of motionless, moaning man who later died". CBS News. Archived from the original on May 26, 2020. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
- Nawaz, Amna (May 26, 2020). "What we know about George Floyd's death in Minneapolis police custody". PBS Newshour. Archived from the original on May 27, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
- Montgomery, Blake (May 27, 2020). "Black Lives Matter Protests Over George Floyd's Death Spread Across the Country". The Daily Beast. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
Floyd, 46, died after a white Minneapolis police officer, Derek Chauvin, kneeled on his neck for at least seven minutes while handcuffing him.
- Murphy, Paul P. (May 29, 2020). "New video appears to show three police officers kneeling on George Floyd". CNN. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
- "Investigative Update on Critical Incident". Minneapolis police. Archived from the original on May 26, 2020. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
- Sawyer, Liz. "George Floyd showed no signs of life from time EMS arrived, fire department report says". Minneapolis Tribune. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
- Bogel-Burroughs, Nicholas (April 1, 2021). "George Floyd was dead by the time medical help arrived, a paramedic testified". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 10, 2021 – via NYTimes.com.
- "George Floyd showed no signs of life from time EMS arrived, fire department report says". Retrieved July 10, 2021.
- Soellner, Mica (May 29, 2020). "Medical examiner concludes George Floyd didn't die of asphyxia". Washington Examiner. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
- Wilson, Jim (June 2, 2020). "Competing autopsies say Floyd's death was a homicide, but differ on causes". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 2, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
The medical examiner also cited significant contributing conditions, saying that Mr. Floyd suffered from heart disease, and was high on fentanyl and had recently used methamphetamine at the time of his death.
- Andrew, Scottie (June 1, 2020). "Derek Chauvin: What we know about the former officer charged in George Floyd's death". CNN.
- "Fired Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin, who knelt on George Floyd's neck, arrested". The Boston Globe. Associated Press. May 29, 2020. Archived from the original on May 30, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
- Madani, Doha (June 3, 2020). "3 more Minneapolis officers charged in George Floyd death, Derek Chauvin charges elevated". NBC News. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
- Vera, Amir (June 1, 2020). "Independent autopsy finds George Floyd's death a homicide due to 'asphyxiation from sustained pressure'". CNN. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- "Floyd death homicide, official post-mortem says". BBC News. June 1, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- Hill, Evan; Tiefenthäler, Ainara; Triebert, Christiaan; Jordan, Drew; Willis, Haley; Stein, Robin (May 31, 2020). "How George Floyd Was Killed in Police Custody". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
- "In pictures: Protesting the death of George Floyd". CNN. May 27, 2020. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
- "Demonstrators gather around Minneapolis to protest death of George Floyd". KSTP. May 26, 2020. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
- Wagner, Jeff (June 18, 2020). "'It's Real Ugly': Protesters Clash With Minneapolis Police After George Floyd's Death". WCCO.
- "Family and Friends Mourn Minneapolis Police Killing Victim George Floyd". Time. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
- KTSP staff (May 27, 2020). "'This is the right call': Officers involved in fatal Minneapolis incident fired, mayor says". KTSP. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
- Caputo, Angela, Craft, Will and Gilbert, Curtis (June 30, 30). "‘The precinct is on fire’: What happened at Minneapolis’ 3rd Precinct — and what it means". MPR News. Retrieved on July 1, 2020.
- Stockman, Farah (July 4, 2020). "'They have lost control': How Minneapolis leaders failed to stop their city from burning" The New York Times.
- Kaul, Greta (June 1, 2020). "Seven days in Minneapolis: a timeline of what we know about the death of George Floyd and its aftermath". MinnPost. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
- Jany, Libor (July 28, 2020). "Police: 'Umbrella Man' was a white supremacist trying to incite George Floyd rioting". Star Tribune. Retrieved July 28, 2020.
- Texas member of Boogaloo Bois charged with opening fire on Minneapolis police precinct during protests over George Floyd Star Tribune
- Bakst, Brian (July 10, 2020). Guard mobilized quickly, adjusted on fly for Floyd unrest". MPR News. Retrieved July 10, 2020.
- Doran, Kevin (June 11, 2020). "How the Minnesota National Guard connected with protesters during the George Floyd demonstrations". KSTP. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
- Mystery remains weeks after a pawnshop owner fatally shot a man during Minneapolis unrest Star Tribune.
- Jany, Libor (July 20, 2020). "Authorities: Body found in wreckage of S. Minneapolis pawn shop burned during George Floyd unrest". Star Tribune. Retrieved on July 20, 2020.
- Pham, Scott (June 2, 2020). "Police Arrested More Than 11,000 People At Protests Across The US". BuzzFeed News.
- Lurie, Julia (July 15, 2020). "Weeks Later, 500 People Still Face Charges for Peacefully Protesting in Minneapolis". Mother Jones. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
- "For riot-damaged Twin Cities businesses, rebuilding begins with donations, pressure on government". Star Tribune. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
- Penrod, Josh; Sinner, C.J.; Webster, MaryJo (June 19, 2020). "Buildings damaged in Minneapolis, St. Paul after riots". Star Tribune.
- Braxton, Grey (June 16, 2020). "They documented the ’92 L.A. uprising. Here's how the George Floyd movement compares". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved on July 6, 2020.
- Walsh, James (June 12, 2020). "Shrine to George Floyd could be permanent at Minneapolis intersection". Star Tribune.
- Nguyen, Christine T.; Burks, Megan; Frost, Evan (December 2, 2020). "Making George Floyd's Square: Meet the people transforming 38th and Chicago". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
- Al-Arshani, Sarah. "Protesters in Minneapolis say they won't clear barricades around the George Floyd Memorial until the city leaders meet their 24 demands". Insider. Retrieved November 25, 2020.
- Staff (August 11, 2020). "Protesters Call For Minneapolis Leaders To Meet Demands Before Clearing Barricades Around George Floyd Memorial". WCCO. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
- Lauritsen, John (September 11, 2020). "'I Believe In Justice': Hundreds Of Protesters Gather Outside George Floyd Pretrial Hearing". WCCO. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
- Eliott C. McLaughlin and Brad Parks. "Protesters take to streets following release on bond of former officer charged in George Floyd's killing". CNN. Retrieved October 23, 2020.
- "More than 50 protesters arrested during faceoff with law enforcement in Minneapolis after Derek Chauvin release". Star Tribune. Retrieved October 23, 2020.
- Navratil, Liz (March 4, 2021). "Minneapolis, Hennepin County to spend more than $1M on barricades ahead of Derek Chauvin trial". Star Tribune. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
- Xiong, Chao (March 8, 2021). "World watches as Chauvin trial begins in George Floyd killing". Star Tribune. Retrieved March 8, 2021.
- Falconer, Rebecca (March 8, 2021). "In photos: Minnesota protesters rally for George Floyd on eve of Derek Chauvin's trial". Axios. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
- Brown, Kyle (March 6, 2021). "Shooting kills 1 near George Floyd memorial". KTSP. Retrieved March 6, 2021.
- Martínez, Andrés R.; Arango, Tim (March 29, 2021). "First Witnesses in Derek Chauvin Trial Testify About George Floyd's Death". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 2, 2021.
- Hughes, Trevor (April 4, 2021). "'No justice, no streets': Still grieving, Minneapolis residents wonder how city will move forward after Derek Chauvin trial". USA Today. Retrieved April 5, 2021.
- Plambeck, Sean (April 20, 2021). "Derek Chauvin Trial Live Updates: Chauvin Found Guilty of Murdering George Floyd". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
- Dernbach, Beck Z.; Peters, Joey; Ansari, Hibah; Hazard, Andrews (April 20, 2021). "For George Floyd, justice. For Minneapolis, a long-delayed reckoning with racism and police violence". Sahan Journal. Retrieved April 20, 2021.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Iati, Marisa; Foster-Frau, Silvia; Bellware, Kim (April 25, 2021). "After the Chauvin verdict, Minneapolis activists fuel up and prepare for the long fight ahead". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
- Ismail, Aymann (April 21, 2021). "A Few Feet From Where George Floyd Died, the Verdict Hit Different". Slate Magazine. Retrieved April 22, 2021.
- Nelson, Tim Nelson; Frost, Evan; Burks, Megan (April 20, 2021). "Photos: Crowds cheer, celebrate after Chauvin convicted of murder and manslaughter". MPR News. Retrieved April 22, 2021.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Oursler, Alyssa; DalCortivo, Anna (April 20, 2021). "Chauvin Trial Verdict: All Roads Lead to 38th & Chicago". The Nation. ISSN 0027-8378. Retrieved April 22, 2021.
- Washington, Jesse (April 19, 2021). "At George Floyd Square, the work continues regardless of a verdict". The Undefeated. Retrieved April 22, 2021.
- Betz, Bradford (April 21, 2021). "Minneapolis' George Floyd Square features special instructions for White people". Fox News. Retrieved April 22, 2021.
- Ismail, Aymann (April 20, 2021). "When the Verdict Came Down". Slate. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
- Hendricks, Trisha (April 25, 2021). "ASU professor creates 'George Floyd Square' documentary". 12 News KPNX. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
- Buncombe, Andrew (May 7, 2021). "What will happen to the George Floyd memorial – and all the others of Black men killed by Minneapolis police?". Independent. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
- Walsh, Paul (May 18, 2021). "Celebration of life planned at George Floyd Square to mark year since he was killed by Minneapolis police". Star Tribune. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- Champan, Reg (June 25, 2021). "'Happy, But Also Not Happy': Community Reaction Mixed After Chauvin Sentencing". WCCO-TV. Retrieved June 25, 2021.
- Lick, Val (June 25, 2021). "'A slap on the wrist', George Floyd's family reacts to Derek Chauvin sentencing". KARE-TV. Retrieved June 25, 2021.
- Norfleet, Nicole; Forgrave, Reid (June 26, 2021). "Derek Chauvin's sentencing sparks relief but also resolve to keep fighting injustice". Star Tribune. Retrieved June 26, 2021.
- Sergent, Jim; Loehrke, Janet; Padilla, Ramon; Hertel, Nora (June 1, 2020). "George Floyd protests: How did we get here?". USA Today. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- Ortiz, Fernie (June 10, 2020). "ICE now says detainees held hunger strike in honor of George Floyd". Border Report. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
- Frias, Lauren (May 29, 2020). "Watch inmates at a federal prison in downtown Chicago bang on walls and flash lights in solidarity with George Floyd protesters". Insider. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
- "George Floyd death: US protests timeline". BBC News. June 4, 2020. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- Elfrink, Tim; Iati, Marisa. "Seattle mayor blasts Trump's threat to 'take back' city after protesters set up 'autonomous zone'". Washington Post.
- Baker, Mike (June 11, 2020). "Free Food, Free Speech and Free of Police: Inside Seattle's 'Autonomous Zone'". The New York Times.
- "#ShutDownAcademia #ShutDownSTEM". #ShutDownAcademia #ShutDownSTEM. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
- Patil, Anushka (June 15, 2020). "How a March for Black Trans Lives Became a Huge Event". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
- Patil, Anushka (June 15, 2020). "How a March for Black Trans Lives Became a Huge Event". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
- Wortham, Jenna (June 5, 2020). "A 'Glorious Poetic Rage'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
- Adams, M.; Johnson, Janetta. "We Must Do Better Fighting For Black Trans Lives". Essence. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
- "ILWU to Shut Down West Coast Ports on Juneteenth in Solidarity with George Floyd Protesters". KQED. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
- Wayland, Michael (June 17, 2020). "United Auto Workers organizing 'peaceful and orderly stand downs' on Juneteenth for George Floyd and racial protests". CNBC. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
- Bogel-Burroughs, Nicholas (June 18, 2020). "8 Minutes, 46 Seconds Became a Symbol in George Floyd's Death. The Exact Time Is Less Clear". The New York Times. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
The precise length of time that Mr. Floyd was pinned beneath the officer's knee, however, is no longer as exact.
- "Which US police reform plan might become law?". BBC News. June 17, 2020.
- Grisales, Claudia. "House Approves Police Reform Bill, But Issue Stalled Amid Partisan Standoff". NPR. Retrieved June 29, 2020.
- "Juneteenth in Brooklyn". Bklyner. June 19, 2020. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
- Buchanan, Larry; Bui, Quoctrung; Patel, Jugal K. (May 25, 2021). "Live Updates: Biden Meets With George Floyd's Family as America Marks His Death". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 25, 2021.
- Beck, Kellen (July 5, 2020). "Protests surged nationwide on July 4 in a collective call for a better America". Mashable. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
- Jacobson, Don (July 20, 2020). "National 'Strike for Black Lives' to fight racism, low wages". United Press International. News World Communications. Retrieved July 22, 2020.
- Staff (August 28, 2020). "March on Washington: George Floyd family urge protesters to 'be his legacy'". BBC News. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
- Levinson, Eric (September 8, 2020). "Labor Day weekend saw protests across the country as summer nears its end". CNN. Retrieved September 8, 2020.
- Staff (September 7, 2020). "Protesters March In Wynwood, Commemorating 100 Days Since George Floyd's Death". WFOR-TV. Retrieved May 22, 2021.
- KATU Staff (October 14, 2020). "Protesters stage sit-in at Portland's Revolution Hall to mark George Floyd's 47th birthday". KATU.
- Togoh, Isabel (October 15, 2020). "Mourners Across The U.S. Gather For What Would Have Been George Floyd's 47th Birthday". Forbes. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
- Brooks, Brad (November 1, 2020). "In George Floyd's hometown, a season of protest ends at the polls". Reuters. Retrieved December 20, 2020.
- Morrison, Aaron (November 3, 2020). "George Floyd's brother rallies voters on Election Day". Associated Press. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
- Baker, Mike (April 27, 2021). "After Nearly a Year of Unrest, Portland Leaders Pursue a Crackdown". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
- Falk, Gabi (March 4, 2021). "Activists Rally in Mass., Calling for Justice for George Floyd". WBTS-CD. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
- Manzoni, Matt (March 6, 2021). "Protesters at Boston Rallies Call for Justice for George Floyd, Action on Police Killing Cases". NBC News 10 Boston. Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 22, 2021. Retrieved May 20, 2021.
- Tabin, Sara (March 6, 2021). "Utahns protest George Floyd's death with car caravan". Retrieved March 6, 2021.
- Flores, Jennifer (April 9, 2021). "Prayer Vigil for George Floyd to be held in Houston". Crossroads Today. Retrieved May 22, 2021.
- Anderson, David (April 22, 2021). "Participants in Aberdeen rally celebrate Chauvin guilty verdict, stress need to keep working on police reform". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
- Hayes, Christal. "'GUILTY!' Across the US, cheers fill city streets after Derek Chauvin is convicted in the death of George Floyd". USA TODAY. Retrieved May 20, 2021.
- D'Onofrio, Jessica (April 21, 2021). "Chauvin reaction in downtown Chicago remains peaceful despite businesses boarding up, National Guard on standby". WLS-TV. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
- Aradillas, Elaine; Kantor, Wendy (April 21, 2021). "Racial Justice Activists on What's Next After Derek Chauvin's Conviction for George Floyd's Murder". People.
- Peña, Lindsey (May 19, 2021). "George Floyd's cousin, Gary Jones, joins calls for change in San Diego". KGTV-TV. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
- Staff (April 20, 2021). "Virginia state, local lawmakers react to former officer being found guilty of George Floyd's murder". WWBT. Retrieved May 20, 2021.
- Alfonseca, Kiara (April 28, 2021). "Police reform advocates on what 'justice' for George Floyd really means". ABC News. Retrieved April 28, 2021.
- McCullough, Jolie (April 23, 2021). "Relatives of Texans killed by police hope Derek Chauvin's conviction will advance the state's George Floyd Act". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
- Azeem, Athiyah; May 19, Aoife Maher-Ryan //; 2021 (May 19, 2021). "Mothers rally to pass police reform in George Floyd's name". www.streetsensemedia.org. Retrieved May 21, 2021.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- DeHaven, James (May 19, 2021). "A year after George Floyd murder, police reform is hitting a wall in Nevada Legislature". Reno Gazette-Journal. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
- WTVD (May 20, 2021). "Remembrance plans released for 1-year anniversary of George Floyd's death". ABC11 Raleigh-Durham. Retrieved May 20, 2021.
- Haavik, Emily (May 20, 2021). "'God always gives me the strength': George Floyd's sister reflects on one year since his murder". KARE-11. Retrieved May 20, 2021.
- Bragg, Ndea Yancey (May 20, 2021). "'We will celebrate my brother's life': George Floyd's family to hold rallies, marches for one-year anniversary of his death". USA Today. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
- "George Floyd Memorial Honoring Anniversary of Death Held in Brooklyn". uk.news.yahoo.com. Retrieved May 23, 2021.
- Staff (May 23, 2021). "'Convicting Chauvin is not enough': Leaders urge reform at rally marking 1 year since George Floyd's death". CBS News. Retrieved May 24, 2021.
- Cillizza, Chris Cillizza (May 26, 2021). "Analysis: 1 picture to make you hopeful after a year of protests for racial justice". CNN. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
- "BLM activists, mayoral candidate Donovan arrested at George Floyd protest near Holland Tunnel". PIX11. May 25, 2021. Retrieved May 25, 2021.
- "Police declare riot in Portland as protesters mark 1 year since George Floyd's death". ABC News. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
- "Riot declared in downtown Portland, police arrest 5 people". KPTV.com. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
- "Protests across the globe after George Floyd's death". cnn.com. CNN. June 6, 2020. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- "Thousands join paddle outs at Hawaii beaches to honor George Floyd". HawaiiNewsNow.com. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
- "NYPD Boats 'Monitor' A Paddle Out In Rockaway". Stab Magazine. July 6, 2020. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
- "Surfers 'paddle out,' circle up in memory of George Floyd". nz.news.yahoo.com. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
- Press, Brian Melley, Associated (June 6, 2020). "Galveston surfers among those who honored George Floyd in 'paddle out' held around world". KPRC. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
- Hayes, Suyin; Gunia, Amy; Moon, Kat; Nugent, Ciara; Shah, Simmone (May 11, 2021). "How Activists Around the World Are Fighting for Justice". Time. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
- Neale, Rick. "Downtown Melbourne prayer vigil calls for justice and healing as Chauvin jury deliberates". Florida Today. Retrieved May 22, 2021.
- Cineas, Fabiola (April 20, 2021). "Why Chauvin's conviction matters". Vox. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
- Press, ELAINE GANLEY and SYLVIA HUI | Associated (April 21, 2021). "Floyd verdict sparks hope, inspiration for activists abroad". WCTI. Retrieved May 22, 2021.
- Morisson, Aaron. "George Floyd spurred broad push for change globally, activists say". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Associated Press. Retrieved May 22, 2021.
- Staff (April 22, 2021). "Paris Perspective - Paris Perspective #9: Discrimination in France and the 'George Floyd effect'". RFI. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
- Rubertucci, Alyssia (May 17, 2021). "No real action to end racial injustice in Montreal since George Floyd murder: activists - NEWS 1130". City News 1130. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
- Francois, Myriam (May 19, 2021). "Adama Traore: How George Floyd's death energised French protests". BBC News. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
- Staff (May 22, 2021). "Protesters in London mark anniversary of George Floyd death". The Guardian. Retrieved May 22, 2021.
- Greene, Tim Balk, Shant Shahrigian, Leonard. "New Yorkers mark one-year anniversary of George Floyd's death with long moment of silence and protest". New York Daily News. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
- Staff (May 25, 2021). "Cities around the world honor George Floyd's memory". Spectrum News. Spectrum News and Associated Press. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
- Ajasa, Amudalat (May 25, 2021). "Minneapolis celebrates George Floyd's life after a 'troubling, long year'". The Guardian. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
- Wilkie, Christina; Macias, Amanda (June 1, 2020). "Trump threatens to deploy military as George Floyd protests continue to shake the U.S." CNBC. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
- Relman, Eliza (June 1, 2020). "GOP Sen. Tom Cotton calls for the US Army's toughest soldiers to quell 'domestic terrorism' and suggests protesters should be shown no mercy". Business Insider. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
- "Mass. elected officials denounce Trump's threat to use military to quell protests – The Boston Globe". BostonGlobe.com. June 1, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
- Hansen, Claire (June 5, 2020). "Tall Fencing Creates Large, Imposing Perimeter Around White House". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
- Proud, Kelsey; Strupp, Julie; Gathright, Jenny; Diller, Nathan (June 8, 2020). "The New White House Fence Is Getting Covered In Protest Art". NPR. Archived from the original on June 16, 2020. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
- Jackson, David (June 11, 2020). "Anti-protester fencing around Lafayette Park near White House comes down". USA Today. Archived from the original on June 13, 2020. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
- Cox, Joseph (June 3, 2020). "The Government is Regularly Flying Predator Drones Over American Cities". Vice.
- Sands, Geneva (May 29, 2020). "Customs and Border Protection Drone Flew over Minneapolis to Provide Live Video to Law Enforcement". CNN.
- Balsamo, Michael (June 1, 2020). "Barr: Law enforcement must 'dominate' streets amid protests". WHIO-TV. Archived from the original on June 5, 2020. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
- "Customs and Border Patrol officers deployed to help D.C. police amid unrest in city". WJLA-TV. June 1, 2020.
- Rawnsley, Adam (June 3, 2020). "Mystery Officers Patrolling D.C. Streets Are From Federal Prisons". The Daily Beast.
- Capaccio, Anthony (June 4, 2020). "Federal Plan to Control D.C. Protests Has 7,600 Personnel Tapped". Bloomberg News.
- Leopold, Jason; Cormier, Anthony (June 2, 2020). "The DEA Has Just Been Authorized to Conduct Surveillance on Protesters". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- Leopold, Jason; Cormier, Anthony (June 5, 2020). "Lawmakers Call For Halt To Covert Surveillance Of Protesters By DEA". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- Levinson, Jonathan; Wilson, Conrad. "Federal Law Enforcement Use Unmarked Vehicles To Grab Protesters Off Portland Streets". Oregon Public Broadcasting. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
- Phillips, N'dea Yancey-Bragg and Kristine. "Federal officers are pulling Portland protesters into unmarked vehicles, reports say". USA TODAY. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
- Shepherd, Katie (July 17, 2020). "'It was like being preyed upon': Portland protesters say federal officers in unmarked vans are detaining them". The Washington Post.
- Olmos, Sergio; Baker, Mike (July 17, 2020). "Feds Vowed to Quell Unrest in Portland. Local Leaders Are Telling Them to Leave". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
- Ross, Jamie (July 17, 2020). "Unidentified Federal Agents Are Driving Around Portland in Unmarked Minivans and Grabbing Protesters". The Daily Beast. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
- Heer, Jeet (July 17, 2020). "Trump Unleashes His Secret Police in Portland". The Nation. ISSN 0027-8378. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
- "ACLU tweet". Twitter. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
Usually when we see people in unmarked cars forcibly grab someone off the street we call it kidnapping — what is happening now in Portland should concern everyone in the US
- Pratt, Gregory; Gorner, Jeremy (July 20, 2020). "Trump expected to send new federal force to Chicago this week to battle violence, but plan's full scope is a question mark". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 21, 2020.
- "Executive Order 13933 of June 26, 2020" (PDF). Federal Register. 85 (128): 1–4. July 2, 2020. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
- "Homeland Security Gets New Role Under Trump Monument Order". U.S. News and World Report. Associated Press. July 10, 2020. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
- Lowndes, Joe (July 12, 2020). "It wasn't just a threat: Trump uses Homeland Security to attack BLM protests". Joe Lowndes. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
- Levinson, Jonathan. "Federal Officers Shoot Portland Protester In Head With 'Less Lethal' Munitions". Oregon Public Broadcasting. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
- "Portland mayor demands Trump remove federal agents from city". The Guardian. Associated Press. July 18, 2020. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
- Epstein, Reid J.; Mazzei, Patricia (April 21, 2021). "G.O.P. Bills Target Protesters (and Absolve Motorists Who Hit Them)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 22, 2021.
- A Judge Has Blocked The 'Anti-Riot' Law Passed In Florida After George Floyd Protests
- Staff. "Fearing Violence, France Bans George Floyd Protests at U.S. Embassy, Eiffel Tower". US News & World Report. Reuters.
- McEvoy, Jemima. "14 Days Of Protests, 19 Dead". Forbes. Retrieved September 8, 2020.
- "More Than 100 Arrests, 13 Officers Hurt Amid Chicago Looting". VOA News. August 10, 2020.
- "These are all the cities where protests and riots have erupted over George Floyd's death". New Jersey Local News. June 2, 2020.
- "Ambassador Andrew Young says Atlanta protest 'disintegrated into foolishness'". 11Alive.com.
- "George Floyd's children denounce violence following protests across the country". WGN-TV. June 1, 2020. Archived from the original on June 4, 2020. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
- Dewan, Shaila; Baker, Mike (June 1, 2020). "Facing Protests Over Use of Force, Police Respond With More Force". The New York Times. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- "USA: police must end 'excessive' militarised response to George Floyd protests". Amnesty International. May 31, 2020.
- Falconer, Rebecca (May 31, 2020). "Amnesty International: U.S. police must end militarized response to protests". Axios.
- Simon, Mollie (June 17, 2021). "Few cops who used force on Floyd protesters are known to have faced discipline". ProPublica. Retrieved June 21, 2021.
- Hauck, Grace (July 9, 2020). "Cars have hit demonstrators 104 times since George Floyd protests began". USA Today. Retrieved July 17, 2021.
- Allam, Hannah (June 21, 2020). "Vehicle Attacks Rise As Extremists Target Protesters". NPR.
- Grabar, Henry (August 14, 2017). "Mowing Down Crowds of Protesters Was a Right-Wing Fantasy Long Before Charlottesville". Slate Magazine. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
- "3 law enforcement officers hurt after being hit by vehicle during Buffalo protests". WGRZ Staff. June 1, 2020. Retrieved May 20, 2021.
- "National Guard involved in at least two shootings, one fatal, in response to protests throughout US". Rose L. Thayer. June 1, 2020. Retrieved May 9, 2021.
- "National Guard soldier fired rounds at fast-approaching driver Sunday night". Fox 9. June 1, 2020. Retrieved May 20, 2021.
- "3 Arrested After Buffalo Police Officer, 2 State Troopers Hit by Vehicle During Protest". Brandon Lewis and Spectrum news staff. June 1, 2020. Retrieved May 20, 2021.
- Herb, Jeremy; Perez, Evan; O'Sullivan, Donie; Morales, Mark (May 31, 2020). "What we know about the extremists taking part in riots across the US". CNN. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- Seldin, Jeff (June 4, 2020). "US Accuses Foreign, Online Actors of Inflaming Tensions". Voice of America. Archived from the original on June 22, 2020.
- Neugeboren, Eric (August 21, 2020). "Police Response to Press at Black Lives Matter Protests Tests First Amendment". Voice of America.
- Timm, Trevor (June 4, 2020). "We Crunched the Numbers: Police — Not Protesters — Are Overwhelmingly Responsible for Attacking Journalists". The Intercept.
- Reyes, Lorenzo (May 31, 2020). "Journalists blinded, injured, arrested covering George Floyd protests nationwide". USA Today.
- Walsh, Paul (June 11, 2020). "Officers slashed tires on vehicles parked amid Minneapolis protests, unrest". StarTribune.
- Kelly, Meg; Lee, Joyce Sohyun; Swaine, Jon (July 14, 2020). "Partially blinded by police". Washington Post.
- LARRY NEUMEISTER and TOM HAYS (June 21, 2020). "Injuries at George Floyd protests draw scrutiny to use of 'nonlethal' police weaponry". StarTribune.
- Liz Sawyer and Libor Jany (July 2, 2020). "Complaints skyrocket over police response to George Floyd protests". StarTribune.
- Herb, Jeremy; Perez, Evan; O'Sullivan, Donie; Morales, Mark (May 31, 2020). "What we do and don't know about the extremists taking part in riots across the US". CNN. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- "Anarchists infiltrating George Floyd protests in NYC, officials say". WABC-TV. June 2, 2020.
- "Wray claims FBI sees 'anarchists like Antifa' exploiting George Floyd protests". Yahoo News. June 4, 2020.
- "As Trump Blames Antifa, Protest Records Show Scant Evidence". Associated Press. June 6, 2020. Retrieved June 9, 2020 – via Voice of America.
The Associated Press analyzed court records, employment histories, social media posts and other sources of information for 217 people arrested last weekend [...] only a handful appeared to have any affiliation with organized groups. [...] Social media posts indicate only a few of those arrested are left-leaning activists, including a self-described anarchist. But others had indications of being on the political right, including some Trump supporters.
- Feuer, Alan; Goldman, Adam; MacFarquhar, Neil (June 11, 2020). "Federal Arrests Show No Sign That Antifa Plotted Protests". The New York Times. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
Despite claims by President Trump and Attorney General William P. Barr, there is scant evidence that loosely organized anti-fascists are a significant player in protests. [...] A review of the arrests of dozens of people on federal charges reveals no known effort by antifa to perpetrate a coordinated campaign of violence. Some criminal complaints described vague, anti-government political leanings among suspects, but a majority of the violent acts that have taken place at protests have been attributed by federal prosecutors to individuals with no affiliation to any particular group. [...] Dermot F. Shea, the city's police commissioner, acknowledged that most of the hundreds of people arrested at the protests in New York were actually New Yorkers who took advantage of the chaos to commit crimes and were not motivated by political ideology. John Miller, the police official who had briefed reporters, told CNN that most looting in New York had been committed by "regular criminal groups."
- Kelly, Meg; Samuels, Elyse (June 22, 2020). "Who caused the violence at protests? It wasn't antifa". The Washington Post.
- "Comparison between Capitol siege, BLM protests is denounced". AP NEWS. January 14, 2021. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- "Nearly all Black Lives Matter protests are peaceful despite Trump narrative, report finds". the Guardian. September 5, 2020. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- "93% of Black Lives Matter Protests Have Been Peaceful, New Report Finds". Time. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- Mannix, Andy (December 20, 2020). "Court records, FBI contradict Trump's claims of organized 'antifa-led' riots in Minneapolis after George Floyd's death". Star Tribune. Retrieved December 21, 2020.
- "Police point finger at gangs and local groups for riot damages, contradicting Trump's claims". CNN. June 10, 2020.
- Burghart, Devin (June 19, 2020). "Mapping Paramilitary and Far-Right Threats to Racial Justice". IREHR. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
- Timberg, Craig; Dwoskin, Elizabeth; Mekhennet, Souad. "Men wearing Hawaiian shirts and carrying guns add a volatile new element to protests". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved January 31, 2021 – via www.washingtonpost.com.
- "Facebook bans 'violent' Boogaloo-linked network". BBC News. July 1, 2020. Retrieved July 3, 2020.
- Clayton, James (July 3, 2020). "TikTok's Boogaloo extremism problem". BBC News. Retrieved July 3, 2020.
- Danner, Chas (July 27, 2020). "What We Know About the Austin BLM Protest Shooting". New York. Archived from the original on August 22, 2020. Retrieved August 20, 2020.
- McGaughy, Lauren (July 26, 2020). "Austin police investigating shooting death of protester". Dallas Morning News.
- Venkataramanan, Meena (July 30, 2020). "For Austin officials investigating Garrett Foster's death, a key question may be which party acted in self-defense".
- "'Boogaloo Bois' face new charges for possessing machine guns, silencers". Star Tribune. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- Sepic, Matt (December 10, 2020). "Twin Cities man sentenced for arson from riots". MPR News. Retrieved December 20, 2020.
- Montemayor, Stephen (May 4, 2021). "Minnesota man is second Boogaloo member to plead to federal terror charges". Star Tribune. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
- KSTP staff (November 6, 2020). "2 'Boogaloo Bois,' 1 from Minnesota, newly charged with providing material support to Hamas". KSTP. Retrieved November 6, 2020.
- Jackson, Zöe (September 4, 2020). "2 'Boogaloo Bois' charged with conspiring with terrorist organization". Star Tribune. Retrieved May 7, 2021.
- Pross, Katrina. "'Boogaloo Bois' member pleads guilty in terrorism case in aftermath of George Floyd unrest". Duluth News Tribune. Retrieved December 20, 2020.
- Mannix, Andy (October 24, 2020). "Texas member of Boogaloo Bois charged with opening fire on Minneapolis police precinct during protests over George Floyd". Star Tribune. Retrieved October 24, 2020.
- Campbell, Josh (October 23, 2020). "Suspected Boogaloo Bois member arrested and charged with rioting". CNN. Retrieved October 23, 2020.
- Even If It's 'Bonkers,' Poll Finds Many Believe QAnon And Other Conspiracy Theories
- Craig, Tim (September 3, 2020). "'The United States is in crisis': Report tracks thousands of summer protests, most nonviolent". Washington Post.
- Erica Chenoweth & Jeremy Pressman (October 16, 2020). "This summer's Black Lives Matter protesters were overwhelmingly peaceful, our research finds". Washington Post.
- Julie Watson (January 14, 2021). "Comparison between Capitol siege, BLM protests is denounced". Associated Press.
The unrest that followed Floyd’s death included vandalism, arson and looting, but the vast majority of demonstrations were peaceful.... But prominent BLM activists repeatedly distanced themselves from provocateurs and brawlers. Much of the violence came from provoked and unprovoked confrontations with police, during city-imposed curfews and after peaceful demonstrators had gone home. An analysis of more than 7,750 demonstrations in 2,400 locations across the country found that 93% happened with no violence, according to the US Crisis Monitor, a joint effort by Princeton University and the Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project.
- Boone, Anna (June 7, 2020). "One week that shook the world: George Floyd's death ignited protests far beyond Minneapolis". Star Tribune.
- Staff (May 29, 2021). "Twelve months of protests". The Economist. Retrieved June 2, 2021.
- Ontiveroz, Aaron (May 30, 2021). "A year after George Floyd protest movement, Black Coloradans discuss inflection point". The Denver Post. Retrieved June 2, 2021.
- Porterfield, Carlie. "'Justice For George Floyd' Petition Becomes Most Popular Ever In U.S. For Change.org". Forbes. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
- "'Justice for George Floyd' petition becomes most signed Change.org petition of all time". Republic World. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
- Flood, Brian (May 28, 2020). "George Floyd protests: Video footage goes viral on social media". Fox News. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- Haasch, Palmer (May 29, 2020). "People are posting Minneapolis protest footage to TikTok and 'This Is America' has become their anthem". Insider. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- Adams, Heather (June 1, 2020). "Social media captures Boston peaceful protests that turned to riots sparked by George Floyd's death". masslive. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- Eadens, Savannah (June 1, 2020). "Viral photo shows line of white people between police, black protesters at Thursday rally". The Courier-Journal. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
- Flores, Jessica (May 31, 2020). "The birth of the #WalkWithUs movement: Local leaders join George Floyd protesters across US in a show of solidarity". USA Today. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- Keating, Shannon (June 4, 2020). "Stop Sharing Viral Photos Of Cops Kneeling With Protesters". BuzzFeed News.
- Tesfaye, Sophia (June 5, 2020). "Copaganda: Most major media is still much too eager to embrace police-friendly framing".
- Darville, Jordan (June 2, 2020). "How to help in the George Floyd protests and beyond". The Fader.
- LeBlanc, Cameron (June 2, 2020). "Let's Talk About That 'Brooklyn Nine-Nine' Scene That's Going Around". Fatherly.
- McCurry, Justin (June 5, 2020). "K-pop fans join forces to drown out opposition to #BlackLivesMatter". The Guardian. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
- Lee, Alicia (June 4, 2020). "K-pop fans are taking over 'White Lives Matter' and other anti-Black hashtags with memes and fancams of their favorite stars". CNN. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
- Hou, Kathleen (June 4, 2020). "K-Pop Stans Unite to Take Over WhiteLivesMatter Hashtag". The Cut. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
- "Anonymous Message To The Minneapolis Police Department" – via www.facebook.com.
- Griffin, Andrew (June 1, 2020). "'Anonymous' is back and is supporting the Black Lives Matter protests". The Independent. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- Mehrotra, Kartikay; Tarabay, Jamie (May 31, 2020). "Anonymous Vows to 'Expose' Minneapolis Police, Site Attacked»". Bloomberg. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
- Dwoskin, Elizabeth; Tiku, Nitasha (June 5, 2020). "Facebook employees said they were 'caught in an abusive relationship' with Trump as internal debates raged". The Washington Post.
- Frenkel, Sheera; Isaac, Mike; Kang, Cecilia; Dance, Gabriel J. X. (June 1, 2020). "Facebook Employees Stage Virtual Walkout to Protest Trump Posts". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
- "Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey says download Signal as US protests gain steam". indiatimes.com. The Economic Times. June 5, 2020. Retrieved November 3, 2020.
- Nierenberg, Amelia (June 11, 2020). "Signal Downloads Are Way Up Since the Protests Began". The New York Times. Retrieved November 3, 2020.
- Condon, Patrick (May 30, 2020). "Gov. Walz to 'fully mobilize' the National Guard". Star Tribune. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
- Axelrod, Tal (May 30, 2020). "St. Paul mayor says arrested protesters were from out of state". The Hill. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
- Cranley, Ellen; Mark, Michelle (May 30, 2020). "Minnesota lawmakers said violence during George Floyd protests was from 'outside' actors, but jail records show most arrests are in-state". Insider Inc. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
- McNamara, Audrey (May 30, 2020). "St. Paul mayor says earlier comments about arrested protesters being out of state were not correct". CBS News. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
- Gjelten, Tom (June 1, 2020). "Peaceful Protesters Tear-Gassed To Clear Way For Trump Church Photo-Op". NPR. Archived from the original on June 2, 2020. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
- "Statement from U.S. Park Police acting Chief Gregory T. Monahan about the actions taken to protect life and property". U.S. Park Police. National Park Service. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
- Smith, Lilly (June 4, 2020). "It's terrible that we even have to explain what pepper balls are, but here we are". Fast Company. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
- "Trump campaign demands story retractions on tear gas use". Al Jazeera. June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
- Albeen, Eric (June 3, 2020). "President Trump on the Brian Kilmeade Show". Fox News Radio. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
- Fichera, Angelo (June 4, 2020). "Viral Posts Share Old, Edited White House Photo in Dark". FactCheck.org.
- Da Silva, Chantal (June 1, 2020). "White House Says Lights Go Out Same Time 'Almost Every Night' After Facing Criticism for Going Dark Amid Protests". Retrieved June 7, 2020.
- Borger, Julian (June 1, 2020). "Fires light up Washington DC on third night of George Floyd protests". The Guardian. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
- "Old image edited to show White House black out". Associated Press. June 1, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
- "Democrats share altered 'lights out' photo of White House on social media". Washington Examiner. June 2, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
- Wolf, Cam (June 4, 2020). "That Viral "$2.4 Million Rolex Looting" Story? It Never Happened". GQ. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- Moore, Tina (June 1, 2020). "Conflicting reports of looting at Soho Rolex store". New York Post. Retrieved June 4, 2020.
- Brunner, Jim (June 12, 2020). "Fox News runs digitally altered images in coverage of Seattle's protests, Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone". The Seattle Times.
- "'Antifa bus' hoaxes are spreading panic through small-town America". The Verge. June 5, 2020.
- "False claims of antifa protesters plague small U.S. cities". Detroit News. June 2, 2020.
- "Family reportedly harassed in Forks after being accused of being members of Antifa". Peninsula Daily News. June 6, 2020.
- Boburg, Shawn (July 4, 2020). "Militias flocked to Gettysburg to foil a supposed Antifa flag burning, an apparent hoax created on social media". Washington Post. Retrieved July 8, 2020.
- Seitz, Amanda (May 30, 2020). "Minneapolis protest misinformation stokes racial tensions". Star Tribune. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
- "Did an undercover cop really vandalize a Minnesota AutoZone?". The Daily Dot. May 29, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
- "'Not Our Officer': St. Paul PD Says Social Media Post Claiming One Of Its Officers Incited Mpls. Riots Is False". May 28, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
- Saint Paul Police Department. "YouTube". youtube.com. Archived from the original on February 3, 2021. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
- Weill, Kelly and Bredderman, William (July 28, 2020). "This Is the Alleged White Supremacist ‘Umbrella Man’ Police Suspect of Minneapolis Chaos". The Daily Beast. Retrieved on July 28, 2020.
- Timberg, Craig; Dwoskin, Elizabeth; Nirappil, Fenit. "Twitter became a major vehicle for misinformation about unrest in D.C." Washington Post.
- "'None Of This Is True': Protests Become Fertile Ground for Online Disinformation". NPR.org.
- Sebenius, Alyza; Wagner, Kurt (June 2, 2020). "Twitter Suspends Hundreds Tweeting #dcblackout During Protests". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- Klepper, David; Hinnant, Lori (June 21, 2020). "Is George Soros paying protesters? Soros' conspiracy theories surge as protests sweep nation". USA Today. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
- Balz, Dan; Miller, Greg (June 6, 2020). "America convulses amid a week of protests, but can it change?". Washington Post. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
- Thompson, Alex. "White America is reckoning with racism. It could reshape 2020". Politico. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
- Woodly, Deva. "An American Reckoning". Public Seminar. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
- Elving, Ron (June 13, 2020). "Will This Be The Moment Of Reckoning On Race That Lasts?". National Public Radio. Retrieved November 8, 2020.
- Brianna Keilar: You are watching America's reckoning - CNN Video, retrieved July 2, 2020
- "Seeds of honesty in a US reckoning on race". Christian Science Monitor. June 23, 2020. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
- "Amid U.S. reckoning on race, Black candidates harness voters' fervor for change". Reuters. June 25, 2020. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
- "Opinion | Lincoln's D.C. statue is having a cultural reckoning of its own". Washington Post. Retrieved July 3, 2020.
- McIntyre, Dave (July 3, 2020). "The Court of Master Sommeliers has been called out for racism. Now, it is pledging change". Washington Post. Retrieved July 4, 2020.
- Reny, Tyler T.; Newman, Benjamin J. (2021). "The Opinion-Mobilizing Effect of Social Protest against Police Violence: Evidence from the 2020 George Floyd Protests". American Political Science Review: 1–9. doi:10.1017/S0003055421000460.
- "Powell Discusses Fed Policy and U.S. Unrest". The New York Times. Associated Press. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
- Alberight, Amanda (May 31, 2020). "George Floyd protests hammer cities as they reopen from coronavirus lockdowns". Fortune. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- Leticia Miranda, First came a pandemic. Then, looting. Small businesses pick up the pieces as their debt mounts., NBC News (June 4, 2020).
- Russell Lynch, US riots set to scar economy for years to come, The Telegraph (June 6, 2020).
- Lahut, Jake. "Trump says the jobs report is 'the greatest thing' for race relations, and the economy is his plan to address systemic racism". Business Insider. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
- Reinicke, Joseph Zeballos-Roig, Carmen. "Chart shows that black Americans weren't part of the surprise May hiring bump that benefited white and Latino workers". Business Insider. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
- Meredith, Sam (June 2, 2020). "What history can tell us about how stock markets react to civil unrest". CNBC. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
- Rabouin, Dion. "Pandemic and protests can't stop the stock market". Axios. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
- Marcilious, Siblie (June 1, 2020). "3 ways civil unrest following George Floyd nationwide protests hurts the stock market". finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- Jim Sams, Insured Losses from Riots Reach 'Catastrophe' Levels, May Rival Record, Claims Journal (June 2, 2020).
- Penrod, Josh; Sinner, C.J.; Webster, MaryJo (June 19, 2020). "Buildings damaged in Minneapolis, St. Paul after riots". Star Tribune.
- Burl Gilyard, Riots Destroy $30M Affordable Housing Project Archived June 6, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Twin Cities Business (May 28, 2020).
- Jim Buchta, Minneapolis vandalism targets include 189-unit affordable housing development, Star Tribune (May 28, 2020).
- Andy Peters, Buckhead protest damaged tabbed at $10 million to $15 million, Atlanta Journal-Constitution (June 1, 2020).
- "LA Mayor Faces Backlash For Defunding Police With $150 Million Budget Cut". Newsweek. June 5, 2020.
- Lerman, Rachel; Frankel, Todd C. (June 1, 2020). "Retailers and restaurants across the U.S. close their doors amid protests". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
- Staff (September 18, 2020). "Minneapolis City Council approves George Perry Floyd Jr. Place as commemorative name for portion of Chicago Avenue". KSTP. Retrieved November 25, 2020.
- Sandberg, Diane; Edwards, Kiya (August 17, 2020). "Talks continue on reopening 38th and Chicago in Mpls". KARE 11. Retrieved November 25, 2020.
- Staff (August 14, 2020). "Minneapolis City Council Approves 7 New Cultural Districts To Advance Equity, Fuel Economic Growth". WCCO. Retrieved November 25, 2020.
- "Confederate Monuments Are Coming Down, Are Streets And Highways Next?". NPR. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
- Suderman, Alan; Rankin, Sarah. "Virginia governor to announce removal of Lee statue". Associated Press. Associated Press. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
- "Today the Marine Corps released guidance on the removal of public displays of the Confederate battle flag". Twitter: The official Twitter account of the United States Marine Corps. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
- "Removal Public Displays of the Confederate Battle Flag > United States Marine Corps Flagship > Messages Display". marines.mil. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
- "Alabama attorney general sues Birmingham for removing Confederate monument". al.com. June 2, 2020.
- "George Washington statue toppled, American flag burned by Portland protesters". The Hill. June 19, 2020.
- "District ready to listen after protesters tear down Thomas Jefferson statue in front of Portland high school". KPTV. June 15, 2020. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
- "Protesters tear down statues of Union general Ulysses S. Grant, national anthem lyricist Francis Scott Key". The Hill. June 20, 2020.
- "Theodore Roosevelt statue to be removed by New York museum". BBC News. June 22, 2020.
- "Activist Who Wants White Jesus Statues Torn Down Says Christian Whiteness Has Always Been Violent". Newsweek. June 24, 2020.
- "Photos of defaced statue of Philly abolitionist Matthias Baldwin go viral". The Philadelphia Inquirer. June 12, 2020.
- "SF Mayor, Residents Decry Vandalism of Golden Gate Park Statues". CBS News. June 20, 2020.
- "Winston Churchill statue vandalised in London during Black Lives Matter protests". The Times of India. June 8, 2020.
- "Statue of Queen Victoria defaced in Hyde Park, Leeds". BBC News. June 9, 2020.
- "Iconic Washington, DC, monuments defaced in night of protests". The Hill. June 1, 2020.
- Diver, Tony (June 7, 2020). "Statue of slave trader Edward Colston pulled down and thrown into harbour by Bristol protesters". The Telegraph. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
- "Anti-racism activists draw up 'hit list' of 60 statues they want toppled in London, England". National Post. June 9, 2020.
- Schultz, Teri (June 5, 2020). "Belgians Target Some Royal Monuments In Black Lives Matter Protest". NPR.
- "Defacement of Mahatma Gandhi's statue a 'disgrace', says Trump". The Hindu. PTI. June 9, 2020. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
- Service, Tribune News. "A disgrace, says Trump on Gandhi statue desecration". Tribuneindia News Service. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
- "Gandhi statue vandalisation a crime against humanity: India's Envoy to US". Hindustan Times. June 9, 2020. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
- "Gandhi statue defiled in London". telegraphindia.com. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
- "Controversial statue of Captain John Hamilton to be removed - Hamilton City Council". Radio New Zealand. June 12, 2020. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020.
- Neilson, Michael (June 12, 2020). "George Floyd protests: Hamilton City Council remove controversial Captain statue". New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020.
- "Winston Peters unimpressed with outcry over colonial statues". Radio New Zealand. June 12, 2020.
- (1) Winsor, Morgan (June 23, 2020). "Protesters try to topple Andrew Jackson statue near White House". ABC News. Archived from the original on June 24, 2020. Retrieved July 12, 2020..
(2) Kunkle, Fredrick; Svrluga, Susan; Jouvenal, Justin (June 23, 2020). "Police thwart attempt by protesters to topple statue of Andrew Jackson near White House". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 23, 2020. Retrieved July 12, 2020..
- (1) "Four Men Charged in Federal Court for Attempting to Tear Down Statue of Andrew Jackson in Lafayette Square Amid Protests". Press Release Number 20-073. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Justice: U.S. Attorney's Office: District of Columbia. June 27, 2020. Archived from the original on June 29, 2020. Retrieved July 20, 2020.
(2) Weil, Martin (June 27, 2020). "4 charged in attempt to tear down Andrew Jackson statue in Lafayette Square". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 29, 2020. Retrieved July 13, 2020..
- (1) "Man Charged in Federal Court for Attempting to Tear Down Statue of Andrew Jackson in Lafayette Square Amid Protests: Man also Charged with Destruction of Albert Pike Statue". Press Release Number 20-076. Washington, D.C: United States Department of Justice: U.S. Attorney's Office: District of Columbia. July 2, 2020. Archived from the original on July 15, 2020. Retrieved July 20, 2020.
(2) Gibson, Jake (July 2, 2020). "Feds arrest 'ringleader' in attack on Andrew Jackson statue by White House". Fox News. Archived from the original on July 2, 2020. Retrieved July 20, 2020..
(3) Weil, Martin (July 7, 2020). "D.C. man set Confederate statue on fire, prosectors allege". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 7, 2020. Retrieved July 20, 2020..
- "HB1796 (As Sent to Governor) - 2020 Regular Session". billstatus.ls.state.ms.us.
- "Mississippi Legislature 2020 Regular Session". House Bill 1796. billstatus.ls.state.ms.us.
- Ramseth, Giacomo Bologna and Luke. "Changing the state flag: How Mississippi legislators made history in 4 hours on a rare Sunday session". The Clarion-Ledger.
- Norwood, Ashley (July 1, 2020). "Governor Reeves signs historic bill to remove Confederate symbol". Mississippi Public Broadcasting. Retrieved April 22, 2021.
- Betz, Bradford (June 30, 2020). "Mississippi governor signs bill retiring last state flag with Confederate battle emblem". Fox News.
- "Mississippi governor signs bill to retire state's Confederate-themed flag". WDSU. June 30, 2020.
- "With a pen stroke, Mississippi drops Confederate-themed flag". AP News. June 30, 2020.
- "Trump blasts "left wing cultural revolution" at Mount Rushmore". Reuters. July 3, 2020.
- "Washington Redskins to undergo thorough review of team's name". nfl.com.
- "Statement From The Washington Football Team". washingtonfootball.com.
- Burgess, Joel (July 29, 2020). "Asheville Confederate Vance Monument to be 'replaced' by George Floyd hologram; Task force appointed". Asheville Citizen-Times. Retrieved July 29, 2020.
- Beynon, Steve (December 4, 2020). "Defense bill directs $2 million to form commission, plan renaming of military bases honoring Confederates". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved February 25, 2021.
- Demirjian, Karoun (December 23, 2021). "Trump vetoes defense bill, teeing up holiday override votes in Congress". Washington Post. Retrieved February 25, 2021.
- Kheel, Rebecca (January 8, 2021). "Pentagon appoints commissioners to scrub Confederate base names". The Hill. Retrieved February 25, 2021.
- Bailey, Holly (July 11, 2020). "Minneapolis police officers say they are suffering from PTSD after George Floyd protests". Washington Post. Retrieved July 11, 2020.
- Hollie Silverman and Ray Sanchez. "About 170 Atlanta officers called out sick after cops were charged in Rayshard Brooks' death". CNN.
- Brynn Gingras. "NYPD sees 'troubling' surge of retirement filings, official says". CNN.
- McCarthy, Craig; Moore, Tina; Celona, Larry; Golding, Bruce (July 8, 2020). "NYPD limits retirement applications amid 400 percent surge this week".
- "NYPD forced to impose limit on officers filing for retirement amid 400% surge of officers trying to quit". independent.co.uk. July 9, 2020.
- Cahill, Nick; Iovino, Nicholas (June 5, 2020). "Newsom Tells California Police to Stop Using Carotid Chokehold". Retrieved June 7, 2020.
- "Chief Struggles to Change Minneapolis Police Culture; Chokeholds Banned". KNBC. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
- "Denver fully bans chokeholds, requires report for aimed guns". Associated Press. June 8, 2020.
- Grisales, Claudia; Davis, Susan; Snell, Kelsey (June 8, 2020). "In Wake Of Protests, Democrats To Unveil Police Reform Legislation". NPR.
- Caldwell, Leigh Ann; Shabad, Rebecca (June 8, 2020). "Congressional Democrats unveil sweeping police reform bill that would ban chokeholds, no-knock warrants in drug cases". NBC News.
- "House Approves Police Reform Bill, But Issue Stalled Amid Partisan Standoff". NPR.org. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
- "Nancy Pelosi Calls Trump 'Cowardly' For Not Wearing Mask, Supports Federal Mandate". NPR.org. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
- Jackson, David. "Donald Trump to sign order to encourage police to limit deadly force". USA Today.
- Liptak, Kevin (June 16, 2020). "Trump offers full-throated defense of police in executive action signing". CNN.com. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
- "Portland mayor bans cops from using tear gas during protests". ABC News. September 10, 2020. Retrieved September 20, 2020.
- Searcey, Dionne; Eligon, John (June 7, 2020). "Minneapolis Will Dismantle Its Police Force, Council Members Pledge". The New York Times. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
- Desmond, Declan. "After being booed at protest, Frey says he's still against abolishing police". Bring Me The News. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
- Brufke, Juliegrace (June 5, 2020). "NRCC turns up heat on vulnerable Democrats over Omar's call to abolish police". The Hill.
- Navratil, Liz (June 26, 2020). "Push to 'end' Minneapolis Police Department could keep officers". Star Tribune. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
- Jimenez, Omar; Levenson, Eric (August 6, 2020). "Proposal to abolish Minneapolis Police Department delayed past November ballot". CNN. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
- Navratil, Liz (December 10, 2020). "Divided Minneapolis City Council votes to cut $8 million from police budget". Star Tribune. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
- Wong, Jessica (June 12, 2020). "Protests against police brutality spur reflection on TV cop shows". CBC. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
- Hess, Amanda (June 10, 2020). "The Protests Come for 'Paw Patrol'". The New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
- "'Cops' Show Canceled Amid Worldwide Protests Against Police Violence". NPR.org.
- "A&E's Popular Show 'Live PD' Is Canceled Amid Protests Over Police Brutality". NPR.org.
- "HBO Max Shelves 'Gone With The Wind' Temporarily For 'Racial Prejudices'". NPR.org.
- Cleese, John. "The BBC's website refers to my 'fury'". Twitter. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- Cleese, John. "Pleased to see that the BBC website has already removed the word 'fury'". Twitter. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- "Fawlty Towers: The Germans episode to be reinstated by UKTV". BBC News. June 13, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
- "UKTV to reinstate Fawlty Towers episode The Germans". The Guardian. June 12, 2020. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- Griffiths, George (June 12, 2020). "Fawlty Towers episode The Germans to be reinstated on UKTV after removal for racial references". Metro. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- "Little Britain removed from BBC iPlayer, Netflix and BritBox due to use of blackface". The Guardian. June 9, 2020. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
- Otterson, Joe (June 24, 2020). "Jenny Slate Exits 'Big Mouth': 'Black Characters Should Be Played by Black People'". Variety. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
- Thorne, Will (June 24, 2020). "Kristen Bell Will No Longer Voice Mixed-Race Character in Apple's 'Central Park'". Variety. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
- Haring, Bruce (June 26, 2020). "'Family Guy' Voice Actor Mike Henry Stepping Down From 'Cleveland Brown' Role".
- Gelman, Vlada (June 26, 2020). "Simpsons Will 'No Longer' Have White Actors Play Non-White Characters". TVLine. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
- Andrew, Scottie (June 23, 2020). "Tina Fey asks platforms to pull several '30 Rock' episodes that showed characters in blackface". CNN. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
- Thorne, Will (June 26, 2020). "'The Office' Blackface Scene Edited Out, Netflix Pulls 'Community' Blackface Episode". Variety. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
- Shafer, Ellise (June 28, 2020). "'Golden Girls' Episode With Blackface Scene Removed From Hulu". Variety.
- "Netflix removes Peep Show blackface scene". Evening Standard. June 29, 2020.
- Nemetz, Dave (June 23, 2020). "Brooklyn Nine-Nine to Scrap All Episodes Written for Season 8, Terry Crews Says: 'We Have to Start Over'". TVLine. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
- Shiffer, James Eli (May 25, 2021). "The ways that George Floyd changed the world". Star Tribune. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
- "Cleveland announces name change to Guardians". ESPN. July 23, 2021. Retrieved July 30, 2021.
- Hipes, Patrick (June 25, 2020). "Disneyland's Splash Mountain To Be Reimagined With 'Princess And The Frog' Theme". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
- Barnes, Brooks (June 25, 2020). "Disney's Splash Mountain to Drop 'Song of the South' Depictions". The New York Times. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
- de Sam Larazo, Fred; Lane, Sam (May 21, 2021). "How George Floyd's image became an icon for artists and helped communities mourn". PBS. Retrieved May 22, 2021.
- Onwuamaegbu, Natachi (May 19, 2021). "Preserving protest art before it gets washed away". The Boston Globe. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
- Enninga, Heidi (May 6, 2021). "Documenting Street Art, St. Thomas Researchers Better Understand Crisis". St. Thomas Newsroom. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
- Jr, Berkeley Lovelace (June 4, 2020). "CDC warns George Floyd protests may be 'seeding event' for more coronavirus outbreaks". CNBC. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
- Powell, Michael (July 6, 2020). "Are Protests Dangerous? What Experts Say May Depend on Who's Protesting What". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 7, 2020.
- Goodnough, Abby (June 12, 2020). "C.D.C. Calls for Masks at Large Gatherings, Warning of Crowd Risks". The New York Times. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
- "Fauci underscores concerns about protests spreading coronavirus". The Hill. June 10, 2020.
- "U.S. cities fear George Floyd protests may fuel new wave of coronavirus outbreaks". Los Angeles Times. May 30, 2020. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
- Bernton, Hal (June 30, 2020). "Protests don't appear to be driving coronavirus surge in Seattle area or elsewhere, researchers say". Seattle Times.
- Dhaval M. Dave, Andrew I. Friedson, Kyutaro Matsuzawa, Joseph J. Sabia, Samuel Safford (June 2020). "NBER Working Paper No. 27408: Black Lives Matter Protests, Social Distancing, and COVID-19". National Bureau of Economic Research. doi:10.3386/w27408. Cite journal requires
|journal=(help)CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Goldstein, Joseph (July 1, 2020). "Did Floyd Protests Lead to a Virus Surge? Here's What We Know". The New York Times.
- Lopez, German (June 26, 2020). "Coronavirus cases are increasing, but Black Lives Matter protests may not be to blame. Here's why". Vox.
So what is causing the recent uptick in Covid-19 cases, which led to the US hitting its highest number of daily new cases ever this week? Experts pointed to states reopening, particularly allowing indoor gatherings — at bars, restaurants, barbershops, workplaces, and so on — in which the coronavirus is more likely to spread. Studies show that previous measures to close down such gatherings likely helped lower Covid-19 cases.
- Weintraub, Ken Alltucker and Karen. "Experts warn large protests may 'become breeding grounds' for the coronavirus". USA Today. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
- "Mass gatherings, erosion of trust upend coronavirus control". The Seattle Times. May 31, 2020. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
- Ransom, Jan (June 4, 2020). "Despite Virus, Hundreds Arrested in Unrest Are Held in Cramped Jails". The New York Times.
- Ashley Southall and Michael Gold (October 4, 2020). "N.Y.P.D. Warns Officers: Wear Your Masks". New York Times.
Police officers' failure to wear masks has been a point of tension since the spring, when they were initially made responsible for enforcing social-distancing measures. During mass protests that erupted in the city after the police killing of George Floyd in Minneapolis, thousands of officers assigned to the demonstrations did not wear masks.
- Oberg, Ted (June 30, 2020). "200 HPD officers under COVID-19 quarantine, chief not among them". KTRK.
- Mansell, William; Cathey, Libby (May 30, 2020). "Twitter flags Trump, White House for 'glorifying violence' in tweets about George Floyd protests". ABC News. Retrieved June 4, 2020.
- Purnell, Newley; Restuccia, Andrew (May 29, 2020). "Twitter Flags Trump Tweet About George Floyd Protests for 'Glorifying Violence'". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
- Panetta, Grace. "Trump claims his 'when the looting starts, the shooting starts' remarks weren't a call to violence but instead a 'fact'". Business Insider. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
- Pedersen, Erik (May 25, 2021). "George Floyd Programming: Specials Mark One-Year Anniversary Of His Death". Deadline. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
- Espeland, Pamela (May 26, 2021). "Pen Pals announces 25th season of prominent authors; TPT 2 to broadcast 'Say His Name: Five Days for George Floyd'". MinnPost. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
- "George Floyd Square – Under-Told Stories Project". under-told STORIES, 360. PBS News Hour. August 31, 2020. Retrieved November 26, 2020.
- Nguyen, Christine T.; Burks, Megan; Frost, Evan (December 2, 2020). "Making George Floyd's Square". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved January 4, 2021.
- Pedersen, Erik (May 25, 2021). "George Floyd Programming: Specials Mark One-Year Anniversary Of His Death". Deadline. Retrieved May 30, 2021.
- Staff (June 11, 2021). "Star Tribune wins Pulitzer for George Floyd reporting; Darnella Frazier also cited". Star Tribune. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
Arrangement is chronological.
- Sprunt, Barbara. The History Behind 'When The Looting Starts, The Shooting Starts'. NPR. May 29, 2020.
- Owen, Tess. Far-Right Extremists Are Hoping to Turn the George Floyd Protests Into a New Civil War. Vice. May 29, 2020.
- Hartman, Sid. Unrest in Minneapolis echoes summer of 1967. Star Tribune. May 30, 2020.
- George Floyd Protesters in Multiple Cities Target Confederate Monuments. AP/Time. May 31, 2020.
- Pellerin, Ananda. The people creating art to remember George Floyd. CNN Style. June 1, 2020.
- Steinmetz, Katy (June 8, 2020). "'A War of Words.' Why Describing the George Floyd Protests as 'Riots' Is So Loaded". Time.
- Chayka, Kyle. The Mimetic Power of D.C.'s Black Lives Matter Mural. The New Yorker. June 9, 2020.
- Rubin, Jennifer (June 12, 2020). "The massive scope of change following George Floyd's death". The Washington Post.
- Burch, Cai, Gianadorli, McCarthy & Patel. How Black Lives Matter Reached Every Corner of America. The New York Times. June 13, 2020.
- Putnam & Pressman. Black Lives Matter beyond America's big cities. The Washington Post. July 8, 2020.
- Valentine, Randall; Valentine, Dawn; Valentine, Jimmie L. (November 23, 2020). "Relationship of George Floyd protests to increases in COVID-19 cases using event study methodology". Journal of Public Health. 42 (4): 696–697. doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdaa127. ISSN 1741-3842. PMC 7454741. PMID 32756893.
- Kaske, Erika A.; Cramer, Samuel W.; Pena Pino, Isabela; Do, Truong H.; Ladd, Bryan M.; Sturtevant, Dylan T.; Ahmadi, Aliya; Taha, Birra; Freeman, David; Wu, Joel T.; Cunningham, Brooke A. (January 13, 2021). "Injuries from Less-Lethal Weapons during the George Floyd Protests in Minneapolis". The New England Journal of Medicine. 384 (8): 774–775. doi:10.1056/NEJMc2032052. ISSN 0028-4793. PMID 33440082.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to George Floyd protests.|
- George Floyd protest tag, U.S. Press Freedom Tracker
- Demonstrations & Political Violence In America: New Data For Summer 2020 // Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project
- Running list of hoaxes and misleading posts, BuzzFeed News