Pennsylvania Dutch

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Pennsylvania Dutch
Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch
Deitschfaahne.jpg
Regions with significant populations
United States, especially Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, West Virginia; Canada, especially Ontario (Kitchener, Waterloo, Cambridge, Markham, Stouffville and Pickering), smaller population in California
Languages
German (Pennsylvania Dutch)
English (Pennsylvania Dutch English)
Religion
Lutheran, Reformed, German Reformed, Roman Catholic, Moravian, Church of the Brethren, Mennonite, Amish, Schwenkfelder, River Brethren, Yorker Brethren, Judaism, Pow-wow
Related ethnic groups
German American, Palatine Dutch, Black Dutch, Knickerbocker Dutch, Swiss American, French American

The Pennsylvania Dutch (Pennsylvania Dutch: Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch), also known as Pennsylvania Germans, are a cultural group formed by German immigrants who settled in Pennsylvania during the 18th and 19th centuries. They emigrated primarily from German-speaking territories of Europe, mainly from the Palatinate, also from Baden-Württemberg, Hesse, and Rhineland in Germany as well as the Netherlands, Switzerland, and France's Alsace-Lorraine region.

Pennsylvania's German settlers described themselves as Deutsch or Hoch Deutsch, which in contemporary English translated to "Dutch" or "High Dutch" ("Dutch" historically referred to all Germanic dialect speakers in English).[1] They spoke several south German dialects, though Palatine German was the dominant language; their mixing contributed to a hybrid dialect, known as Pennsylvania Dutch (or Pennsylvania German), that has been preserved through the current day.

The Pennsylvania Dutch maintained numerous religious affiliations; the greatest number are Lutheran or German Reformed with a lesser number of Anabaptists, including Mennonites, Amish, and Brethren. The Anabaptist groups espoused a simple lifestyle, and their adherents were known as Plain Dutch; this contrasted to the Fancy Dutch, mostly of the Catholic, Lutheran, or Reformed churches, who tended to assimilate more easily into the American mainstream. By the late 1700s, other denominations were also represented in smaller numbers.[2]

The Pennsylvania Dutch Country is heavily associated with them.[3]

Etymology[edit]

Lancaster City and its Pennsylvania Dutch architecture
A Pennsylvania Dutch birth certificate made in the Fraktur art style

The word "Dutch" in "Pennsylvania Dutch" is not a mistranslation but rather a derivation of the Pennsylvania Dutch endonym Deitsch, which means "Pennsylvania Dutch" or "German".[4][5][6][7] Ultimately, the terms Deitsch, Dutch, Diets and Deutsch are all descendants of the Proto-Germanic word *þiudiskaz meaning "popular" or "of the people".[8]

Dutch in the English language originally referred to all Germanic language speakers. New Englanders referred to the Dutch Language spoken by the New York & Jersey Dutch as Low Dutch (Dutch: laagduits), and the Dutch language spoken by the Pennsylvania Dutch in Pennsylvania as High Dutch (German: hochdeutsch).[9] Below is a quote from the Boston Gazette on October 8, 1795, mentioning a speaker of high and low Dutch:

"A white girl... who talks good English, high and low Dutch."[9]

The oldest German newspaper in Pennsylvania was the High Dutch Pennsylvania Journal in 1743. The first mixed English and German paper, the Pennsylvania Gazette of 1751, described itself as an "English and Dutch gazette," in reference to the High Dutch language spoken in Pennsylvania.[10]

Dutchlanders[edit]

The continued use of the Pennsylvania Dutch language was strengthened in the 19th century as a way of distinguishing themselves from later (post 1830) waves of German immigrants to the United States, with the Pennsylvania Dutch referring to themselves as Deitsche and to Germans as Deitschlenner, (literally "Dutchlanders", compare German: Deutschländer), which translates to "Germany-Germans" whom they saw as a related but distinct group. These "Germany-Germans" came to Pennsylvania Dutch cities and assimilated into urban Pennsylvania Dutch society and came to prominence especially in matters of the church, newspapers, and urban business.[11][12]

Later, the term "Dutchlander" came to refer specifically to the nationality of people from the Pennsylvania Dutch Country, also known simply as "the Dutch Country" or "Dutchland".[13][14][15]

After World War II, use of Pennsylvania Dutch virtually died out in favor of English, except among the more insular and tradition-bound Plain Dutch, such as the Old Order Amish and Old Order Mennonites. A number of German cultural practices continue to this day, and German Americans remain the largest ancestry group claimed in Pennsylvania by people in the census.[16]

Geography[edit]

The Pennsylvania Dutch live primarily in the Delaware Valley and in the Pennsylvania Dutch Country, a large area that includes South Central Pennsylvania, in the area stretching in an arc from Bethlehem and Allentown in the Lehigh Valley westward through Reading, Lebanon, and Lancaster to York and Chambersburg.[17] Some Pennsylvania Dutch live in the historically Pennsylvania Dutch-speaking areas of Maryland, North Carolina, and Virginia's Shenandoah Valley.[18]

Pennsylvania Dutch Nationality[edit]

History of the Palatines and other ancestors[edit]

Historic flag of the Palatines

The vast majority of Pennsylvania Dutch have Palatine ancestry. They are also culturally related to the New York and Jersey Dutch.[19][20]

The Fancy Dutch descend from Palatines who left the economic conditions and devastation in the Rhenish Palatinate after the Thirty Years' War; their number included Catholic Palatines, who had already established three Holy Roman Church parishes in 1757.[21]

The Plain Dutch are descendants of refugees who left religious persecution in the Netherlands and the Electoral Palatinate.[22] Of note, the Amish and Mennonites came to the Bavarian Palatinate and surrounding areas from Switzerland, where, as Anabaptists, they were persecuted, and so their stay in the Palatinate was of limited duration.[23]

Anglo-Americans held much anti-Palatine sentiment in the Pennsylvania Colony. Below is a quotation of Benjamin Franklin's complaints about the Palatine refugees in his work Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind (1751):

Why should the Palatine boors be suffered to swarm into our settlements, and by herding together establish their language and manners to the exclusion of ours? Why should Pennsylvania, founded by the English, become a colony of aliens, who will shortly be so numerous as to Germanize us instead of us Anglifying them, and will never adopt our language or customs, any more than they can acquire our complexion.

The Great Palatine Migration of 1709[edit]

The devastation of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) and the wars between the German principalities and France caused some of the immigration of Germans to America from the Rhine area. Members of this group founded the borough of Germantown, in northwest Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, in 1683.[24] They settled on land sold to them by William Penn. Germantown included not only Mennonites but also Quakers.[25]

During the War of the Grand Alliance (1689–97), French troops pillaged the Palatinate, forcing many Palatines to flee. The war began in 1688 as Louis XIV laid claim to the Electorate of the Palatinate. French forces devastated all major cities of the region, including Cologne. By 1697 the war came to a close with the Treaty of Ryswick, now Rijswijk in the Netherlands, and the Palatinate remained free of French control. However, by 1702, the War of the Spanish Succession began, lasting until 1713. French expansionism forced many Palatines to flee as refugees.[26]

This group of Mennonites was organized by Francis Daniel Pastorius, an agent for a land purchasing company based in Frankfurt am Main.[24] None of the Frankfurt Company ever came to Pennsylvania except Pastorius himself, but 13 Low Dutch (South Guelderish-speaking) Mennonite families from Krefeld arrived on October 6, 1683, in Philadelphia. They were joined by eight Low Dutch families from Hamburg-Altona in 1700 and five High Dutch families from the Rhenish Palatinate in 1707.[27]

In 1723, some 33 Palatine families, dissatisfied under Governor Hunter's rule, migrated from Schoharie, New York, along the Susquehanna River to Tulpehocken, Berks County, Pennsylvania, where other Palatines had settled. They became farmers and used intensive German farming techniques that proved highly productive.[28]

Another wave of settlers from Germany, which would eventually coalesce to form a large part of the Pennsylvania Dutch, arrived between 1727 and 1775; some 65,000 Palatines landed in Philadelphia in that era and others landed at other ports. Another wave from the Palatinate arrived 1749–1754. More than half of their number was sold into indentured servitude. [29] These indentured servants became known as "Redemptioners" as they would "redeem" their freedom after some years.[30]

The majority originated in what is today southwestern Germany, i.e., Rhineland-Palatinate[29] and Baden-Württemberg; other prominent groups were Alsatians, Dutch, French Huguenots (French Protestants), Moravians from Bohemia and Moravia and Germans from Switzerland.[31][32]

The Pennsylvania Dutch during the American Revolutionary War[edit]

The Pennsylvania Dutch composed nearly half of the population of the Province of Pennsylvania. The Fancy Dutch population generally supported the Patriot cause in the American Revolution; the nonviolent Plain Dutch minority did not fight in the war.[33] Henry Miller, an immigrant from Germany of Swiss ancestry, published an early German translation of the Declaration of Independence (1776) in his newspaper Philadelphische Staatsbote. Miller often wrote about Swiss history and myth, such as the William Tell legend, to provide a context for patriot support in the conflict with Britain.[34]

Frederick Muhlenberg (1750–1801), a Lutheran pastor, became a major patriot and politician, rising to be elected as Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives.

Pennsylvania Dutch Provost Corps[edit]

Pennsylvania Dutch were recruited for the American Provost corps under Captain Bartholomew von Heer,[35][Note 1] a Prussian who had served in a similar unit in Europe[36] before immigrating to Reading, Pennsylvania prior to the war.[37] During the Revolutionary War the Marechaussee Corps were utilized in a variety of ways, including intelligence gathering, route security, enemy prisoner of war operations, and even combat during the Battle of Springfield.[38] The Marechausee also provided security for Washington's headquarters during the Battle of Yorktown, acted as his security detail, and was one of the last units deactivated after the Revolutionary War.[35] The Marechaussee Corps was often not well received by the Continental Army, due in part to their defined duties but also due to the fact that some members of the corps spoke little or no English.[36] Six of the provosts had even been Hessian prisoners of war prior to their recruitment.[36] Because the provost corps completed many of the same functions as the modern U.S. Military Police Corps, it is considered a predecessor of the current United States Military Police Regiment.[38]

Hessians in the Pennsylvania Dutch Country[edit]

Many Hessian soldiers settled in the Pennsylvania Dutch Country after the war.

Hesse-Kassel signed a treaty of alliance with Great Britain to supply fifteen regiments, four grenadier battalions, two jäger companies, and three companies of artillery.[39] The jägers in particular were carefully recruited and well paid, well clothed, and free from manual labor.[40][Note 2] These jägers proved essential in the "Indian style" warfare in America.[41]

German-speaking armies could not quickly replace men lost on the other side of the Atlantic, so the Hessians recruited blacks as soldiers who became known as Black Hessians. There were 115 black soldiers serving with Hessian units, most of them as drummers or fifers.[42]

General Washington's Continental Army had crossed the Delaware River to make a surprise attack on the Hessians in the early morning of December 26, 1776. In the Battle of Trenton, the Hessian force of 1,400 was quickly overwhelmed by the Continentals, with only about 20 killed and 100 wounded, but 1,000 captured.[43]

The Hessians captured in the Battle of Trenton were paraded through the streets of Philadelphia to raise American morale; anger at their presence helped the Continental Army recruit new soldiers.[44] Most of the prisoners were sent to work as farmhands.[45]

By early 1778, negotiations for the exchange of prisoners between Washington and the British had begun in earnest.[46] These included Nicholas Bahner(t), Jacob Trobe, George Geisler, and Conrad Grein (Konrad Krain),[47] who were a few of the Hessian soldiers who deserted the British forces after being returned in exchange for American prisoners of war.[48] These men were both hunted by the British for being deserters and by many of the colonists as a foreign enemy.

Throughout the war, Americans tried to entice Hessians to desert the British, emphasizing the large and prosperous German-American community. The U.S. Congress authorized the offer of land of up to 50 acres (roughly 20 hectares) to individual Hessian soldiers who switched sides.[49] British soldiers were offered 50 to 800 acres, depending on rank.[50]

Many Hessian prisoners were held in camps at the interior city of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, home to a large German community known as the Pennsylvania Dutch. Hessian prisoners were subsequently treated well, with some volunteering for extra work assignments, helping to replace local men serving in the Continental Army. Due to shared German heritage and abundance of land, many Hessian soldiers stayed and settled in the Pennsylvania Dutch Country after the war's end.[51]

Fancy Dutch society[edit]

The Fancy Dutch came to control much of the best agricultural lands in all of the Pennsylvania Commonwealth. They ran many newspapers, and out of six newspapers in Pennsylvania, three were in German, two were in English and one was in both languages. They also maintained their Germanic architecture when they founded new towns in Pennsylvania.[52]

Pennsylvania Dutchmen already possessed an ethnic identity and a well-defined social-system that was separate from the Anglo-American identity. Their Anglo-American neighbors described them as very industrious, very businessminded, and a very rich community.[52]

The Pennsylvania Dutch had a strong dislike for New England, and to them the term "Yankee" became synonymous with "a cheat." Indeed, New Englanders were the rivals of the Pennsylvania Dutch.[52]

The Pennsylvania Dutch during the Civil War[edit]

Many Pennsylvania Dutchmen mustered at Camp Curtin to fight in the American Civil War.

The Pennsylvania Dutch fought in the American Civil War; the ones who fought were the Fancy Dutch. Nearly every regiment from Pennsylvania had Pennsylvania Dutchmen present. Some regiments like the 153rd Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry were entirely composed of Pennsylvania Dutch.[52]

Here is the letter of a Pennsylvania Dutch soldier from the 149th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry:

Camp Near Patomac River,

May 9th, 1863

𝔙𝔦𝔢𝔩 𝔊𝔢𝔩𝔦𝔢𝔟𝔱𝔢𝔯 𝔳𝔞𝔱𝔢𝔯:

ℑ𝔠𝔥 𝔫𝔢𝔪𝔢 𝔡𝔦𝔢 𝔊𝔢𝔩𝔢𝔤𝔢𝔫𝔥𝔢𝔦𝔱 𝔷𝔲 𝔰𝔠𝔥𝔯𝔢𝔦𝔟𝔢𝔫 𝔭𝔞𝔯 ℨ𝔢𝔦𝔩𝔢𝔫 𝔲𝔫𝔡 𝔩𝔞𝔰 𝔢𝔲𝔠𝔥 𝔴𝔦𝔰𝔰𝔢𝔫 𝔡𝔞𝔰 𝔦𝔠𝔥 𝔫𝔬𝔠𝔥 𝔣𝔯𝔦𝔰𝔠𝔥 𝔲𝔫𝔡 𝔤𝔢𝔰𝔲𝔫𝔡 𝔟𝔦𝔫 𝔰𝔬 𝔩𝔞𝔫𝔤𝔢 𝔡𝔞𝔰 𝔡𝔢𝔯 𝔥𝔢𝔯𝔯 𝔴𝔦𝔩𝔩 𝔲𝔫𝔡 𝔦𝔠𝔥 𝔥𝔬𝔣𝔣𝔢 𝔡𝔞𝔰 𝔡𝔦𝔢 𝔭𝔞𝔯 ℨ𝔢𝔦𝔩𝔢𝔫 𝔢𝔲𝔠𝔥 𝔞𝔲𝔠𝔥 𝔰𝔬 𝔞𝔫𝔱𝔯𝔢𝔣𝔣𝔢𝔫 𝔴𝔢𝔯𝔱𝔢𝔫. 𝔚𝔢𝔦𝔱𝔢𝔯 𝔩𝔞𝔰 𝔢𝔲𝔠𝔥 𝔴𝔦𝔰𝔰𝔢𝔫 𝔡𝔞𝔰 𝔪𝔦𝔢𝔯 𝔢𝔦𝔫 𝔤𝔯𝔬𝔰𝔢 𝔣𝔢𝔠𝔥𝔱 𝔤𝔢𝔥𝔞𝔭𝔱 𝔥𝔢𝔫; 𝔰𝔦𝔢 𝔥𝔞𝔱 𝔞𝔫𝔤𝔢𝔥𝔞𝔩𝔱𝔢𝔫 8 𝔱𝔞𝔤𝔢 𝔩𝔞𝔫𝔤𝔢 𝔲𝔫𝔡 𝔢𝔰 𝔥𝔞𝔱 𝔳𝔦𝔢𝔩 𝔪𝔢𝔫𝔰𝔠𝔥𝔢𝔫 𝔤𝔢𝔨𝔬𝔰𝔱 𝔞𝔲𝔣 𝔲𝔫𝔰𝔢𝔯𝔢 𝔰𝔢𝔦𝔱𝔢 𝔞𝔟𝔢𝔯 𝔞𝔲𝔣 𝔡𝔢𝔯 𝔞𝔫𝔡𝔯𝔢 𝔰𝔢𝔦𝔱𝔢 𝔥𝔞𝔱'𝔰 𝔡𝔯𝔢𝔶 𝔪𝔞𝔫 𝔤𝔢𝔨𝔬𝔰𝔱 𝔟𝔦𝔰 𝔢𝔦𝔫 𝔳𝔬𝔫 𝔲𝔫𝔰𝔯𝔢𝔫 𝔢𝔰 𝔴𝔞𝔯 𝔢𝔦𝔫 𝔰𝔠𝔥𝔴𝔢𝔯 𝔤𝔢𝔰𝔠𝔥𝔦𝔰 𝔤𝔢𝔴𝔢𝔰𝔢𝔫 𝔫𝔞𝔥𝔦 𝔡𝔦𝔢 𝔤𝔞𝔫𝔰𝔷𝔢 𝔷𝔢𝔦𝔱. 𝔚𝔢𝔦𝔱𝔢𝔯 𝔩𝔞𝔰 𝔦𝔠𝔥 𝔢𝔲𝔠𝔥 𝔴𝔦𝔰𝔰𝔢𝔫 𝔡𝔞𝔰 𝔪𝔦𝔯 𝔤𝔯𝔬𝔰𝔷 𝔤𝔩𝔦𝔠𝔨 𝔤𝔢𝔥𝔞𝔟𝔱 𝔥𝔢𝔫𝔡 𝔡𝔞𝔰 𝔦𝔰𝔱 𝔲𝔫𝔰𝔢𝔯 𝔟𝔯𝔦𝔤𝔞𝔱 𝔪𝔦𝔢𝔯 𝔴𝔞𝔯𝔢𝔫 𝔲𝔫𝔤𝔢𝔣𝔢𝔯 𝔷𝔴𝔢𝔶 𝔰𝔱𝔲𝔫𝔡𝔢 𝔦𝔫 𝔡𝔢𝔯 𝔤𝔢𝔣𝔞𝔥𝔯 𝔡𝔞𝔰 𝔰𝔦𝔢 𝔲𝔫𝔰 𝔤𝔢𝔰𝔠𝔥𝔢𝔩𝔱 𝔥𝔢𝔫 𝔪𝔦𝔱 𝔟𝔲𝔪𝔪𝔢𝔫 𝔤𝔲𝔤𝔩𝔢𝔫 𝔞𝔟𝔢𝔯 𝔢𝔰 𝔥𝔞𝔱 𝔫𝔢𝔱 𝔳𝔦𝔢𝔩 𝔰𝔠𝔥𝔞𝔱𝔢𝔫 𝔤𝔢𝔱𝔞𝔫 𝔪𝔦𝔢𝔯 𝔴𝔞𝔯𝔢𝔫 𝔥𝔦𝔫𝔱𝔢𝔯 𝔢𝔦𝔪 𝔤𝔯𝔬𝔰𝔢𝔫 𝔟𝔢𝔯𝔤 𝔤𝔢𝔴𝔢𝔰𝔢𝔫 𝔰𝔬 𝔥𝔞𝔟𝔢𝔫 𝔰𝔦 𝔰𝔦 𝔷𝔦𝔪𝔩𝔦𝔤 𝔞𝔩 𝔲𝔟𝔢𝔯 𝔲𝔫𝔰 𝔫𝔞𝔲𝔰 𝔤𝔢𝔰𝔠𝔥𝔪𝔦𝔰𝔷𝔢𝔫 𝔡𝔞𝔰 𝔨𝔞𝔫𝔫𝔲𝔫𝔢𝔫 𝔟𝔩𝔦𝔱𝔷𝔢𝔫 𝔲𝔫𝔡 𝔡𝔲𝔫𝔯𝔢𝔫 𝔥𝔞𝔱 𝔪𝔞𝔫 𝔤𝔢𝔥𝔬𝔯𝔱 25 𝔐𝔢𝔦𝔩 𝔴𝔢𝔦𝔱 𝔡𝔞 𝔨𝔢𝔫𝔱 𝔦𝔥𝔯 𝔰𝔢𝔩𝔟𝔰𝔱 𝔡𝔢𝔫𝔨𝔢𝔫 𝔴𝔦𝔢 𝔢𝔰 𝔥𝔢𝔯 𝔤𝔢𝔤𝔞𝔫𝔤𝔢𝔫 𝔦𝔰𝔱 𝔚𝔦𝔢𝔱𝔢𝔯 𝔩𝔞𝔰 𝔦𝔠𝔥 𝔢𝔲𝔠𝔥 𝔴𝔦𝔰𝔰𝔢𝔫 𝔡𝔞𝔰 𝔰𝔦𝔢 𝔫𝔬𝔠𝔥 𝔫𝔦𝔢 𝔪𝔞𝔩𝔰 𝔰𝔬 𝔞𝔟𝔤𝔢𝔱𝔯𝔬𝔰𝔷𝔢𝔫 𝔴𝔞𝔯𝔱𝔢𝔫 𝔰𝔦𝔫𝔡 𝔴𝔦𝔢 𝔡𝔦𝔢𝔰 𝔪𝔞𝔩 𝔡𝔞𝔰 𝔟𝔢𝔱𝔱𝔢𝔩 𝔣𝔢𝔩𝔱 𝔴𝔞𝔯 𝔩𝔞𝔫𝔤 25 𝔐𝔢𝔦𝔩, 8 𝔐𝔢𝔦𝔩 𝔲𝔫𝔱𝔢𝔯 𝔉𝔯𝔢𝔡𝔢𝔯𝔦𝔠𝔥𝔰𝔟𝔲𝔯𝔤 𝔥𝔞𝔱'𝔰 𝔞𝔫𝔤𝔢𝔣𝔞𝔫𝔤𝔢𝔫 𝔲𝔫𝔡 𝔦𝔰𝔱 𝔫𝔲𝔣 𝔤𝔢𝔤𝔞𝔫𝔤𝔢𝔫 𝔟𝔦𝔰 𝔞𝔲𝔣 5 𝔐𝔢𝔦𝔩𝔢 𝔫𝔞𝔥𝔢 𝔞𝔫 𝔉𝔢𝔩𝔪𝔞𝔲𝔰. 𝔐𝔦𝔢𝔯 𝔥𝔞𝔟𝔢𝔫 200.50 𝔱𝔞𝔲𝔰𝔢𝔫𝔱 𝔪𝔞𝔫 𝔦𝔪 𝔣𝔢𝔩𝔱 𝔤𝔢𝔥𝔞𝔟𝔱 𝔫𝔬𝔠𝔥 𝔢𝔦𝔫 𝔴𝔢𝔫𝔦𝔠𝔥. ℑ𝔠𝔥 𝔥𝔞𝔟𝔢 40 𝔇𝔞𝔩𝔢𝔯 𝔤𝔢𝔩𝔱 𝔥𝔢𝔦𝔪 𝔤𝔢𝔱𝔰𝔠𝔥𝔦𝔠𝔥𝔱 𝔪𝔦𝔱 𝔡𝔢𝔯 𝔢𝔵𝔭𝔯𝔢𝔰 𝔫𝔞𝔠𝔥 𝔐𝔶𝔢𝔯𝔰𝔱𝔞𝔲𝔫 𝔲𝔫𝔡 𝔢𝔰 𝔴𝔲𝔫𝔡𝔢𝔯𝔱 𝔪𝔦𝔠𝔥 𝔥𝔞𝔯𝔡 𝔬𝔟 𝔡𝔦𝔢𝔯𝔰 𝔥𝔢𝔱 𝔬𝔡𝔢𝔯 𝔫𝔦𝔠𝔥𝔱 𝔰𝔠𝔥𝔯𝔢𝔦𝔟𝔱 𝔪𝔦𝔢𝔯 𝔬𝔟 𝔡𝔦𝔢𝔯𝔰 𝔥𝔞𝔟𝔱 𝔬𝔡𝔢𝔯 𝔫𝔦𝔠𝔥𝔱 𝔲𝔫𝔡 𝔣𝔢𝔯𝔤𝔢𝔰𝔱 𝔫𝔦𝔠𝔥𝔱 𝔤𝔩𝔢𝔦𝔠𝔥𝔱 𝔷𝔲 𝔰𝔠𝔥𝔯𝔢𝔦𝔟𝔢𝔫. ℑ𝔠𝔥 𝔪𝔲𝔰 𝔷𝔲𝔪 𝔟𝔢𝔰𝔠𝔥𝔩𝔲𝔰𝔷 𝔨𝔞𝔪𝔪𝔢𝔫 𝔣𝔲𝔯 𝔡𝔦𝔢𝔰 𝔐𝔞𝔩 𝔰𝔬 𝔳𝔦𝔢𝔩 𝔳𝔬𝔫 𝔢𝔲𝔯𝔢𝔪 𝔰𝔬𝔥𝔫. 𝔇𝔢𝔯 𝔥𝔢𝔯𝔯 𝔰𝔢𝔶 𝔪𝔦𝔱 𝔢𝔲𝔠𝔥 𝔷𝔲 𝔦𝔢𝔱𝔢𝔯 ℨ𝔢𝔦𝔱.

Franklin Weidle

𝔇𝔦𝔯𝔢𝔠𝔥𝔱 𝔢𝔲𝔯 𝔟𝔯𝔦𝔢𝔣 𝔫𝔢𝔪𝔩𝔦𝔠𝔥 𝔞𝔩𝔰 𝔴𝔦𝔢 𝔷𝔲𝔣𝔬𝔥𝔯,

Washington D.C. Com. C. 149 Regt. P.V.

In care of J.H. Bassler.[53]

Camp Near Potomac River,

May 9th, 1863

Very dear Father:

I take this opportunity to write a few lines and let you know that I am safe and sound, as long as the Lord wills. I hope these few lines will find you very well too. Further, I can report that we had a big battle that lasted 8 days and cost the lives of many of our men; the other side lost three men for each one of ours. There was heavy firing that lasted practically the whole time. Further, I shall let you know that we were very lucky. Our Brigade was in real danger for about 2 hours during the shelling of the cannon balls. We were positioned behind a big hill, so most of the shells were shot pretty much over our heads. The thunder and flashing of the cannons could be heard for 25 miles. You can imagine how it sounded here. Further, I can say that the Confederates never received such a beating as they did this time. The battlefield was 25 miles long. It began 8 miles below Fredericksburg and extended to within 5 miles of Falmouth. We had 250,000 men in the field. Just a little more yet- I sent $40 home by train to Myerstown, and I really wonder whether you received it or not. Write me whether you did get it and don't forget to write back. I must finish now; that's all from your son for the time being. May the Lord be with you always.

Franklin Weidle

Address your letter to the same place as before,

Washington, D.C. Company C. 149th Regt. Pennsylvania Volunteers

In care of J.H. Bassler


Pennsylvania Dutch companies sometimes mixed with English companies (The Pennsylvania Dutch had the habit of labeling anyone who did not speak Pennsylvania Dutch "English.") Many of the Pennsylvania Dutchmen who fought in the Civil War were recruited and raised at Camp Curtin, Pennsylvania.[52]

Pennsylvania Dutch regiments composed a large portion of the Federal Forces who fought in the Battle of Gettysburg at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, the bloodiest battle of the Civil War.[54]

Black Pennsylvania Dutchmen[edit]

Black Pennslvania Dutchmen

Blacks and Indians have historically identified with Pennsylvania Dutch culture, with many of the Pennsylvania Dutch diaspora being Melungeons, and called themselves Black Dutch.[55]

The Province of Pennsylvania originally had slavery, and slaves living within Pennsylvania Dutch lands learned the Pennsylvania Dutch language; slavery sharply declined after the emancipation act of 1780, creating a free Black Dutch population. Slavery was finally abolished from the Commonwealth's law in 1847.[56]

Black Dutchmen of the Pennsylvania Dutch Country spoke Pennsylvania Dutch and followed the same Fancy Dutch traditions as their white counterparts.[56][57] Some Black Dutchmen may have also spoken a unique Pennsylvania Dutch, similar to speakers of Jersey Negro Dutch (negerduits).[58][59]

In Canada, an 1851 census shows many blacks and Mennonites lived near each other in a number of places and exchanged labor, or the Dutch would hire black laborers. There are accounts of black families providing child care assistance for their Dutch neighbors. These Pennsylvania Dutch were usually Plain Dutch Mennonites or Fancy Dutch Lutherans.[60] The black-Mennonite relationship in Canada soon evolved to the level of church membership.[60]

Migration to Canada[edit]

Many Pennsylvania Dutch Mennonites arrived in Waterloo County in Conestoga wagons.

An early group, mainly from the Roxborough-Germantown area of Pennsylvania, emigrated to then colonial Nova Scotia in 1766 and founded the Township of Monckton, site of present day Moncton, New Brunswick. The extensive Steeves clan descends from this group.[61]

After the American Revolution, John Graves Simcoe, Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada, invited Americans, including Mennonites and German Baptist Brethren, to settle in British North American territory and offered tracts of land to immigrant groups.[62][63] This resulted in communities of Pennsylvania Dutch speakers emigrating to Canada, many to the area called the German Company Tract, a subset of land within the Haldimand Tract, in the Township of Waterloo, which later became Waterloo County, Ontario.[64][65] Some still live in the area around Markham, Ontario,[66][67] and particularly in the northern areas of the current Waterloo Region. Some members of the two communities formed the Markham-Waterloo Mennonite Conference. Today, the Pennsylvania Dutch language is mostly spoken by Old Order Mennonites.[68][64][69]

From 1800 to the 1830s, some Pennsylvania Dutch Mennonites in Upstate New York and Pennsylvania moved north to Canada, primarily to the area that would become Cambridge, Kitchener/Waterloo and St. Jacobs/Elmira in Waterloo County, Ontario, plus the Listowel area adjacent to the northwest. Settlement started in 1800 by Joseph Schoerg and Samuel Betzner, Jr. (brothers-in-law), Mennonites, from Franklin County, Pennsylvania. Other settlers followed mostly from Pennsylvania typically by Conestoga wagons. Many of the pioneers arriving from Pennsylvania after November 1803 bought land in a 60,000 acre section established by a group of Mennonites from Lancaster County Pennsylvania, called the German Company Lands.[68][64]

Fewer of the Pennsylvania Dutch settled in what would later become the Greater Toronto Area in areas that would later be the towns of Altona, Ontario, Pickering, Ontario, and especially Markham Village, Ontario, and Stouffville, Ontario.[70] Peter Reesor and brother-in-law Abraham Stouffer were higher profile settlers in Markham and Stouffville.

William Berczy, a German entrepreneur and artist, had settled in upstate New York and in May 1794, he was able to obtain 64,000 acres in Markham Township, near the current city of Toronto. Berczy arrived with approximately 190 German families from Pennsylvania and settled here. Others later moved to other locations in the general area, including a hamlet they founded, German Mills, Ontario, named for its grist mill; that community is now called Thornhill, Ontario), in the township that is now part of York Region.[66][67]

Pennsylvania Dutch today[edit]

Diagram indicating Pennsylvania Dutch settlement in the United States

Pennsylvania Dutch culture is still prevalent in some parts of Pennsylvania today. The Pennsylvania Dutch today speak English, though some still speak the Pennsylvania Dutch language among themselves. They share cultural similarities with the Mennonites in the same area. Pennsylvania Dutch English retains some German grammar and literally translated vocabulary, some phrases include "outen or out'n the lights" (German: die Lichter loeschen) meaning "turn off the lights", "it's gonna make wet" (German: es wird nass) meaning "its going to rain", and "its all" (German: es ist alle) meaning "its all gone". They also sometimes leave out the verb in phrases turning "the trash needs to go out" in to "the trash needs out" (German: der Abfall muss raus), in alignment with German grammar. The Pennsylvania Dutch have some foods that are uncommon outside of places where they live. Some of these include shoo-fly pie, funnel cake, pepper cabbage, filling and jello salads such as strawberry pretzel salad.

Religion[edit]

Christianity[edit]

Pennsylvania Reformed Dutch Church

The immigrants of the 1600s and 1700s who were known as the Pennsylvania Dutch included Mennonites, Swiss Brethren (also called Mennonites by the locals) and Amish but also Anabaptist-Pietists such as German Baptist Brethren and those who belonged to German Lutheran or German Reformed Church congregations.[71][72] Other settlers of that era were of the Moravian Church while a few were Seventh Day Baptists.[73][74] Calvinist Palatines and several other denominations were also represented to a lesser extent.[75][76]

Over 60% of the immigrants who arrived in Pennsylvania from Germany or Switzerland in the 1700s and 1800s were Lutherans and they maintained good relations with those of the German Reformed Church.[77] The two groups founded Franklin College (now Franklin & Marshall College) in 1787.

Henry Muhlenberg (1711–1787) founded the Lutheran Church in America. He organized the Ministerium of Pennsylvania in 1748, set out the standard organizational format for new churches and helped shape Lutheran liturgy.[78]

Muhlenberg was sent by the Lutheran bishops in Germany, and he always insisted on strict conformity to Lutheran dogma. Muhlenberg's view of church unity was in direct opposition to Nicolaus Ludwig Zinzendorf's Moravian approach, with its goal of uniting various Pennsylvania German religious groups under a less rigid "Congregation of God in the Spirit". The differences between the two approaches led to permanent impasse between Lutherans and Moravians, especially after a December 1742 meeting in Philadelphia.[79] The Moravians settled Bethlehem and nearby areas and established schools for Native Americans.[75]

Judaism[edit]

In Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania Dutch Christians and Pennsylvania German Jews have often maintained a special relationship due to their common German language and cultural heritage. Because both Yiddish and Pennsylvania Dutch are High German languages, there are strong similarities between the two languages and a limited degree of mutual intelligibility.[80] Historically, Pennsylvania Dutch Christians and Pennsylvania German Jews often had overlapping bonds in German-American business and community life. Due to this historical bond there are several mixed-faith cemeteries in Lehigh County, including Allentown's Fairview Cemetery, where German-Americans of both the Jewish and Protestant faiths are buried.[81] The cooking of Pennsylvania German Christians and Pennsylvania German Jews often overlaps, particularly vegetarian dishes that do not contain non-kosher ingredients such as pork or that mix meat and dairy together.[82] In 1987, the First United Church of Christ in Easton, Pennsylvania, hosted the annual meeting of the Pennsylvania German Society, the theme of which was the special bond between Pennsylvania German Christians and Pennsylvania German Jews. German Jews and German Christians held "quite ecumenical philosophies" about interfaith marriage and there are recorded instances of marriages between Jews and Christians within the German community. German Jews arriving in Pennsylvania often integrated into Pennsylvania Dutch communities because of their lack of knowledge of the English language. German Jews often lacked a trade and thus became peddlers, selling their wares within Pennsylvania Dutch society.[81]

A number of Pennsylvanian German Jews migrated to the Shenandoah Valley, travelling along the same route of migration as Pennsylvania Dutch people.[83]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "It is interesting to note that nearly all men recruited into the Provost Corps were Pennsylvania German." -David L. Valuska
  2. ^ Jägers were offered a signing bonus of one Louis d'or coin, which was increased to four Louis d'or as Hesse tried to fill its companies with expert riflemen and woodsmen.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sir Richard Philips (182). A Geographical View of the World: Embracing the Manners, Cutstoms, and Pursuits of Every Nation: Founded on the Best Authorities. p. 3.
  2. ^ Donald F. Durnbaugh. "Pennsylvania's Crazy Quilt of German Religious Groups". Journals.psu.edu. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
  3. ^ Steven M. Nolt (March 2008). Foreigners in their own land: Pennsylvania Germans in the early republic. p. 13. ISBN 9780271034447.
  4. ^ Hughes Oliphant Old: The Reading and Preaching of the Scriptures in the Worship of the Christian Church, Volume 6: The Modern Age. Eerdmans Publishing, 2007, p. 606.
  5. ^ Mark L. Louden: Pennsylvania Dutch: The Story of an American Language. JHU Press, 2006, p.2
  6. ^ Hostetler, John A. (1993), Amish Society, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, p. 241
  7. ^ Irwin Richman: The Pennsylvania Dutch Country. Arcadia Publishing, 2004, p.16.
  8. ^ W. Haubrichs, "Theodiscus, Deutsch und Germanisch – drei Ethnonyme, drei Forschungsbegriffe. Zur Frage der Instrumentalisierung und Wertbesetzung deutscher Sprach- und Volksbezeichnungen." In: H. Beck et al., Zur Geschichte der Gleichung "germanisch-deutsch" (2004), 199–228
  9. ^ a b Nicoline van der Sijs (2009). Yankees, cookies en Dollars: De invloed van het Nederlands op de Noord-Amerikaanse Talen. Amsterdam University Press. p. 25.
  10. ^ Watson, John Fanning (1881), Annals of Philadelphia and Pennsylvania, J.M. Stoddart
  11. ^ Mark L. Louden: Pennsylvania Dutch: The Story of an American Language. JHU Press, 2006, p.3-4
  12. ^ Frank Trommler, Joseph McVeigh (2016). America and the Germans, Volume 1: An Assessment of a Three-Hundred Year History--Immigration, Language, Ethnicity. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 51.
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Bibliography[edit]

  • Bronner, Simon J. and Joshua R. Brown, eds. Pennsylvania Germans: An Interpretive Encyclopedia (: Johns Hopkins UP, 2017), xviii, 554 pp.
  • Eelking, Max von (1893). The German Allied Troops in the North American War of Independence, 1776–1783. Translated from German by J. G. Rosengarten. Joel Munsell's Sons, Albany, NY. LCCN 72081186.
  • Ferling, John (2007). Almost a Miracle. The American Victory in the War of Independence. Oxford University Press, New York. ISBN 978-0-19-518121-0.
  • Grubb, Farley. "German Immigration to Pennsylvania, 1709 to 1820", Journal of Interdisciplinary History Vol. 20, No. 3 (Winter, 1990), pp. 417–436 in JSTOR
  • Louden, Mark L. Pennsylvania Dutch: The Story of an American Language. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2016.
  • McMurry, Sally, and Nancy Van Dolsen, eds. Architecture and Landscape of the Pennsylvania Germans, 1720–1920 (University of Pennsylvania Press; 2011) 250 studies their houses, churches, barns, outbuildings, commercial buildings, and landscapes
  • Nolt, Steven, Foreigners in Their Own Land: Pennsylvania Germans in the Early American Republic, Penn State U. Press, 2002 ISBN 0-271-02199-3
  • Pochmann, Henry A. German Culture in America: Philosophical and Literary Influences 1600–1900 (1957). 890pp; comprehensive review of German influence on Americans esp 19th century. online
  • Pochmann, Henry A. and Arthur R. Schult. Bibliography of German Culture in America to 1940 (2nd ed 1982); massive listing, but no annotations.
  • Roeber, A. G. Palatines, Liberty, and Property: German Lutherans in Colonial British America (1998)
  • Roeber, A. G. "In German Ways? Problems and Potentials of Eighteenth-Century German Social and Emigration History", William & Mary Quarterly, Oct 1987, Vol. 44 Issue 4, pp 750–774 in JSTOR
  • Von Feilitzsch, Heinrich Carl Philipp; Bartholomai, Christian Friedrich (1997). Diaries of Two Ansbach Jaegers. Translated by Burgoyne, Bruce E. Bowie, Maryland: Heritage Books. ISBN 0-7884-0655-8.

External links[edit]

In Pennsylvania German