|Opening date||August 1, 1960|
|Developer||Lloyd Family &
|No. of stores and services||178|
|No. of anchor tenants||6|
|Total retail floor area||1,472,000 ft²|
|No. of floors||3|
|Public transit access||TriMet bus lines 8, 17, 70, 77; Lloyd Center/NE 11th Ave MAX Station|
Lloyd Center is a shopping mall in the Lloyd District of Portland, Oregon, United States, just northeast of downtown. It is owned by Arrow Retail of Dallas and anchored by Macy's, Sears, and Marshalls. The mall features three floors of shopping with the third level serving mostly as professional office spaces, a food court, and U.S. Education Corporation's Apollo College. A Regal Cinemas multiplex is located across the street. The mall includes the Lloyd Center Ice Rink where Olympian Tonya Harding first learned to skate.
Ideas for Lloyd Center were conceived as early as 1923. The mall was named after southern Californian oil company executive Ralph B. Lloyd (1875–1953) who wished to build an area of self-sufficiency that included stores and residential locations. However, the mall wasn't built until 37 years later, due to major events such as World War II, the Great Depression, and Portland's conservative anti-development attitude.
The mall opened August 1, 1960 in a 100-store, open-air configuration. At the time, it was the largest shopping center in the Pacific Northwest and claimed to be the largest in the country. In 1960, Lloyd Center was located very close to the downtown retail core and was the first major retail development to seriously challenge it, aimed almost exclusively at commuters utilizing Portland's then-growing freeway system, especially the adjacent Banfield Expressway.
The original anchor stores were Meier & Frank at the center, Best's and Nordstrom's Shoes anchoring the west end, J. C. Penney and Woolworth anchoring the east, and J. J. Newberry the north. The Newberry store was the national chain's largest at the time of its opening. The Seattle-based Nordstrom's Shoes chain acquired Best's apparel in 1963 and rebranded all locations as Nordstrom Best in 1967. The Nordstrom nameplate was adopted in 1973.
As of 1971, Lloyd Center's five largest stores were, from largest to smallest, Meier & Frank (314,000 square feet), Newberry's (100,000 sq. ft.), Penney's (97,370 sq. ft.), F. W. Woolworth (62,734 sq. ft.) and Nordstom Best (52,891 sq. ft.).
The first significant expansion to the mall since its opening in 1960 was made in fall 1972, adding six stores. The 75,000-square-foot (7,000 m2) expansion included the addition of a 50,000-square-foot (4,600 m2) Lipman's store. In 1973, the Penney's store was remodeled and expanded to 144,000 square feet (13,400 m2).
Frederick & Nelson acquired the Lipman's chain in 1979, and the Lloyd Center Lipman's store was renamed Frederick & Nelson. The store subsequently went through a dizzying succession of owners, nameplates and locations within the mall.[clarification needed] It appears that, in 1988, Nordstrom moved into the old Lipmans/Frederick and Nelson building. The Lipmans name was apparently reinstated at a new location in the north end of the mall in 1987, only to be replaced by that of Spokane-based The Crescent later in the same year. In March 1988, the store was acquired by Bellevue, Washington-based Lamonts.
1988–present: Renovation and new look
By 1987, the mall was aging and enclosed malls were becoming the norm across the United States. Between 1988 and 1991 the mall was gradually renovated. Nordstrom ended up demolishing the Lipmans store and opening an entirely new location on its space in August 1990. The former Nordstrom spaces had been gutted and refitted as inline stores, followed by a mall-wide renovation around late 1990-early 1991 which fully enclosed the mall and added a food court. The remodeled shopping hub was rededicated in August 1991.
J.C. Penney closed in June 1998 and was replaced by Sears in November 1999. The Newberry's store closed in 2001, when the entire chain went out of business; it was the last Newberry's in Oregon. Meier & Frank became Macy's in 2006.
Glimcher Realty Trust sold 60% of the center to Blackstone Real Estate Partners in 2010 after a deal to sell the entire mall fell through the year before. Lloyd Center was sold by Glimcher to Cypress Equities Real Estate Investment Management in June 2013.
An 18-month, $50 million renovation began in March 2015, alongside the closure of the Regal 8 cinema. Entrances to the mall will be made more pedestrian-friendly and the central space will be reconfigured with a spiral staircase. The changes are partially in response to the increasing population of the Lloyd District from newly constructed apartment buildings.
Lloyd Center is accessible by TriMet's MAX light rail service, which stops one block south of the mall, at the Lloyd Center/Northeast 11th Avenue station. The area is also served by several bus stops around the mall facility. The Portland Streetcar's A Loop has a stop two blocks west of the Lloyd Center, at NE 7th & Halsey. C-Tran serves Lloyd Center with its commuter express route 157 from 99th Street Transit Center in Vancouver.
Gang violence in and around the Lloyd Center has been an ongoing problem for the Portland Police Bureau and mall security. Gang members, from nearby neighborhoods, congregate at the mall frequently. In 2010, a gang related shooting took place at the Lloyd Center, no one was injured. Although shootings have happened near the Lloyd Center, this was the first shooting that took place inside the mall facility. Since 2010, the PPB has been diligent about fighting not only gang violence, but youth violence and shop lifting. The crime rate in the area has fallen substantially.
Because of the size and importance of Lloyd Center, it has played a significant role in the history of freedom of speech in the United States, especially with regard to the scope of free speech within private shopping centers. Lloyd Center was the defendant in the landmark cases of Lloyd Corp. v. Tanner, 407 U.S. 551 (1972), a decision of the U.S. Supreme Court involving First Amendment rights and private property, and Lloyd Corp. v. Whiffen, 307 Or. 674, 773 P.2d 1293 (1989), a decision of the Oregon Supreme Court.
Anchors and major stores
- Macy's opened 1960 as Meier & Frank, but was bought out and renamed Macy's in 2006
- Marshalls, opened (in F.W. Woolworth space) in 1999
- Sears, opened (in JC Penney space) in November 1999
- Barnes & Noble
- Lloyd Center Ice Chalet, opened 1960
- Old Navy, opened sometime between 2000 and 2005, replaced several smaller stores on the first floor of the east (Sears) side of the mall
- Nordstrom, opened (as Nordstrom's Shoes) in 1960, expanded into Best's store in 1963. Renamed as Nordstrom Best in 1967 and Nordstrom in 1973. Moved into old Lipmans space 1988. New store completed in August 1990. The store closed in January 2015.
- J.C. Penney (1960–1998), replaced by Sears in 1999
- Newberry's (1960–2001)
- Lamonts (1988–1999), replaced by Ross and Barnes & Noble
- Toys "R" Us (?–2008), replaced by an addition of Apollo College (Now Carrington College)
- Frederick & Nelson (1979–?), replaced by Lipman's
- Lipman's (1972–1979, 1979–1991), replaced by Frederick & Nelson and then turned back the same year, replaced by second Nordstrom in 1992
- Woolworth (1960–2001), replaced by Marshalls in 2003.
- The Crescent (1987–1992), replaced by Lamonts
- Tom Moyer Luxury Theatres (19??–1993), former owner of Lloyd Mall 8 Cinema, purchased by Act III Theatres
- Lloyd Mall 8 Cinema, a Regal Cinemas theater
- Act III Theatres (1989–2002), previous owner of Lloyd Mall 8 Cinema, purchased by Regal Cinemas
- Tradewell, a defunct Seattle-based grocery store chain (location later became Holladay's Market and is now home to Bank of America, Newport Seafood Grill, and Buffalo Wild Wings)
- Toll, William (2003). "Urban Investment". Oregon History Project. Oregon Historical Society. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- Glimcher Form 10-K Annual Report
- The Tonya Harding Website
- "History of the Lloyd District". Ashforth Pacific Properties. Retrieved 2008-05-14.
- "Stores Grow With Times". The Sunday Oregonian. July 31, 1960. p. M31.
- "Additional buildings proposed for Lloyd Center". The Sunday Oregonian. May 23, 1971. Section 1, p. 35.
- "Lloyd Center, East side's downtown, gets larger". The Sunday Oregonian. October 29, 1972. p. F8.
- Hill, Jim (May 17, 1998). "Lloyd Center thrives while Penney's wilts". The Oregonian. p. B1.
- Brennan, Tom (February 10, 1979). "99-year tradition ending: Frederick & Nelson buys Lipmans". The Oregonian. p. 1.
- "Tonight we close our doors as Lipman's ....". Advertisement in The Oregonian, March 30, 1979, p. A3.
- Njus, Elliot (June 13, 2013). "Lloyd Center mall acquired by Dallas real estate firm". The Oregonian. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
- Love, Jacqueline (July 1, 1998). "Penney's bows out of Lloyd Center". The Oregonian. p. E1.
- Hortsch, Dan (November 22, 1999). "There seems to be more traffic at the Lloyd Center". The Oregonian. p. E2.
- Heinz, Spencer (April 2, 2001). "Five-and-dime retailer will soon ring up its final sale". The Oregonian, p. B1.
- Njus, Elliot (February 5, 2014). "Nordstrom to close Lloyd Center, Westfield Vancouver stores". The Oregonian. Retrieved 2015-01-12.
- Marum, Anna (January 10, 2015). "Last call for two Portland-area Nordstroms". The Oregonian. p. C8. Retrieved 2015-03-08.
- Marum, Anna (February 5, 2015). "Lloyd Center renovation: Brokers shy away from 'traditional' tenants, lean toward yoga studios, pubs". The Oregonian. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- Njus, Elliot (July 24, 2014). "Lloyd Center to begin $50 million renovation project, largest since its enclosure". The Oregonian. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- Hill, Jim (April 3, 1998). "Mall braces for Penney's exit". The Oregonian. p. B1.
- Dye, Elizabeth (August 1, 2001). "J. J. Newberry: A Eulogy (editorial)". Willamette Week. Retrieved March 8, 2015.
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