View of Margaliot
|Founded by||Jewish immigrants from Yemen and Iraq.|
Margaliot (Hebrew: מַרְגָּלִיּוֹת; Arabic: هونين) is a moshav in northern Israel. Located along the border with Lebanon in the Upper Galilee, near the town of Kiryat Shmona, it falls under the jurisdiction of Mevo'ot HaHermon Regional Council. In 2015 it had a population of 393, most of them Jews of Iranian Kurdistan descent.
The site has sporadic habitation dating from Iron Age 1 (1200-1000BCE) and continuous habitation from circa 550 to 350 BCE until circa 550 CE, then sporadic habitation again until the 1800s. Château Neuf (New Castle), a Crusader fortress, is situated by the road leading to the moshav. Château Neuf provides a clear view of the Nimrod Fortress and several other fortresses in the area.[which?]
British Mandate era
The Syria-Lebanon-Palestine boundary was a product of the post-World War I Anglo-French partition of Ottoman Syria. British forces had advanced to a position at Tel Hazor against Turkish troops in 1918 and wished to incorporate all the sources of the Jordan River within British controlled Palestine. Following the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, and the unratified and later annulled Treaty of Sèvres, stemming from the San Remo conference, the 1920 boundary extended the British controlled area to north of the Sykes Picot line, a straight line between the midpoint of the Sea of Galilee and Nahariya. The international boundary between Palestine and Lebanon was finally agreed upon by Great Britain and France in 1923, in conjunction with the Treaty of Lausanne, after Britain had been given a League of Nations mandate for Palestine in 1922.
In April 1924, Hunin and six other villages, and an estimated 20 other settlements, were transferred from the French Mandate of Lebanon to the British Mandate of Palestine by France. Hunin was a Shi'ite Muslim village with a population of 1620 recorded in 1945. A Palmach raid in May 1948 led to many of the inhabitants fleeing to Lebanon, leaving 400 in the village. During a meeting in August 1948, the mukhtars of Hunin and other Shi'ite villages met with the Jews of kibbutz Kfar Giladi to try to make a peace agreement with the state of Israel. They promised to live as loyal citizens and renounce Arab national aspirations. A report was made by the Ministry of Minority Affairs recommending that such an agreement be reached with the 4,700 or so Shi'ites in the region to promote friendly relations with southern Lebanon, to take advantage of the Shi'ites' poor relationship with the majority Sunnis, and to enhance the prospect of a future extension of the border. This proposal was not accepted, despite the support of the Minister of Minority Affairs Bechor-Shalom Sheetrit. In August, more inhabitants of Hunin were forced to flee by the IDF. On 3 September 1948, the IDF raided the village blowing up 20 houses, killing a son of the mukhtar and 19 others and expelling the remaining villagers.
State of Israel
Margaliot was established in 1951, by Jewish immigrants from Yemen and Iraq, on the site of the Shiite town of Hunin, which itself was a village based on the site as rebuilt by Crusaders. The moshav was renamed after Chaim Margaliot Kalverisky, who headed the Jewish Colonization Association in the Galilee in the early twentieth century, and participated in the establishment of several Jewish settlements in the area. In 2006, 230 residents of Margaliot were evacuated to the Neve Hadassah youth village near Netanya due to Katyusha rocket fire from Lebanon.
- List of Arab towns and villages depopulated during the 1948 Palestinian exodus
- Seven Lebanese Villages
- "List of localities, in Alphabetical order" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
- Hunin Fortress:Preliminary plan for conservation and development
- David Fromkin (1989). A peace to end all peace: the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the creation of the modern Middle East. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-8050-8809-0.
- Margaret MacMillan (2001). Peacemakers: the Paris Conference of 1919 and its attempt to end war. John Murray. pp. 392–420. ISBN 978-0-7195-6237-2.
- Exchange of Notes Constituting an Agreement respecting the boundary line between Syria and Palestine from the Mediterranean to El Hammé. Paris, March 7, 1923.
- Sindawi, Khalid (2008). Are there any Shi'te Muslims in Israel?", Holy Land Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2, 183-199.
- Morris, 2004, p. 249
- Moshav Margaliot relocates to Netanya
- Hadawi, Sami (1970), Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine, Palestine Liberation Organization Research Center
- Khalidi, Walid (1992), All That Remains: The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948, Washington D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies, ISBN 0-88728-224-5
- Morris, Benny (2004). The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-00967-6.
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