|Periods||Middle Bronze Age - Crusader period|
|Public access||Nature Reserve|
Tel Afek, (Hebrew: תל אפק), also spelled Aphek and Afeq, is an archaeological site located in the coastal hinterland of the Ein Afek Nature Reserve, east of Kiryat Bialik, Israel. It is also known as Tel Kurdani.
The site is what remains of the biblical town of Aphik, which is mentioned in the Joshua 19:30 and Judges 1:31 as belonging to the Tribe of Asher. In ancient Israel (c 950 BCE) the area was part of Cabul and was given to Hiram I by Solomon as a reward for various services rendered to him in building the First Temple. 1 Kings 9:12. The name is apparently derived from the nearby abundant springs (אפיקים afikim in Hebrew).
In the Crusader era, it was known as Recordane, and in 1154, the mill and village was acquired the Hospitalliers. Between 1235 and 1262 the Hospitalliers had a dispute with the Templars about water rights. Two aqueducts, dating from this era, have been excavated.
A two-story fortress still stands. A water-powered flour mill operated on the lower floor.
Incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517, it appeared under the name Kufrdani in the census of 1596, located in the Nahiya of Acca of the Liwa of Safad. The village was noted as "hali" (empty), but taxes were paid, a total of 1,800 Akçe. The stair to the tower roof of the mill, and two more wheel-chambers in the southern part of the mill was added in the Ottoman period.
In 1881, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine (SWP) found at Kh. Khurdaneh (east of the mill) only heaps of stones. In 1900, Gottlieb Schumacher found here markings on the mill which he took to be Phoenician.
British Mandate era
Ein Afek nature reserve
The Ein Afek nature reserve, declared in 1979, covers 366 dunams. An additional 300 dunams were declared in 1994. The highlights of the park include the Crusader fortress and the natural water canals and lake, which draw their waters from the year-long flowing springs of Afek, which are the source of the Naaman river.
- Avner Kessler and Uri Kafri (2007). "Application of a cell model for operational management of the Na'aman groundwater basin, Israel". Israel Journal of Earth Sciences. 56: 29–46. doi:10.1560/ijes.56.1.29.
- Oxford Bible Atlas By Adrian Curtis, page 206
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- "Ein Afek nature reserve" (PDF). Israel Parks and Nature Authority.
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- Röhricht, 1893, RRH, pp. 74-75, No 293; cited in Pringle, 1997, p. 64
- Pringle, 1997, p. 64
- The al-Qalqashandi version of the hudna, referred in Barag, 1979, p. 205, #28
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- Note that Rhode, 1979, p. 6 writes that the Safad register that Hütteroth and Abdulfattah studied was not from 1595/6, but from 1548/9.
- Conder and Kitchener, 1881, SWP I, p. 314
- Schumacher, 1900, p. 360
- List of villages sold by Sursocks and their partners to the Zionists since British occupation of Palestine, evidence to the Shaw Commission, 1930
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- Abu Raya, Rafeh; Porat, Leea (2012-09-19). "Tel Afeq (Northeast)". 124. Hadashot Arkheologiyot – Excavations and Surveys in Israel.
- Accos, Iris (2000). "Tel Afek" (112). Hadashot Arkheologiyot – Excavations and Surveys in Israel.
- Barag, Dan (1979). "A new source concerning the ultimate borders of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem". Israel Exploration Journal. 29: 197–217. JSTOR 27925726.
- Conder, Claude Reignier; Kitchener, H. H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology. 1. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter; Abdulfattah, Kamal (1977). Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft. ISBN 3-920405-41-2.
- Khamisy, Rabei G. (2014). "The Treaty of 1283 between Sultan Qalāwūn and the Frankish Authorities of Acre: A New Topographical Discussion". Israel Exploration Journal. 64,1: 72–102.
- Mills, E., ed. (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas (PDF). Jerusalem: Government of Palestine.
- Ornan, Tallay, 2007, "Labor Pangs: The Revadim Plaque Type", in Bickel, S., Schroer, S. and Uehlinger, Ch. (eds.), Bilder als Quellen / Images as Sources. Studies on Ancient Near Eastern Artefacts and the Bible inspired by the work of Othmar Keel, OBO Special Volume, Fribourg and Göttingen, 2007, pp. 215–235, pl.XXIV. ISBN 978-3-7278-1613-0
- Palmer, E. H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and Explained by E.H. Palmer. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Porat, Leea (2010-12-26). "Tel Afeq (East)". 122. Hadashot Arkheologiyot – Excavations and Surveys in Israel.
- Pringle, Denys (1997). Secular buildings in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: an archaeological Gazetter. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521 46010 7.
- Rhode, Harold (1979). Administration and Population of the Sancak of Safed in the Sixteenth Century. Columbia University.
- Röhricht, Reinhold (1893). (RRH) Regesta regni Hierosolymitani (MXCVII-MCCXCI) (in Latin). Berlin: Libraria Academica Wageriana.
- Schumacher, G. (1900). "Tell el Kurdaneh". Quarterly statement - Palestine Exploration Fund. 32: 360.
- Thomson, William McClure (1859). The Land and the Book: Or, Biblical Illustrations Drawn from the Manners and Customs, the Scenes and Scenery, of the Holy Land. 1 (1 ed.). New York: Harper & brothers. (p. 486)
- Warren, Peter M.; Hankey, Vronwy (1989). Aegean Bronze Age Chronology. Bristol Classical Press. ISBN 090651567X.