Ein Afek Aerial photo
|Grid position||160/250 PAL|
|Periods||Middle Bronze Age - Crusader period|
|Public access||Nature Reserve|
Tel Afek, (Hebrew: תל אפק), also spelled Aphek and Afeq, is an archaeological site located in the coastal hinterland of the Ein Afek Nature Reserve, east of Kiryat Bialik, Israel. It is also known as Tel Kurdani.
The site is what remains of the biblical town of Aphik, which is mentioned in the Joshua 19:30 and Judges 1:31 as belonging to the Tribe of Asher. In ancient Israel (c 950 BCE) the area was part of Cabul and was given to Hiram I by Solomon as a reward for various services rendered to him in building the First Temple. 1 Kings 9:12.
Pottery from the Crusader times have been found here. In the Crusader era, it was known as Recordane, and in 1154, the mill and village was acquired the Hospitalliers. The Hospitalliers owned the water mills here for a number of years. Between 1235 and 1262 the Hospitalliers had a dispute with the Templars about water rights.
According to al-Maqrizi, it had come under Mamluk rule in 1291, when it was mentioned under the name of Kerdanah when sultan al-Ashraf Khalil allocated the village's income to a waqf in Cairo.
A two-story fortress still stands. A water-powered flour mill operated on the lower floor.
Incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517, it appeared under the name Kufrdani in the census of 1596, located in the Nahiya of Acca of the Liwa of Safad. The village was noted as "hali" (empty), but taxes were paid, a total of 1,800 Akçe. All of the revenues went to a waqf. The stair to the tower roof of the mill, and two more wheel-chambers in the southern part of the mill was added in the Ottoman period.
In 1881, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine (SWP) found at Kh. Khurdaneh (east of the mill) only heaps of stones. The name, Kh. Kurdâneh was taken to mean the ruin of Kurdâneh, p.n. 
British Mandate era
Ein Afek nature reserve
The Ein Afek nature reserve, declared in 1979, covers 366 dunams. An additional 300 dunams were declared in 1994. The highlights of the park include the Crusader fortress and the natural water canals and lake, which draw their waters from the year-long flowing springs of Afek, which are the source of the Naaman river.
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