Mayo Clinic

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Mayo Clinic
Non-profit organization
Industry Health care
Founded Rochester, Minnesota, United States (1889)
Founder William Worrall Mayo
William James Mayo
Charles Horace Mayo
Augustus Stinchfield
Christopher Graham
Henry Stanley Plummer
Melvin Millet
E. Star Judd
Donald Balfour
Headquarters Rochester, Minnesota, United States
Area served
North America
Website mayoclinic.org
Footnotes / references
More [1]

Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit medical practice and medical research group based in Rochester, Minnesota. It is the first and largest integrated nonprofit medical group practice in the world, employing more than 3,800 physicians and scientists and 50,900 allied health staff.[1][2] The practice specializes in treating difficult cases through tertiary care. It spends over $500 million a year on research.

Dr. William Worrall Mayo settled his family in Rochester in 1864 and opened a medical practice that evolved under his sons into Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic is widely regarded as one of the world's greatest hospitals and ranked No. 1[3] on the 2014-2015 U.S. News & World Report List of "Best Hospitals", maintaining a position near the top for more than 20 years.[4] It has been on the list of America's "100 Best Companies to Work For" published by Fortune magazine for eight years in a row.[5][6]

History[edit]

William Worrall Mayo, the founding father of what would become the Mayo Clinic.

Early years[edit]

In 1863, William Worrall Mayo (1819–1911) came to Rochester, Minnesota as part of his appointment as an examining surgeon for the military draft board during the American Civil War. The city was to his liking, and his wife and children joined him in early 1864. William Worrall Mayo opened his medical practice after the war, and served in several leadership roles in the community. Both of W.W. Mayo's sons, William James Mayo (1861–1939) and Charles Horace Mayo (1865–1939) grew up in Rochester, and when old enough both attended medical school. William (Will) graduated in 1883 and joined his father's practice, with Charles (Charlie) joining after he completed his training in 1888.

Bronze sculpture, by Tuck Langland, of the Mayo brothers, "Dr. Charlie" (left) and "Dr. Will" (right), in front of the Mayo Clinic Gonda Building in Rochester, Minnesota

On August 21, 1883, a tornado struck Rochester, causing at least 37 deaths in the area and over 200 injuries.[7] One-third of the town was destroyed, but the Mayo family escaped serious harm. The relief efforts began immediately with a temporary hospital being established at the city dance hall, and the doctors Mayo (W.W. and Will) as well as other local doctors, were extensively involved in treating the injured who were brought there for help. Mother Alfred Moes and the Sisters of Saint Francis (a teaching order) were called in to act as nurses despite having been trained as teachers and with little if any medical experience.

After the crisis subsided, Mother Alfred Moes approached W.W. Mayo about establishing a hospital in Rochester, and Dr. Mayo agreed to work in the hospital, and soon others local doctors agreed to work in the hospital as well. On September 30, 1889, Saint Marys Hospital was opened by the Sisters. Dr. W.W. Mayo, 70 years old, was one of the consulting physicians at the hospital. His two sons began seeing patients and performing surgeries at the hospital when they returned from medical school in the 1880s.[8]

Group practice[edit]

In 1892, Dr. Augustus Stinchfield was asked to join the practice by W.W. Mayo, who considered him to be the best doctor in the area. After Dr. Stinchfield joined the practice, W.W. Mayo retired at the age of 73. The practice continued to grow. The founders of Mayo Clinic are the Mayo brothers Will and Charlie, Dr. Stinchfield, Dr. Graham, Dr. Henry Plummer, Dr. Millet, Dr. Judd, and Dr. Balfour. These early founders and partners shared in the profits of the private group practice, while other staff hired by the partners were salaried. W.W. Mayo died in 1911, but the group practice continued strong with an ever increasing presence nationally as a cutting edge center. In 1919, the founders, with the exception of Dr. Graham, created the Mayo Properties Association, and their private practice became a not-for-profit entity. The founders gave the Clinic properties and furnishings to this newly formed association. The integrated practice model developed primarily by Dr. Plummer, created a foundation for what would grow into the Mayo Clinic.

Growth and current practice[edit]

The Group Practice continued steady growth throughout the 20th century. The research budget exceeds $500 million a year, chiefly provided by federal grants but with 40% from the Mayo budget.[9]

As the private practice grew, new space was needed. In 1914 a new clinic building was planned, designed and built. Ellerbe Architects are the architect of record for the 1914 Mayo "Red" building, as well as for the 1922 Mayo Institute of Experimental Medicine, the 1927 Plummer building, the 1954 Mayo Clinic building, and the 2002 Gonda building. In 1914, and under the guidance of Dr. Henry Plummer, the new building allowed the integrated group medical practice concept to be fully expressed. Many highly innovative medical systems, tools, and equipment were incorporated into the building design. This was groundbreaking work, and the first building designed to facilitate the integrated group medical practice. Dr. Plummer worked closely with Frederic Maass, of Maass & McAndrew, to design and fabricate many of the building systems innovations like the steam sterilization rooms, metal surgical tools and equipment, pneumatic tube system, knee operated sinks, and a state of the art HVAC system. The air exchange rate for the building was three minutes. One intriguing innovation was the Rookwood fountain in the main lobby that was designed to clean and humidify air from the outside. It also heated and humidified air in the winter, and provided cool air in the summer. To fight infection, steam sterilizer rooms was designed to hold much of the operating rooms metal surgical furniture, tools and equipment. These and other aseptic procedures helped bring the overall patient infection rates down - which in turn helped grow the Mayo Clinic practice, along with its well earned reputation for innovation, into what it is today. In 1928, the Plummer Building was completed with considerable input from Clinic staff, and again under the guidance of Dr. Henry Plummer. Mr. Maass again worked closely with Dr. Plummer and staff on system design. After this project was complete he was hired as the "Chief Engineer" for the Clinic. Working hand in hand with physicians, scientists and other Mayo Clinic staff, the engineering department developed unique medical devices and systems, many designed to meet the needs of individual patients. At the time of its completion, the Plummer Building was the tallest building in Minnesota and remained so until the Foshay Tower was finished in Minneapolis in 1929. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1969, and has recently undergone a complete restoration of its bell tower. The historic 1914 "Red" Mayo Clinic building, a National Landmark listed on the National Register, was demolished by the Clinic in the 1980s to make way for the HGA designed Siebens building. Since 1986, the Mayo Clinic campus has formally included the Rochester Methodist Hospital and Saint Marys Hospital, as all operations were integrated under one governing board to more efficiently serve the needs of Mayo patients.[8] In 2011, the foundation went before the Supreme Court to argue that medical residents should remain exempt from Social Security deductions. In Mayo Foundation v. United States the court sided with the Social Security Administration and required FICA to be deducted going forward.

Mayo Clinic is a member of the Consortium of Academic Health Centers for Integrative Medicine (CAHCIM).[10][11] The stated mission of the CAHCIM is "to advance the principles and practices of integrative healthcare within academic institutions. The Consortium provides its institutional membership with a community of support for its academic missions and a collective voice for influencing change."[12]

Locations[edit]

The Plummer Building in Rochester, Minnesota.

Mayo Clinic has a large presence in three U.S. metropolitan areas: Rochester (Minnesota), Jacksonville (Florida), and Phoenix (Arizona). The Clinic employs more than 32,000 people at the main campus in Rochester, Minnesota and the Arizona and Florida sites employ approximately 5,000 persons at each site.[2] In addition, the Mayo Clinic owns and operates the Mayo Clinic Health System, which consists of more than 70 hospitals and clinics across Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin and Georgia with an employment of 14,000 persons. Mayo Clinic also operates several colleges of medicine, including Mayo Medical School, the Mayo Graduate School, and the Mayo School of Graduate Medical Education, Mayo School of Health Sciences.

Core values[edit]

As is evidenced by the Mayo Clinic logo, the institution has a three part focus. First and primary to the organization is the patient care practice, represented by the central shield. This is in accordance with the primary statement of the organization that "the needs of the patient come first." The other two shields represent the areas of education and research, two areas of Mayo Clinic which have become more prominent over time.[13]

Patient care[edit]

Each year, more than one million patients from all 50 states and from more than 150 countries are seen at one of the Mayo Clinic facilities.[2] Mayo Clinic offers highly specialized medical care, and a large portion of the patient population are referrals from smaller clinics and hospitals from across the upper Midwest and the United States as a whole. Mayo Clinic physicians are paid a fixed salary that is not linked to patient volume (relative value units) or income from fee-for-service payments. This practice is thought to decrease the monetary motivation to see patients in large numbers and increase the incentive to spend more time with individuals. Salaries are determined by the marketplace salaries for physicians in comparable large group practices.

Research[edit]

Mayo Clinic researchers contribute to the understanding of disease processes, best clinical practices, and translation of findings from the laboratory to the clinical practice. Nearly 400 doctoral level physicians and research scientists are employed, with an additional 2,800 allied health personnel and students with appointments in research.[2] In 2010, more than 2,300 research protocols were reviewed by the Mayo Clinic Institutional review board and 8,000 ongoing human research studies. These research initiatives led to more than 5,000 research publications and review articles in peer-review journals.[2]

Education[edit]

The founding partners in the private practice were proponents of education very early on. In 1917, the Mayo Foundation helped with the establishment of the medical school at the University of Minnesota with a two million dollar donation. Many new graduates were sent to the Mayo Clinic for further training. The Mayo Clinic was a pioneer in helping to establish the current residency education system. Until the early 1970s, consulting physicians at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota held joint appointments as professors at the University of Minnesota medical school. In 1972, Mayo Clinic opened the doors of its own medical school (Mayo Medical School) in Rochester, which is known for its contributions in the medical field.[14]

Innovation[edit]

Mayo Clinic issued an open letter stating the healthcare reform bills as written in July 2009 would not reduce costs or increase quality nationwide.[15]

Mayo Clinic has adopted more than 15,000 mobile devices from Apple for patient care; including the IPad, IPad Mini and iPhone. Mayo Clinic then created an app for these devices called Synthesis Mobile which integrated hundreds of their health systems. Other apps were also created for Mayo Clinic Care Network members that assists patients with seeing their medical records or asking clinicians for assistance.[16] Mayo Clinic is also developing an app for Apple's new HealthKit that would help users maintain healthy lifestyles and warns users of certain health signs that need attention.[17]

Leadership[edit]

Mayo Clinic is led by President and CEO John Noseworthy, M.D. In May 2009, it was announced that when previous CEO Denis Cortese retires in November 2009, Dr. John Noseworthy would be named the new President and CEO.[18]

After his retirement from Mayo in November 2009, Dr. Cortese became director of the Health Care Delivery and Policy Program at Arizona State University (ASU), Foundation Professor at ASU, and President of the Healthcare Transformation Institute. On July 29, 2010, EGHC, parent company of Essence Healthcare and other subsidiaries, announced that Dr. Cortese would join its Board of Directors.[19]

Rankings[edit]

In 2014-15, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, was ranked as the #1 overall hospital in the United States by U.S. News & World Report.[20] A total of almost 5,000 hospitals were considered and ranked in 16 specialties from cancer and heart disease to respiratory disorders and urology; 144, or less than 3 percent of the total, were ranked in even one of the 16 specialties. Of the 144 hospitals that are ranked in one or more specialties, 17 qualified for the Honor Roll by earning high scores in at least six specialties. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, was ranked in the top 10 in all but one of 16 specialties, in the top 5 in 14 specialties, and was the #1 ranked hospital in 8 specialties.

Ranked 1st Ranked 2nd Ranked 3rd or 4th Ranked 5th or lower
Diabetes and Endocrinology   Cardiology and Heart Surgery   Cancer (3rd) Psychiatry (7th)
Ear, Nose and Throat Orthopedics   Rehabilitation(4th)   Ophthalmology (High-Performing)
Gastroenterology Urology Rheumatology (4th)
Geriatrics
Gynecology
Nephrology
Neurology and Neurosurgery
Pulmonology

Help In Healing Home Foundation[edit]

Located in the Mayo Village, at the Mayo Clinic, Phoenix (Arizona), Help In Healing Home is a non-profit foundation providing accommodation of up to 72 patients and their caregivers at any one time. The patients who stay at Help In Healing Home are undergoing cancer treatments or recovering from transplant surgeries at the Mayo Clinic.[21]

Additional images[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ LinkedIn. Mayo Clinic. Accessed 2013-03-11.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Mayo Clinic Facts - 2011". Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  3. ^ http://health.usnews.com/health-news/best-hospitals/articles/2014/07/15/best-hospitals-2014-15-overview-and-honor-roll
  4. ^ "Top American Hospitals – US News Best Hospitals". Health.usnews.com. Retrieved 2010-09-04. 
  5. ^ "100 Best Companies to Work For 2011: Mayo Clinic". Fortune. February 7, 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2011. 
  6. ^ Mayo Clinic (January 20, 2011). "Mayo Clinic named on of FORTURE's "100 Best Companies to Work For" for Eighth Consecutive Year". Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Retrieved 20 January 2011. 
  7. ^ "The Rochester, MN Tornado of 1883". National Weather Service. NOAA. Retrieved 2011-10-21. 
  8. ^ a b "History of Saint Marys Hospital". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved December 2013. 
  9. ^ See "History"
  10. ^ Alkon, Cheryl. "More medical schools offer 'alternative' training". USA Today. Retrieved 3 March 2012. 
  11. ^ "Members". Consortium of Academic Health Centers for Integrative Medicine. Retrieved 3 March 2012. 
  12. ^ "About Us". Consortium of Academic Health Centers for Integrative Medicine. Retrieved 3 March 2012. 
  13. ^ "Logo Logic: What do those shields mean?". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2012-11-04. 
  14. ^ "Mayo Medical School". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2012-11-04. 
  15. ^ McGreal, Chris (2009-07-21). "Obama launches campaign urging Congress to pass healthcare reform". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2010-05-12. 
  16. ^ "Mayo Clinic". Apple.com. Apple. Retrieved 23 June 2014. 
  17. ^ Sparks, Dana. "Apple Highlights New Mayo Clinic App During Worldwide Developers Keynote". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 23 June 2014. 
  18. ^ Chris Newmarker (May 2009). "Noseworthy Named New Mayo Clinic CEO.". Minneapolis-St. Paul Business Journal. Retrieved 2009-05-15. 
  19. ^ "Mayo Clinic President and CEO Emeritus to Join EGHC Board". Business Wire. 2010-07-29. Retrieved 2010-09-04. 
  20. ^ http://www.startribune.com/lifestyle/health/267204231.html
  21. ^ "History". Help In Healing Home. 2015-02-01. Retrieved 2015-02-12. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 44°01′20″N 92°28′00″W / 44.0222°N 92.4666°W / 44.0222; -92.4666