Academic medical centre
An academic medical centre (AMC), variously also known as academic health science centre, academic health science system, or academic health science partnership, is an educational and healthcare institute formed by the grouping of a health professional school (such as a medical school) with an affiliated teaching hospital or hospital network.
AMCs are intended to ensure that medical research breakthroughs lead to direct clinical benefits for patients. The organisational structures that comprise an AMCs can take a variety of forms, ranging from simple partnerships to, less frequently, fully integrated organisations with a single management board. There are AMCs operating in a number of countries including Australia, Canada, the Republic of Ireland, Japan, the Netherlands, Qatar, Singapore, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States.
In Australia, AMCs are also referred to as Advanced Health Research & Translation Centres (AHRTCs). AMCs currently in operation in Australia include:
- Brisbane Diamantina Health Partners (Brisbane, Australia)
- Melbourne Academic Centre for Health (Melbourne, Australia)
- Monash Partners Academic Health Science Centre (Melbourne, Australia)
- South Australian Academic Health Science and Translation Centre (Adelaide, Australia)
- Sydney Health Partners (Sydney, Australia)
- Sydney Partnership for Health, Education, Research & Enterprise (Sydney, Australia)
- Western Australian Health Translation Network (Perth, Australia)
- Tropical Australian Academic Health Centre (Northern Queensland, Australia)
In Canada, AHSCs are also referred to as Academic Healthcare Organizations. AHSCs currently in operation in Canada include:
- Hamilton Health Sciences (Hamilton, Ontario)
- St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton (Hamilton, Ontario)
- Health Sciences North (Sudbury, Ontario) Only trauma center in Northern Ontario and the neighbouring province of Manitoba.
- London Health Sciences Centre (London, Ontario)
- McGill University Health Centre (Montreal, Quebec)
- Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (Montreal, Quebec)
- Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre (Toronto, Ontario)
- The Ottawa Hospital (Ottawa, Ontario)
- Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre (Thunder Bay, Ontario)
- University Health Network (Toronto, Ontario)
- Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre (Vancouver, British Columbia)
- Winnipeg Health Sciences Centre (Winnipeg, Manitoba)
In 2007 a review of healthcare in London led by Professor Lord Darzi, A Framework for Action, recommended the creation of a number of AHSCs in England. In October 2007 Imperial College Healthcare became the first AHSC to be established in the UK when the Imperial College London Faculty of Medicine merged with the Hammersmith Hospital and St Mary's NHS trusts. Four more AHSCs have subsequently been established in the UK and one is planned. Funding mainly comes from NHS and work was already "in hand to identify the funding" when expressions of interest were solicited. When contracts were signed with NHS in 2013, AHSCs shared among themselves around £60 million of funding. With a clear purpose, structure and approach of individual AHSCs is a matter for local decision especially with the contrasting approaches adopted as well as the differences in opinions voiced out by network founders. In recent years, broader academic health science networks have also been created, mostly attached to original health science centres, although cumulatively providing national coverage.
The following AHSCs are currently in operation in the UK:
- Cambridge University Health Partners, Cambridge
- Imperial College Academic Health Science Centre, London
- King's Health Partners, London
- Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester
- Oxford Academic Health Science Centre, Oxford
- UCLPartners, London
- Health Science Scotland
In the United States, it is defined by the Association of Academic Health Centers as: "an educational institution that includes a medical school and at least one allied health professional school and either owns or is affiliated with a teaching hospital or healthcare system".
The first AHSC was opened in 1823 as the Medical College of Ohio in Cincinnati, Ohio by Daniel Drake. The center's teaching arm would later become the University of Cincinnati through a series of mergers and expansions. AHSCs currently in operation in the United States include:
- Albany Medical Center, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York
- Anschutz Medical Campus, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado
- BJC HealthCare, St. Louis, Missouri
- Boston Medical Center, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts
- Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California
- Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio
- Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Geisel School of Medicine, Lebanon, New Hampshire
- Duke University Medical Center (Durham, North Carolina)
- Georgetown University Medical Center (Washington, DC)
- Greenville Health System Clinical University (Greenville, South Carolina)
- Intermountain Medical Center (Salt Lake City, Utah)
- Johns Hopkins Hospital (Baltimore, Maryland)
- Loma Linda University Health (Loma Linda, California)
- Massachusetts General Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School (Boston, Massachusetts)
- Mayo Clinic, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science (Rochester, Minnesota)
- Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina
- Memorial Medical Center and St. John's Hospital (Springfield, Illinois)
- National Academy of Medicine
- National Institutes of Health
- New York–Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University and Cornell University, New York, New York
- NYU Langone Medical Center, New York University, New York, NY
- Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Ohio State University (Columbus, Ohio)
- Oregon Health & Science University, (Portland, Oregon)
- OSF Saint Francis Medical Center and the Children's Hospital of Illinois (Peoria, Illinois)
- Providence Alaska Medical Center (Anchorage, Alaska)
- Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (New Brunswick, New Jersey)
- Stony Brook University Hospital, Stony Brook University- State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY
- SUNY Downstate Medical Center, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University, Brooklyn, NY
- Temple University Hospital, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
- Texas Medical Center (Houston, Texas)
- Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
- Tufts Medical Center (Boston, Massachusetts)
- UC Davis Medical Center (Sacramento, California)
- UC Irvine Medical Center (Orange, California)
- UCLA Health System (Los Angeles, California)
- UC San Diego Health (La Jolla, California)
- UCSF Medical Center (San Francisco, California)
- Uniformed Services University, (Bethesda, Maryland)
- University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama
- University of Chicago Medical Center, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
- University of Connecticut Health Center, University of Connecticut, Farmington, Connecticut
- University of Cincinnati Medical Center (Cincinnati, Ohio)
- University of Connecticut Medical Center (Hartford, Connecticut, and other cities)
- University of Florida Health (UF Health) (Gainesville and Jacksonville, Florida)
- University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center (Cleveland, Ohio)
- University of Kentucky HealthCare (Lexington, Kentucky)
- University of Louisville Hospital (Louisville, Kentucky)
- University of Miami Health System (UHealth) (Miami, Florida)
- University of Michigan Health System, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan
- University of Mississippi Medical Center, Mississippi
- University of North Carolina Hospitals (Chapel Hill, North Carolina)
- University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia, PA
- University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pennsylvania
- University of Tennessee Health Science Center (Memphis, TN)
- University of Texas Medical Branch (Galveston, Texas)
- University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (Dallas, Texas)
- University of Utah Hospital, University of Utah (Salt Lake City, Utah)
- University of Vermont Medical Center, University of Vermont (Burlington, Vermont)
- University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia
- University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Madison, Wisconsin
- Upstate University Hospital, Norton College of Medicine - State University of New York (Syracuse, New York)
- UW Medicine, University of Washington (Seattle, Washington)
- Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee
- Vidant Medical Center, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University (Greenville, North Carolina)
- VCU Medical Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia
- Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, North Carolina
- Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, New York
- Yale-New Haven Hospital, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut
AMCs currently in operation in other parts of the world include:
- Dublin Academic Medical Centre (Dublin, Ireland)
- SingHealth Duke-NUS Academic Medical Center, Singapore
- Karolinska Institutet (Stockholm, Sweden)
- Greater Copenhagen Health Science Partners (Copenhagen), Denmark)
- Kyushu University Academic Medical Center (Fukuoka, Japan)
- Leiden University Medical Center (Leiden, the Netherlands)
- National University Health System (Singapore)
- Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre (Nijmegen, the Netherlands)
- Trinity Health Ireland (Dublin, Ireland)
- Hamad Medical Corporation (Doha, Qatar)
- Academic Health System Universitas Gadjah Mada (Yogyakarta, Indonesia)
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