Messier object

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Messier object
All messier objects (numbered).jpg
All messier objects, taken and compiled by an amateur astronomer
Alternative namesMessier Catalogue
Survey typeastronomical catalogue
Targetnebula, planetary nebula, open cluster, globular cluster, galaxy Edit this on Wikidata
Named afterCharles Messier Edit this on Wikidata
Published1771 Edit this on Wikidata
Bandvisual perception Edit this on Wikidata
Commons page Related media on Wikimedia Commons

The Messier objects are a set of 110 astronomical objects catalogued by the French astronomer Charles Messier in his Catalogue des Nébuleuses et des Amas d'Étoiles ("Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters"). Because Messier was only interested in finding comets, he created a list of non-comet objects that frustrated his hunt for them. The compilation of this list, in collaboration with his assistant Pierre Méchain, is known as the Messier catalogue. This catalogue of objects is one of the most famous lists of astronomical objects, and many Messier objects are still referenced by their Messier number.[1] The catalogue includes some astronomical objects that can be observed from Earth's Northern Hemisphere such as deep-sky objects, a characteristic which makes the Messier objects extremely popular targets for amateur astronomers.[2]

A preliminary version first appeared in the Memoirs of the French Academy of Sciences in 1771.[3][4] The first version of Messier's catalogue contained 45 objects and was published in 1774 in the journal of the French Academy of Sciences in Paris. Eighteen of the objects were discovered by Messier, the rest being previously observed by other astronomers.[5] By 1780 the catalogue had increased to 80 objects. The final version of the catalogue containing 103 objects was published in 1781 in the Connaissance des Temps for the year 1784.[6] However, due to what was thought for a long time to be the incorrect addition of Messier 102, the total number remained 102. Other astronomers, using side notes in Messier's texts, eventually filled out the list up to 110 objects.[7]

The catalogue consists of a diverse range of astronomical objects, from star clusters and nebulae to galaxies. For example, Messier 1 is a supernova remnant, known as the Crab Nebula, and the great spiral Andromeda Galaxy is M31. Many further inclusions followed in the next century when the first addition came from Nicolas Camille Flammarion in 1921, who added Messier 104 after finding Messier's side note in his 1781 edition exemplar of the catalogue. M105 to M107 were added by Helen Sawyer Hogg in 1947, M108 and M109 by Owen Gingerich in 1960, and M110 by Kenneth Glyn Jones in 1967.[8]

Lists and editions[edit]

The first edition of 1771 covered 45 objects numbered M1 to M45. The total list published by Messier in 1781 contained 103 objects, but the list was expanded through successive additions by other astronomers, motivated by notes in Messier's and Méchain's texts indicating that at least one of them knew of the additional objects. The first such addition came from Nicolas Camille Flammarion in 1921, who added Messier 104 after finding a note Messier made in a copy of the 1781 edition of the catalogue. M105 to M107 were added by Helen Sawyer Hogg in 1947, M108 and M109 by Owen Gingerich in 1960, and M110 by Kenneth Glyn Jones in 1967.[9] M102 was observed by Méchain, who communicated his notes to Messier. Méchain later concluded that this object was simply a re-observation of M101, though some sources suggest that the object Méchain observed was the galaxy NGC 5866 and identify that as M102.[10]

Messier's final catalogue was included in the Connaissance des Temps pour l'Année 1784 (Knowledge of Time; published in 1781), the French official yearly publication of astronomical ephemerides.[11][12]

Messier lived and did his astronomical work at the Hôtel de Cluny (now the Musée national du Moyen Âge), in Paris, France. The list he compiled contains only objects found in the sky area he could observe: from the north celestial pole to a celestial latitude of about −35.7°. He did not observe or list objects visible only from farther south, such as the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds.[13]

Observations[edit]

The Messier catalogue comprises nearly all the most spectacular examples of the five types of deep-sky objectdiffuse nebulae, planetary nebulae, open clusters, globular clusters, and galaxies – visible from European latitudes. Furthermore, almost all of the Messier objects are among the closest to Earth in their respective classes, which makes them heavily studied with professional class instruments that today can resolve very small and visually spectacular details in them. A summary of the astrophysics of each Messier object can be found in the Concise Catalog of Deep-sky Objects.[14]

Since these objects could be observed visually with the relatively small-aperture refracting telescope (approximately 100 mm, or 4 inches) used by Messier to study the sky, they are among the brightest and thus most attractive astronomical objects (popularly called deep-sky objects) observable from Earth, and are popular targets for visual study and astrophotography available to modern amateur astronomers using larger aperture equipment. In early spring, astronomers sometimes gather for "Messier marathons", when all of the objects can be viewed over a single night.[15][16]

Messier objects[edit]

 Open cluster
 Globular cluster
 Diffuse nebula
 Planetary nebula
 Supernova remnant
 Galaxy
 Other
Messier number NGC/IC number Common name Picture Object type Distance (kly) Constellation Apparent magnitude Right ascension Declination
M1[17] NGC 1952 Crab Nebula Crab Nebula.jpg Supernova remnant 4.9–8.1 Taurus 8.4 05h 34m 31.94s +22° 00′ 52.2″
M2[18] NGC 7089 Messier 2 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Globular cluster 33 Aquarius 6.3 21h 33m 27.02s −00° 49′ 23.7″
M3[19] NGC 5272 M3LRGB 891x674.jpg Globular cluster 33.9 Canes Venatici 6.2 13h 42m 11.62s +28° 22′ 38.2″
M4[20] NGC 6121 Messier 4 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Globular cluster 7.2 Scorpius 5.9 16h 23m 35.22s −26° 31′ 32.7″
M5[21] NGC 5904 Messier 5 - HST.jpg Globular cluster 24.5 Serpens 6.7 15h 18m 33.22s +02° 04′ 51.7″
M6[22] NGC 6405 Butterfly Cluster M6a.jpg Open cluster 1.6 Scorpius 4.2 17h 40.1m −32° 13′
M7[23] NGC 6475 Ptolemy Cluster Open-cluster-Messier-7.jpeg Open cluster 0.65–1.31 Scorpius 3.3 17h 53m 51.2s −34° 47′ 34″
M8[24] NGC 6523 Lagoon Nebula LagoonHunterWilson.jpg Nebula with cluster 4.1 Sagittarius 6.0 18h 03m 37s −24° 23′ 12″
M9[25] NGC 6333 Messier object 009.jpg Globular cluster 25.8 Ophiuchus 8.4 17h 19m 11.78s −18° 30′ 58.5″
M10[26] NGC 6254 Messier 10 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Globular cluster 14.3 Ophiuchus 6.4 16h 57m 8.92s −04° 05′ 58.07″
M11[27] NGC 6705 Wild Duck Cluster Messier11.jpg Open cluster 6.2 Scutum 6.3 18h 51.1m −06° 16′
M12[28] NGC 6218 M12 Hubble.jpg Globular cluster 15.7 Ophiuchus 7.7 16h 47m 14.18s −01° 56′ 54.7″
M13[29] NGC 6205 Great Globular Cluster in Hercules Messier 13 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Globular cluster 22.2 Hercules 5.8 16h 41m 41.24s +36° 27′ 35.5″
M14[30] NGC 6402 Messier object 014.jpg Globular cluster 30.3 Ophiuchus 8.3 17h 37m 36.15s −03° 14′ 45.3″
M15[31] NGC 7078 Messier 15 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Globular cluster 33 Pegasus 6.2 21h 29m 58.33s +12° 10′ 01.2″
M16[32] NGC 6611 Eagle Nebula Fairy of Eagle Nebula.jpg H II region nebula with cluster 7 Serpens 6.0 18h 18m 48s −13° 49′
M17[33] NGC 6618 Omega, Swan, Horseshoe, or Lobster Nebula Messier 17.jpg H II region nebula with cluster 5–6 Sagittarius 6.0 18h 20m 26s −16° 10′ 36″
M18[34] NGC 6613 Messier18.jpg Open cluster 4.9 Sagittarius 7.5 18h 19.9m −17° 08′
M19[35] NGC 6273 Messier object 019.jpg Globular cluster 28.7 Ophiuchus 7.5 17h 02m 37.69s −26° 16′ 04.6″
M20[36] NGC 6514 Trifid Nebula Trifid.nebula.arp.750pix.jpg H II region nebula with cluster 5.2 Sagittarius 6.3 18h 02m 23s −23° 01′ 48″
M21[37] NGC 6531 Messier object 021.jpg Open cluster 4.25 Sagittarius 6.5 18h 04.6m −22° 30′
M22[38] NGC 6656 Sagittarius Cluster Messier object 022.jpg Globular cluster 9.6–11.6 Sagittarius 5.1 18h 36m 23.94s −23° 54′ 17.1″
M23[39] NGC 6494 Messier object 023.jpg Open cluster 2.15 Sagittarius 6.9 17h 56.8m −19° 01′
M24[40] IC 4715 Sagittarius Star Cloud Messier 024 2MASS.jpg Milky Way star cloud ~10 Sagittarius 4.6 18h 17m −18° 29′
M25[41] IC 4725 Messier object 025.jpg Open cluster 2.0 Sagittarius 4.6 18h 31.6m −19° 15′
M26[42] NGC 6694 Messier object 026.jpg Open cluster 5.0 Scutum 8.0 18h 45.2m −09° 24′
M27[43] NGC 6853 Dumbbell Nebula Messier27.jpg Planetary nebula 1.148–1.52 Vulpecula 7.5 19h 59m 36.340s +22° 43′ 16.09″
M28[44] NGC 6626 Messier28.jpg Globular cluster 17.9 Sagittarius 7.7 18h 24m 32.89s −24° 52′ 11.4″
M29[45] NGC 6913 Cooling Tower Messier object 029.jpg Open cluster 7.2 Cygnus 7.1 20h 23m 56s +38° 31′ 24″
M30[46] NGC 7099 Messier object 030.jpg Globular cluster 27.8–31 Capricornus 7.7 21h 40m 22.12 −23° 10′ 47.5″
M31[47] NGC 224 Andromeda Galaxy Andromeda galaxy.jpg Spiral galaxy 2,430–2,650 Andromeda 3.4 00h 42m 44.3s +41° 16′ 9″
M32[48] NGC 221 M32 Lanoue.png Dwarf elliptical galaxy 2,410–2,570 Andromeda 8.1 00h 42m 41.8s +40° 51′ 55″
M33[49] NGC 598 Triangulum Galaxy M33.jpg Spiral galaxy 2,380–3,070 Triangulum 5.7 01h 33m 50.02s +30° 39′ 36.7″
M34[50] NGC 1039 M34 2mass atlas.jpg Open cluster 1.5 Perseus 5.5 02h 42.1m +42° 46′
M35[51] NGC 2168 M35atlas.jpg Open cluster 2.8 Gemini 5.3 06h 09.1m +24° 21′
M36[52] NGC 1960 M36a.jpg Open cluster 4.1 Auriga 6.3 05h 36m 12s +34° 08′ 4″
M37[53] NGC 2099 M37a.jpg Open cluster 4.511 Auriga 6.2 05h 52m 18s +32° 33′ 02″
M38[54] NGC 1912 Messier object 038.jpg Open cluster 4.2 Auriga 7.4 05h 28m 42s +35° 51′ 18″
M39[55] NGC 7092 Messier object 039.jpg Open cluster 0.8244 Cygnus 5.5 21h 31m 42s +48° 26′ 00″
M40[56] Winnecke 4 Messier object 40.jpg Double star 0.51 Ursa Major 9.7 12h 22m 12.5s +58° 4′ 59″
M41[57] NGC 2287 Messier 041 2MASS.jpg Open cluster 2.3 Canis Major 4.5 06h 46.0m −20° 46′
M42[58] NGC 1976 Orion Nebula Orion Nebula - Hubble 2006 mosaic 18000.jpg H II region nebula 1.324–1.364 Orion 4.0 05h 35m 17.3 −05° 23′ 28″
M43[59] NGC 1982 De Mairan's Nebula Messier object 043.jpg H II region nebula (part of the Orion Nebula)
1.6 Orion 9.0 05h 35.6m −05° 16′
M44[60] NGC 2632 Beehive Cluster Messier 044 2MASS.jpg Open cluster 0.577 Cancer 3.7 08h 40.4m +19° 59′
M45[61] Pleiades Bob Star - M45 Carranza Field (by).jpg Open cluster 0.39–0.46 Taurus 1.6 03h 47m 24s +24° 07′ 00″
M46[62] NGC 2437 M46a.jpg Open cluster 5.4 Puppis 6.1 07h 41.8m −14° 49′
M47[63] NGC 2422 M47a.jpg Open cluster 1.6 Puppis 4.2 07h 36.6m −14° 30′
M48[64] NGC 2548 M48a.jpg Open cluster 1.5 Hydra 5.5 08h 13.7m −05° 45′
M49[65] NGC 4472 Messier 49 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Elliptical galaxy 53,600–58,200 Virgo 9.4 12h 29m 46.7s +08° 00′ 02″
M50[66] NGC 2323 M50a.jpg Open cluster 3.2 Monoceros 5.9 07h 03.2m −08° 20′
M51[67] NGC 5194, NGC 5195 Whirlpool Galaxy Whirlpool (M51).jpg Spiral galaxy 19,000–27,000 Canes Venatici 8.4 13h 29m 52.7s +47° 11′ 43″
M52[68] NGC 7654 M52atlas.jpg Open cluster 5.0 Cassiopeia 5.0 23h 24.2m +61° 35′
M53[69] NGC 5024 Globular Cluster M53.jpg Globular cluster 58 Coma Berenices 8.3 13h 12m 55.25s +18° 10′ 05.4″
M54[70] NGC 6715 Messier54.jpg Globular cluster 87.4 Sagittarius 8.4 18h 55m 03.33s −30° 28′ 47.5″
M55[71] NGC 6809 Messier55.jpg Globular cluster 17.6 Sagittarius 7.4 19h 39m 59.71s −30° 57′ 53.1″
M56[72] NGC 6779 M56-LRGB.jpg Globular cluster 32.9 Lyra 8.3 19h 16m 35.57s +30° 11′ 00.5″
M57[73] NGC 6720 Ring Nebula Ring Nebula.jpg Planetary nebula 1.6–3.8 Lyra 8.8 18h 53m 35.079s +33° 01′ 45.03″
M58[74] NGC 4579 M58s.jpg Barred Spiral galaxy ~63,000 Virgo 10.5 12h 37m 43.5s +11° 49′ 05″
M59[75] NGC 4621 Messier59 - HST - Potw1921a.jpg Elliptical galaxy 55,000–65,000 Virgo 10.6 12h 42m 02.3s +11° 38′ 49″
M60[76] NGC 4649 Messier 60 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Elliptical galaxy 51,000–59,000 Virgo 9.8 12h 43m 39.6s +11° 33′ 09″
M61[77] NGC 4303 Messier object 061.jpg Spiral galaxy 50,200–54,800 Virgo 10.2 12h 21m 54.9s +04° 28′ 25″
M62[78] NGC 6266 Messier object 062.jpg Globular cluster 22.2 Ophiuchus 7.4 17h 01m 12.60s −30° 06′ 44.5″
M63[79] NGC 5055 Sunflower Galaxy Messier 63 GALEX WikiSky.jpg Spiral galaxy 37,000 Canes Venatici 9.3 13h 15m 49.3s +42° 01′ 45″
M64[80] NGC 4826 Black Eye Galaxy Blackeyegalaxy.jpg Spiral galaxy 22,000–26,000 Coma Berenices 9.4 12h 56m 43.7s +21° 40′ 58″
M65[81] NGC 3623 Leo Triplet M65.jpg Barred Spiral galaxy 41,000–42,000 Leo 10.3 11h 18m 55.9s +13° 05′ 32″
M66[82] NGC 3627 Leo Triplet Sig05-016.jpg Barred Spiral galaxy 31,000–41,000 Leo 8.9 11h 20m 15.0s +12° 59′ 30″
M67[83] NGC 2682 Messier object 067.jpg Open cluster 2.61–2.93 Cancer 6.1 08h 51.3m +11° 49′
M68[84] NGC 4590 Messier object 068.jpg Globular cluster 33.6 Hydra 9.7 12h 39m 27.98s −26° 44′ 38.6″
M69[85] NGC 6637 Messier object 069.jpg Globular cluster 29.7 Sagittarius 8.3 18h 31m 23.10s −32° 20′ 53.1″
M70[86] NGC 6681 Messier70.jpg Globular cluster 29.4 Sagittarius 9.1 18h 43m 12.76s −32° 17′ 31.6″
M71[87] NGC 6838 Messier71.jpg Globular cluster 13.0 Sagitta 6.1 19h 53m 46.49s +18° 46′ 45.1″
M72[88] NGC 6981 Messier72.jpg Globular cluster 53.40–55.74 Aquarius 9.4 20h 53m 27.70s −12° 32′ 14.3″
M73[89] NGC 6994 Messier 073 2MASS.jpg Asterism ~2.5 Aquarius 9.0 20h 58m 54s −12° 38′
M74[90] NGC 628 Messier 74 by HST.jpg Spiral galaxy 24,000–36,000 Pisces 10.0 01h 36m 41.8s +15° 47′ 01″
M75[91] NGC 6864 Messier75.jpg Globular cluster 67.5 Sagittarius 9.2 20h 06m 04.75s −21° 55′ 16.2″
M76[92] NGC 650, NGC 651 Little Dumbbell Nebula M76-RL5-DDmin-Gamma-LRGB 883x628.jpg Planetary nebula 2.5 Perseus 10.1 01h 42.4m +51° 34′ 31″
M77[93] NGC 1068 Cetus A NGC1068-hst-R658GB814.jpg Spiral galaxy 47,000 Cetus 9.6 02h 42m 40.7s −00° 00′ 48″
M78[94] NGC 2068 Messier 78.jpg Diffuse nebula 1.6 Orion 8.3 05h 46m 46.7s +00° 00′ 50″
M79[95] NGC 1904 M79a.jpg Globular cluster 41 Lepus 8.6 05h 24m 10.59s −24° 31′ 27.3″
M80[96] NGC 6093 A Swarm of Ancient Stars - GPN-2000-000930.jpg Globular cluster 32.6 Scorpius 7.9 16h 17m 02.41s −22° 58′ 33.9″
M81[97] NGC 3031 Bode's Galaxy Messier 81 HST.jpg Spiral galaxy 11,400–12,200 Ursa Major 6.9 09h 55m 33.2s +69° 3′ 55″
M82[98] NGC 3034 Cigar Galaxy Messier82.jpg Starburst galaxy 10,700–12,300 Ursa Major 8.4 09h 55m 52.2s +69° 40′ 47″
M83[99] NGC 5236 Southern Pinwheel Galaxy M83g.jpg Barred Spiral galaxy 14,700 Hydra 7.5 13h 37m 00.9s −29° 51′ 57″
M84[100] NGC 4374 Messier 84 nucleus Hubble.jpg Lenticular galaxy 57,000–63,000 Virgo 10.1 12h 25m 03.7s +12° 53′ 13″
M85[101] NGC 4382 Messier 85 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Lenticular galaxy 56,000–64,000 Coma Berenices 10.0 12h 25m 24.0s +18° 11′ 28″
M86[102] NGC 4406 Messier 86 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Lenticular galaxy 49,000–55,000 Virgo 9.8 12h 26m 11.7s +12° 56′ 46″
M87[103] NGC 4486 Virgo A Messier 87 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Elliptical galaxy 51,870–55,130 Virgo 9.6 12h 30m 49.42338s +12° 23′ 28.0439″
M88[104] NGC 4501 M88s.jpg Spiral galaxy 39,000–56,000 Coma Berenices 10.4 12h 31m 59.2s +14° 25′ 14″
M89[105] NGC 4552 Messier89 - HST - Potw1902a.tif Elliptical galaxy 47,000–53,000 Virgo 10.7 12h 35m 39.8s +12° 33′ 23″
M90[106] NGC 4569 Messier object 090.jpg Spiral galaxy 55,900–61,500 Virgo 10.3 12h 36m 49.8s +13° 09′ 46″
M91[107] NGC 4548 Messier91.jpg Barred Spiral galaxy 47,000–79,000 Coma Berenices 11.0 12h 35m 26.4s +14° 29′ 47″
M92[108] NGC 6341 Globular Cluster M92.JPG Globular cluster 26.7 Hercules 6.3 17h 17m 07.39s +43° 08′ 09.4″
M93[109] NGC 2447 Messier object 093.jpg Open cluster 3.6 Puppis 6.0 07h 44.6m −23° 52′
M94[110] NGC 4736 Messier 94.jpg Spiral galaxy 14,700–17,300 Canes Venatici 9.0 12h 50m 53.1s +41° 07′ 14″
M95[111] NGC 3351 Messier95 spitzer.jpg Barred Spiral galaxy 31,200–34,000 Leo 11.4 10h 43m 57.7s +11° 42′ 14″
M96[112] NGC 3368 Messier object 096.jpg Spiral galaxy 28,000–34,000 Leo 10.1 10h 46m 45.7s +11° 49′ 12″
M97[113] NGC 3587 Owl Nebula M97 FTN.jpg Planetary nebula 2.03 Ursa Major 9.9 11h 14m 47.734s +55° 01′ 08.50″
M98[114] NGC 4192 M-98.jpg Spiral galaxy 44,400 Coma Berenices 11.0 12h 13m 48.292s +14° 54′ 01.69″
M99[115] NGC 4254 M99.jpg Spiral galaxy 44,700–55,700 Coma Berenices 10.4 12h 18m 49.6s +14° 24′ 59″
M100[116] NGC 4321 Spiral Galaxy M100.jpg Spiral galaxy 55,000 Coma Berenices 10.1 12h 22m 54.9s +15° 49′ 21″
M101[117] NGC 5457 Pinwheel Galaxy M101 hires STScI-PRC2006-10a.jpg Spiral galaxy 19,100–22,400 Ursa Major 7.9 14h 03m 12.6s +54° 20′ 57″
M102[118] NGC 5866 Spindle Galaxy Ngc5866 hst big.png Lenticular galaxy 50,000 Draco 10.7 15h 06m 29.5s +55° 45′ 48″
M103[119] NGC 581 Messier object 103.jpg Open cluster 10 Cassiopeia 7.4 01h 33.2m +60° 42′
M104[120] NGC 4594 Sombrero Galaxy M104 ngc4594 sombrero galaxy hi-res.jpg Lenticular galaxy 28,700–30,900 Virgo 9.0 12h 39m 59.4s −11° 37′ 23″
M105[121] NGC 3379 Messier105 - HST - Potw1901a.jpg Elliptical galaxy 30,400–33,600 Leo 10.2 10h 47m 49.6s +12° 34′ 54″
M106[122] NGC 4258 Messier 106 by Spitzer.jpg Spiral galaxy 22,200–25,200 Canes Venatici 9.1 12h 18m 57.5s +47° 18′ 14″
M107[123] NGC 6171 Messier object 107.jpg Globular cluster 20.9 Ophiuchus 8.9 16h 32m 31.86s −13° 03′ 13.6″
M108[124] NGC 3556 Messier 108 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Barred Spiral galaxy 46,000 Ursa Major 10.7 11h 11m 31.0s +55° 40′ 27″
M109[125] NGC 3992 Messier109 - SDSS DR14 (panorama).jpg Barred Spiral galaxy 59,500–107,500 Ursa Major 10.6 11h 57m 36.0s +53° 22′ 28″
M110[126] NGC 205 Messier object 110.jpg Dwarf elliptical galaxy 2,600–2,780 Andromeda 9.0 00h 40m 22.1s +41° 41′ 07″

Star chart of Messier objects[edit]

Star chart depicting the Messier objects plotted on a rectangular grid representing right ascension and declination

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Original Messier Catalog of 1781". 10 November 2007.
  2. ^ Garner, Rob (18 December 2018). "NASA". NASA. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
  3. ^ "Charles Messier's Original Catalog of 1771". Students for the Exploration and Development of Space. 15 June 2007. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  4. ^ "Messier catalog". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
  5. ^ Gingerich, Owen (September 1953). "Messier and His Catalogue II". Sky & Telescope. No. 142.
  6. ^ Charles Messier, 1781. Catalogue des Nébuleuses & des amas d'Étoiles. Connoissance des Temps pour l'Année 1784 (published 1781), pp. 227–267 Bibcode1781CdT..1784..227M.
    "Original Messier Catalog of 1781". Retrieved 10 November 2007.
  7. ^ "SEDS Messier Database". The Messier Catalog. 27 May 2015.
  8. ^ Moore, Patrick (1979). The Guinness Book of Astronomy. Guinness Superlatives. ISBN 978-0-900424-76-2.
  9. ^ Patrick Moore (1979). The Guinness Book of Astronomy. Guinness Superlatives. ISBN 0-900424-76-1.
  10. ^ Frommert, Hartmut (10 May 1995). "Messier 102". MSFC X-Ray Astronomy's InterNetNews site. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  11. ^ Charles Messier (1781). "Catalogue des Nébuleuses & des amas d'Étoiles". Connaissance des Temps pour l'Année 1784. pp. 227–267.
  12. ^ "Original Messier Catalog of 1781". Original Messier Catalog of 1781. SEDS. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
  13. ^ English, Neil (2018). Chronicling the golden age of astronomy : a history of visual observing from Harriot to Moore. Springer. p. 91. ISBN 3319977075. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  14. ^ W.H. Finlay (2003). Concise Catalog of Deep-sky Objects: Astrophysical Information for 500 Galaxies. Springer. ISBN 1-85233-691-9.
  15. ^ "The Messier Marathon". SEDS. 19 March 2013. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
  16. ^ Stoyan, Ronald; Binnewies, Stefan; Friedrich, Susanne (2008). Atlas of the Messier Objects: Highlights of the Deep Sky. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9783319977072.
  17. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 1". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  18. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 2". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  19. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 3". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  20. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 4". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  21. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 5". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  22. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 6". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  23. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 7". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  24. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 8". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  25. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 9". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  26. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 10". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  27. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 11". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  28. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 12". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  29. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 13". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  30. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 14". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  31. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 15". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  32. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 16". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  33. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 17". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  34. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 18". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  35. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 19". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  36. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 20". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  37. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 21". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  38. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 22". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  39. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 23". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  40. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 24". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  41. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 25". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  42. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 26". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  43. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 27". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  44. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 28". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  45. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 29". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  46. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 30". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  47. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 31". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  48. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 32". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  49. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 33". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  50. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 34". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  51. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 35". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  52. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 36". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  53. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 37". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  54. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 38". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
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  56. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 40". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  57. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 41". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  58. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 42". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
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  60. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 44". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
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  62. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 46". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  63. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 47". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  64. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 48". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  65. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 49". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  66. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 50". Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  67. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 51". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  68. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 52". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  69. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 53". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  70. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 54". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  71. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 55". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  72. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 56". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  73. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 57". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  74. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 58". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  75. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 59". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  76. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 60". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  77. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 61". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  78. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 62". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  79. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 63". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  80. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 64". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  81. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 65". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  82. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 66". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  83. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 67". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  84. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 68". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  85. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 69". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  86. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 70". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  87. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 71". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  88. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 72". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  89. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 73". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  90. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 74". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  91. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 75". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  92. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 76". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  93. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 77". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  94. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 78". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  95. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 79". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  96. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 80". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  97. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 81". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  98. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 82". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  99. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 83". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  100. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 84". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  101. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 85". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  102. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 86". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  103. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 87". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  104. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 88". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  105. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 89". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  106. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 90". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  107. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 91". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  108. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 92". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  109. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 93". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  110. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 94". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  111. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 95". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  112. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 96". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  113. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 97". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  114. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 98". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  115. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 99". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  116. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 100". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  117. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 101". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  118. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 102". Retrieved 28 December 2016.
  119. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 103". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  120. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 104". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  121. ^ Messier, Charles (1783). "Messier 105". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  122. ^ Messier, Charles (1783). "Messier 106". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  123. ^ Messier, Charles (1783). "Messier 107". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  124. ^ Messier, Charles (1783). "Messier 108". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  125. ^ Messier, Charles (1783). "Messier 109". Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  126. ^ Messier, Charles (1783). "Messier 110". Retrieved 18 March 2014.

External links[edit]