Messier 95

Coordinates: Sky map 10h 43m 57.7s, +11° 42′ 14″
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Messier 95
Hubble Space Telescope image of Messier 95
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
Right ascension10h 43m 57.7s[1]
Declination+11° 42′ 14″[1]
Redshift778 ± 4 km/s[1]
Distance32.6 ± 1.4 Mly (10.0 ± 0.4 Mpc)[2]
Apparent magnitude (V)9.7[3]
Apparent size (V)3′.1 × 2′.9[1]
Other designations
NGC 3351,[1] UGC 5850,[1] PGC 32007[1]

Messier 95, also known as M95 or NGC 3351, is a barred spiral galaxy about 33 million light-years away in the zodiac constellation Leo. It was discovered by Pierre Méchain in 1781, and catalogued by compatriot Charles Messier four days later. In 2012 its most recent supernova was discovered.

The galaxy has a morphological classification of SB(r)b,[1] with the SBb notation indicating it is a barred spiral with arms that are intermediate on the scale from tightly to loosely wound, and an "(r)" meaning an inner ring surrounds the bar.[4] The latter is a ring-shaped, circumnuclear star-forming region with a diameter of approximately 2,000 light-years (610 pc).[5] The spiral structure extends outward from the ring.[4]

Its ring structure is about 3.5×108 M (solar masses) in molecular gas and yields a star formation rate of 0.38 M yr−1.[a] The star formation is occurring in at least five regions with diameters between 100 and 150 pc that are composed of several star clusters ranging in size from 1.7 to 4.9 pc. These individual clusters contain (1.8–8.7)×106 M[b] of stars, and may be on the path to forming globular clusters.[6]

A Type II supernova, designated as SN 2012aw, was discovered in M95 in 2012.[c][7][8][9] The light curve of this displayed great flattening after 27 days, thus classifying it as a Type II-P, or "plateau", core-collapse supernova.[10] The disappearance of the progenitor star was later confirmed from near-infrared imaging of the region. The brightness from the presumed red supergiant progenitor allowed its mass to be estimated as 12.5±1.5 M.[11]

M95 is one of several galaxies within the M96 Group, a group of galaxies in the constellation Leo, the other Messier objects of which are M96 and M105.[12][13][14][15]

Optical and radio information are combined in this image of M95, showing the process of " stellar feedback", redistributing energy into the interstellar medium causing star-forming (blue area).[16]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". Results for NGC 3351. Retrieved 3 October 2007.
  2. ^ Jensen, Joseph B.; Tonry, John L.; Barris, Brian J.; Thompson, Rodger I.; et al. (2003). "Measuring Distances and Probing the Unresolved Stellar Populations of Galaxies Using Infrared Surface Brightness Fluctuations". Astrophysical Journal. 583 (2): 712–726. arXiv:astro-ph/0210129. Bibcode:2003ApJ...583..712J. doi:10.1086/345430. S2CID 551714.
  3. ^ "Messier 95". SEDS Messier Catalog. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  4. ^ a b Buta, Ronald J.; et al. (2007), Atlas of Galaxies, Cambridge University Press, pp. 1−25, ISBN 978-0521820486.
  5. ^ Colina, L.; Garcia Vargas, M. L.; Mas-Hesse, J. M.; Alberdi, A.; Krabbe, A. (1997). "Nuclear Star-forming Structures and the Starburst–Active Galactic Nucleus Connection in Barred Spirals NGC 3351 and NGC 4303". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 484 (1): L41–L45. Bibcode:1997ApJ...484L..41C. doi:10.1086/310766.
  6. ^ Hägele, Guillermo F.; et al. (June 2007), "Kinematics of gas and stars in the circumnuclear star-forming ring of NGC3351", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 378 (1): 163−178, arXiv:astro-ph/0703140, Bibcode:2007MNRAS.378..163H, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.11751.x, S2CID 17402226
  7. ^ "Deep Sky Videos". YouTube. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
  8. ^ "Supernova 2012aw: the pictures!". Archived from the original on 20 October 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
  9. ^ "List of Recent Supernovae". Retrieved 8 April 2012.
  10. ^ Bayless, Amanda J.; et al. (February 2013), "The Long-lived UV "Plateau" of SN 2012aw", The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 764 (1): 6, arXiv:1210.5496, Bibcode:2013ApJ...764L..13B, doi:10.1088/2041-8205/764/1/L13, S2CID 119291438, L13.
  11. ^ Fraser, Morgan (February 2016), "The disappearance of the progenitor of SN 2012aw in late-time imaging", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, 456 (1): L16−L19, arXiv:1507.06579, Bibcode:2016MNRAS.456L..16F, doi:10.1093/mnrasl/slv168, S2CID 118145431.
  12. ^ Tully, R. B. (1988). Nearby Galaxies Catalog. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-35299-4.
  13. ^ Fouque, P.; Gourgoulhon, E.; Chamaraux, P.; Paturel, G. (1992). "Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II – The catalogue of groups and group members". Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement. 93: 211–233. Bibcode:1992A&AS...93..211F.
  14. ^ Garcia, A. (1993). "General study of group membership. II – Determination of nearby groups". Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement. 100: 47–90. Bibcode:1993A&AS..100...47G.
  15. ^ Giuricin, G.; et al. (2000). "Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups". Astrophysical Journal. 543 (1): 178–194. arXiv:astro-ph/0001140. Bibcode:2000ApJ...543..178G. doi:10.1086/317070. S2CID 9618325.
  16. ^ "Caught in the act". Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  1. ^ meaning per year
  2. ^ 1.8 to 8.7 million solar masses
  3. ^ On 16 March

External links[edit]