Messier 105

Coordinates: Sky map 10h 47m 49.6s, +12° 34′ 54″
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Messier 105
M105, as viewed by the HST;
Credit: NASA/ESA
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
Right ascension10h 47m 49.600s[1]
Declination+12° 34′ 53.87″[1]
Heliocentric radial velocity908 km/s[2]
Distance36.6 Mly (11.22 Mpc)[2]
Group or clusterLeo I Group[3]
Apparent magnitude (V)9.3[4]
Apparent size (V)5′.4 × 4′.8[6]
Other designations
M105, NGC 3379, PGC 32256, UGC 5902[7]

Messier 105 or M105, also known as NGC 3379, is an elliptical galaxy 36.6[2] million light-years away in the equatorial constellation of Leo. It is the biggest elliptical galaxy in the Messier catalogue that is not in the Virgo cluster.[8] It was discovered by Pierre Méchain in 1781, just a few days after he discovered the nearby galaxies Messier 95 and Messier 96.[a][9] This galaxy is one of a few not object-verified by Messier so omitted in the editions of his Catalogue of his era. It was appended when Helen S. Hogg found a letter by Méchain locating and describing this object which matched those aspects under its first-published name, NGC 3379.[9]

It has a morphological classification of E1,[5] indicating a standard elliptical galaxy with a flattening of 10%. The major axis is aligned along a position angle of 71°. Isophotes of the galaxy are near perfect ellipses, twisting no more than 5° out of alignment, with changes in ellipticity of no more than 0.06. There is no fine structure apparent in the isophotes, such as ripples.[10] Observation of giant stars in the halo indicate there are two general populations: a dominant metal-rich subpopulation and a weaker metal-poor group.[3]

Messier 105 is known to have a supermassive black hole at its core whose mass is estimated to be between 1.4×108 and 2×108 M.[11] The galaxy has a weak active galactic nucleus of the LINER type with a spectral class of L2/T2, meaning no broad Hα line and intermediate emission line ratios between a LINER and a H II region.[12] The galaxy also contains a few young stars and stellar clusters, suggesting some elliptical galaxies still form new stars, but very slowly.[13]

This galaxy, along with its companion the barred lenticular galaxy NGC 3384, is surrounded by an enormous ring of neutral hydrogen with a radius of 200 kiloparsecs (650 kilolight-years) and a mass of 1.8×109 M where star formation has been detected.[14] Messier 105 is one of several galaxies within the M96 Group (also known as the Leo I Group), a group of galaxies in the constellation Leo, the other Messier objects of which are M95 and M96.[15][16][17][18]

See also[edit]

References and footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Skrutskie, Michael F.; Cutri, Roc M.; Stiening, Rae; Weinberg, Martin D.; Schneider, Stephen E.; Carpenter, John M.; Beichman, Charles A.; Capps, Richard W.; Chester, Thomas; Elias, Jonathan H.; Huchra, John P.; Liebert, James W.; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Monet, David G.; Price, Stephan; Seitzer, Patrick; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gizis, John E.; Howard, Elizabeth V.; Evans, Tracey E.; Fowler, John W.; Fullmer, Linda; Hurt, Robert L.; Light, Robert M.; Kopan, Eugene L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; McCallon, Howard L.; Tam, Robert; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Wheelock, Sherry L. (1 February 2006). "The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)". The Astronomical Journal. 131 (2): 1163–1183. Bibcode:2006AJ....131.1163S. doi:10.1086/498708. ISSN 0004-6256. S2CID 18913331.
  2. ^ a b c Tully, R. Brent; et al. (August 2016), "Cosmicflows-3", The Astronomical Journal, 152 (2): 21, arXiv:1605.01765, Bibcode:2016AJ....152...50T, doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/2/50, S2CID 250737862, 50.
  3. ^ a b Lee, Myung Gyoon; Jang, In Sung (May 2016). "Dual Stellar Halos in the Standard Elliptical Galaxy M105 and Formation of Massive Early-type Galaxies". The Astrophysical Journal. 822 (2): 17. arXiv:1601.06798. Bibcode:2016ApJ...822...70L. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/822/2/70. S2CID 118372642. 70.
  4. ^ "Messier 105". SEDS Messier Catalog. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  5. ^ a b Tian, Yong; Ko, Chung-Ming (October 2016), "Dynamics of elliptical galaxies with planetary nebulae in modified Newtonian dynamics", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 462 (1): 1092–1100, arXiv:1606.06815, Bibcode:2016MNRAS.462.1092T, doi:10.1093/mnras/stw1697, S2CID 118600624
  6. ^ "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". Results for M105. Retrieved 16 November 2006.
  7. ^ "M 105". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 19 December 2009.
  8. ^ Garner, Rob (6 October 2017). "Messier 105". NASA. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  9. ^ a b Jones, K. G. (1991). Messier's Nebulae and Star Clusters (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-37079-0.
  10. ^ Statler, Thomas S. (July 1994), "The intrinsic shape of NGC 3379", The Astronomical Journal, 108 (1): 111–127, Bibcode:1994AJ....108..111S, doi:10.1086/117050
  11. ^ Shapiro, Kristen L.; et al. (2006). "The black hole in NGC 3379: a comparison of gas and stellar dynamical mass measurements with HST and integral-field data". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 370 (2): 559–579. arXiv:astro-ph/0605479. Bibcode:2006MNRAS.370..559S. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.10537.x. S2CID 16990276.
  12. ^ Eracleous, Michael; et al. (March 2010). "Spectral Energy Distributions of Weak Active Galactic Nuclei Associated with Low-Ionization Nuclear Emission Regions". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement. 187 (1): 135–148. arXiv:1001.2924. Bibcode:2010ApJS..187..135E. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/187/1/135. S2CID 118600750.
  13. ^ Ford, Alyson; Bregman, J. N. (2012). "Detection of Ongoing, Low-Level Star Formation in Nearby Ellipticals". American Astronomical Society. 219: 102–03. Bibcode:2012AAS...21910203F.
  14. ^ Thilker, David A.; et al. (2009). "Massive star formation within the Leo 'primordial' ring". Nature. 457 (7232): 990–993. Bibcode:2009Natur.457..990T. doi:10.1038/nature07780. PMID 19225520. S2CID 4424307.
  15. ^ Tully, R. B. (1988). Nearby Galaxies Catalog. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-35299-4.
  16. ^ Fouque, P.; et al. (1992). "Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II – The catalogue of groups and group members". Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement. 93: 211–233. Bibcode:1992A&AS...93..211F.
  17. ^ Garcia, A. (1993). "General study of group membership. II – Determination of nearby groups". Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement. 100: 47–90. Bibcode:1993A&AS..100...47G.
  18. ^ Giuricin, G.; et al. (2000). "Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups". The Astrophysical Journal. 543 (1): 178–194. arXiv:astro-ph/0001140. Bibcode:2000ApJ...543..178G. doi:10.1086/317070. S2CID 9618325.
  1. ^ Object found: on 24 March

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