French Academy of Sciences

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For the National Academy of Medicine, see Académie Nationale de Médecine.
Colbert Presenting the Members of the Royal Academy of Sciences to Louis XIV in 1667

The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. It was at the forefront of scientific developments in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, and is one of the earliest Academies of Sciences.

Today, it is one of the five Académies of Institut de France.

History[edit]

A heroic depiction of the activities of the Academy from 1698

The Academy of Sciences owes its origin to Colbert's plan to create a general academy. He chose a small group of scholars who met on 22 December 1666 in the King's library, and thereafter held twice-weekly working meetings there. The first 30 years of the Academy's existence were relatively informal, since no statutes had as yet been laid down for the institution. In contrast to its British counterpart, the Academy was founded as an organ of government. The Academy was expected to remain apolitical, and to avoid discussion of religious and social issues (Conner, 2005, p. 385).

On 20 January 1699, Louis XIV gave the Company its first rules. The Academy received the name of Royal Academy of Sciences and was installed in the Louvre in Paris. Following this reform, the Academy began publishing a volume each year with information on all the work done by its members and obituaries for members who had died. This reform also codified the method by which members of the Academy could receive pensions for their work.[1] On 8 August 1793, the National Convention abolished all the academies. On 22 August 1795, a National Institute of Sciences and Arts was put in place, bringing together the old academies of the sciences, literature and arts, among them the Académie française and the Académie des sciences. Almost all the old members of the previously abolished Académie were formally re-elected and retook their ancient seats. Among the exceptions was Dominique, comte de Cassini, who refused to take his seat. Membership in the Academy was not restricted to scientists: in 1798 Napoleon Bonaparte was elected a member of the Academy and three years later a president in connection with his Egyptian expedition, which had a scientific component.[2] In 1816, the again renamed "Royal Academy of Sciences" became autonomous, while forming part of the Institute of France; the head of State became its patron. In the Second Republic, the name returned to Académie des sciences. During this period, the Academy was funded by and accountable to the Ministry of Public Instruction.[3] The Academy came to control French patent laws in the course of the eighteenth century, acting as the liaison of artisans' knowledge to the public domain. As a result, academicians dominated technological activities in France (Conner, 2005, p. 385). The Academy proceedings were published under the name Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences (1835–1965). The Comptes rendus is now a journal series with seven titles. The publications can be found on site of the French National Library.

In 1818 the French Academy of Sciences launched a competition to explain the properties of light. The civil engineer Augustin-Jean Fresnel entered this competition by submitting a new wave theory of light.[4] Siméon Denis Poisson, one of the members of the judging committee, studied Fresnel's theory in detail. Being a supporter of the particle-theory of light, he looked for a way to disprove it. Poisson thought that he had found a flaw when he argued that a consequence of Fresnel's theory was that there would exist an on-axis bright spot in the shadow of a circular obstacle, where there should be complete darkness according to the particle-theory of light. The Poisson spot is not easily observed in every-day situations, so it was only natural for Poisson to interpret it as an absurd result and that it should disprove Fresnel's theory. However, the head of the committee, Dominique-François-Jean Arago, and who incidentally later became Prime Minister of France, decided to perform the experiment in more detail. He molded a 2-mm metallic disk to a glass plate with wax.[5] To everyone's surprise he succeeded in observing the predicted spot, which convinced most scientists of the wave-nature of light.

For three centuries women were not allowed as members of the Academy, excluding two-time Nobel Prize winner Marie Curie, Nobel winner Irène Joliot-Curie, mathematician Sophie Germain, and many other deserving women scientists. The first woman admitted as a correspondent member was a student of Curie's, Marguerite Perey, in 1962. The first female full member was Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat in 1979.

The Academy today[edit]

The Institut de France in Paris where the Academy is housed

Today the Academy is one of five academies comprising the Institut de France. Its members are elected for life. Currently there are 150 full members, 300 corresponding members, and 120 foreign associates. They are divided into two scientific groups: the Mathematical and Physical sciences and their applications and the Chemical, Biological, Geological and Medical sciences and their applications.

Medals, awards and prizes[edit]

Each year, the Academy of Sciences distributes about 80 prizes. These include:

  • the Grande Médaille, awarded annually, in rotation, in the relevant disciplines of each division of the Academy, to a French or foreign scholar who has contributed to the development of science in a decisive way.
  • the Lalande Prize, awarded from 1802 through 1970, for outstanding achievement in astronomy
  • the Valz Prize, awarded from 1877 through 1970, to honor advances in astronomy
  • the Richard Lounsbery Award, jointly with the National Academy of Sciences
  • the Prix Jacques Herbrand – for mathematics and physics
  • the Louis Bachelier Prize for major contributions to mathematical modeling in finance [6]
  • the Prix Michel Montpetit for computer science and applied mathematics, awarded since 1977[7]
  • the Leconte Prize, awarded annually since 1886, to recognize important discoveries in mathematics, physics, chemistry, natural history or medicine

People of the Academy[edit]

The following are incomplete lists of the officers of the Academy. See also Category:Officers of the French Academy of Sciences.

For a list of the Academy's members past and present, see Category:Members of the French Academy of Sciences

Presidents[edit]

Source: French Academy of Sciences

Treasurers[edit]

Permanent secretaries[edit]

Mathematical Sciences[edit]

Physical Sciences[edit]

Chemistry and Biology[edit]

List of members of French Academy of Sciences[edit]

A
  1. Antoine Thomson d'Abbadie
  2. Serge Abiteboul
  3. Anatole Abragam
  4. Émile Achard
  5. Michel Adanson
  6. Yves Agid
  7. Pierre Aigrain
  8. Armand-Louis de Vignerot du Plessis d'Aiguillon
  9. Michel Ferdinand d'Albert d'Ailly
  10. Jean le Rond d'Alembert
  11. Claude Allègre
  12. Zacharie Allemand
  13. Jacques d'Allonville de Louville
  14. Henri Louis d'Aloigny
  15. Émile Hilaire Amagat
  16. Christian Amatore
  17. Antoine-Jean Amelot de Chaillou
  18. Jean-Jacques Amelot de Chaillou
  19. Guillaume Amontons
  20. André-Marie Ampère
  21. Paul Ancel
  22. Marie Henri Andoyer
  23. Antoine-François Andréossy
  24. Leonid Andrussow
  25. Anders Jonas Ångström
  26. Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville
  27. Paul Émile Appell
  28. François Arago
  29. Camille Arambourg
  30. Jean d'Arcet
  31. Jean-Pierre-Joseph d'Arcet
  32. Adolphe d'Archiac
  33. Emmanuel Ariès
  34. Paul Ariste
  35. Marc Antoine-René de Voyer de Paulmy d'Argenson
  36. Marc-René de Voyer de Paulmy d'Argenson (1652–1721)
  37. Vladimir Arnold
  38. Jacques Arsac
  39. Arsène d'Arsonval
  40. Alain Aspect
  41. Michael Atiyah
  42. John Attfield
  43. Thierry Aubin
  44. André Aubréville
  45. Jean Victoire Audouin
  46. Pierre Victor Auger
  47. Adrien Auzout
B
  1. Jacques Babinet
  2. François Baccelli
  3. Benjamin Baillaud
  4. Jules Baillaud
  5. Johann Ritter von Baillou
  6. Jean Sylvain Bailly
  7. René-Louis Baire
  8. Antoine Jérôme Balard
  9. Roger Balian
  10. Sébastien Balibar
  11. Gilbert Ballet
  12. David Baltimore
  13. Jean-Philippe Baratier
  14. Édouard Bard
  15. Adhémar Jean Claude Barré de Saint-Venant
  16. Françoise Barré-Sinoussi
  17. Roland-Michel Barrin de La Galissonière
  18. Jean Barriol
  19. Charles Barrois
  20. René Barthélemy
  21. Paul-Joseph Barthez
  22. Neil Bartlett (chemist)
  23. Eugène Bataillon
  24. Étienne-Émile Baulieu
  25. Henri Baulig
  26. Antoine Baume
  27. Pierre Bayen
  28. Henri-Émile Bazin
  29. Charles-François Beautemps-Beaupré
  30. Charles-Juste de Beauvau-Craon
  31. Ambroise Marie François Joseph Palisot de Beauvois
  32. Klaus Bechgaard
  33. Antoine César Becquerel
  34. Edmond Becquerel
  35. Henri Becquerel
  36. Jean Becquerel
  37. Dom Bédos de Celles
  38. Henri Béghin
  39. Auguste Béhal
  40. Jean-Paul Behr
  41. Giacopo Belgrado
  42. Eugène Belgrand
  43. Bernard Forest de Bélidor
  44. Alim-Louis Benabid
  45. Brooke Benjamin
  46. Alain Bensoussan
  47. Seymour Benzer
  48. Paul Berg
  49. André Berger
  50. Marcel Berger
  51. Sune Bergström
  52. Claude Bernard
  53. Jean Bernard (physician)
  54. Jacob I Bernoulli
  55. Johann II Bernoulli
  56. Claude Berrou
  57. Gérard Berry
  58. Paul Bert
  59. Daniel Berthelot
  60. Pierre Eugène Marcellin Berthelot
  61. Pierre Berthier
  62. Claude Louis Berthollet
  63. Alain Berthoz
  64. Louis-Émile Bertin
  65. Henri Léonard Jean Baptiste Bertin
  66. Gabriel Bertrand
  67. Joseph Bertrand
  68. Léon Bertrand (geologist)
  69. Marcel Alexandre Bertrand
  70. Jöns Jacob Berzelius
  71. Friedrich Bessel
  72. Marcel Bessis
  73. Henry Bessemer
  74. Joseph Bethenod
  75. François Sulpice Beudant
  76. Étienne Bézout
  77. Francesco Bianchini
  78. Irénée-Jules Bienaymé
  79. Jérôme Bignon de Blanzy
  80. Jean-Paul Bignon
  81. Guillaume Bigourdan
  82. Albert Bijaoui
  83. Jacques Philippe Marie Binet
  84. Léon Binet
  85. Jean-Baptiste Biot
  86. Raphaël Bischoffsheim
  87. Jean-Michel Bismut
  88. Joseph Black
  89. Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville
  90. Jacques Blamont
  91. Émile Blanchard
  92. Louis Blaringhem
  93. Brebis Bleaney
  94. Nicolaas Bloembergen
  95. André Blondel
  96. François Blondel
  97. Jean Baptiste Gaspard Bochart de Saron
  98. David Mervyn Blow
  99. Herman Boerhaave
  100. Enrico Bombieri
  101. Roland Bonaparte
  102. Pierre-Ossian Bonnet
  103. Gaston Bonnier
  104. Jean-Charles de Borda
  105. Christian Bordé
  106. Armand Borel
  107. Émile Borel
  108. Jean-Baptiste Édouard Bornet
  109. Jean-Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent
  110. Louis Augustin Guillaume Bosc
  111. Charles Bossut
  112. Raoul Bott
  113. Charles Jacques Bouchard (pathologist)
  114. Hélène Bouchiat
  115. Marie-Anne Bouchiat
  116. Alain-Michel Boudet
  117. Louis Antoine de Bougainville
  118. Pierre Bouguer
  119. Jean-Baptiste Bouillaud
  120. Pol Bouin
  121. Henri Marie Bouley
  122. Anatole Bouquet de La Grye
  123. Jean-Claude Bouquet
  124. Jacques Bourcart
  125. Louis-Claude Bourdelin
  126. Édouard Boureau
  127. Jean Bourgain
  128. Robert Bourgeois (general)
  129. Claude Bourgelat
  130. Jean-François de Bourgoing
  131. Joseph Valentin Boussinesq
  132. Jean-Baptiste Boussingault
  133. Edmond Bouty
  134. Alexis Bouvard
  135. Eugène Louis Bouvier
  136. Daniel Bovet
  137. Alexis Boyer
  138. Jean-François Boyer
  139. Louis-Léon de Brancas
  140. Édouard Branly
  141. Pierre Braunstein
  142. Auguste Bravais
  143. Yves Bréchet
  144. Catherine Bréchignac
  145. Abraham-Louis Breguet
  146. Louis-François-Clement Breguet
  147. Sydney Brenner
  148. Jacques Antoine Charles Bresse
  149. Jules-Louis Breton
  150. David Brewster
  151. Édouard Brézin
  152. Haïm Brezis
  153. Marcel Brillouin
  154. Mathurin Jacques Brisson
  155. André-Jean-François-Marie Brochant de Villiers
  156. Louis de Broglie
  157. Maurice de Broglie
  158. Adolphe Brongniart
  159. Alexandre Brongniart
  160. Jean Brossel
  161. Paul Brouardel
  162. Pierre Marie Auguste Broussonet
  163. Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard
  164. François Bruhat
  165. Jean-Nicolas Buache
  166. Philippe Buache
  167. Margaret Buckingham
  168. Jean Baptiste Michel Bucquet
  169. Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
  170. Huy Duong Bui
  171. Robert Bunsen
  172. Jacques Buot
  173. Johann Karl Burckhardt
  174. Denis Parsons Burkitt
  175. Claude Burdin
  176. Édouard Bureau
  177. Pierre Buser
  178. Antoine Bussy
  179. Louis de Bussy
  180. Adolf Butenandt
C
  1. Bernard Cabane
  2. Henri Cabannes
  3. Jean Cabannes
  4. Michel Caboche
  5. Blas Cabrera
  6. Louis Claude Cadet de Gassicourt
  7. Charles Cagniard de Latour
  8. Auguste André Thomas Cahours
  9. Louis Paul Cailletet
  10. Octave Callandreau
  11. Albert Calmette
  12. Charles Camichel
  13. Petrus Camper
  14. Charles Étienne Louis Camus
  15. Francois-Joseph de Camus
  16. Sébastien Candel
  17. Augustin Pyrame de Candolle
  18. André Capron (physician)
  19. Albert Caquot
  20. Lennart Carleson
  21. Lazare Carnot
  22. Marie-Adolphe Carnot
  23. Edgardo D. Carosella
  24. Alain Carpentier
  25. Jules Carpentier
  26. Louis Carré (mathematician)
  27. Élie Cartan
  28. Henri Cartan
  29. César-François Cassini de Thury
  30. Dominique, comte de Cassini
  31. Giovanni Domenico Cassini
  32. Alexandre Henri Gabriel de Cassini
  33. Jacques Cassini
  34. Raimond Castaing
  35. Charles Eugène Gabriel de La Croix de Castries
  36. Augustin-Louis Cauchy
  37. André Cauderon
  38. Maurice Caullery
  39. Henri Jacques Nompar de Caumont
  40. Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza
  41. Lucien Cayeux
  42. Roger Cayrel
  43. Anny Cazenave
  44. Jacques Philippe Martin Cels
  45. Carlo Cercignani
  46. Giuseppe Raimondo de Cesàro
  47. Catherine Cesarsky
  48. Joseph Bernard de Chabert
  49. Philibert Chabert
  50. Ernst Boris Chain
  51. William Gilbert Chaloner
  52. Pierre Chambon
  53. François Jules Hilaire Chambrelent
  54. Georges Champetier
  55. Christian Champy
  56. Gustave Charles Bonaventure Chancel
  57. Jean-Pierre Changeux
  58. Jean Chanorier
  59. Jean-Baptiste Chappe d'Auteroche
  60. Jean-Antoine Chaptal
  61. Moyse Charas
  62. Jean-Baptiste Charcot
  63. Jean-Martin Charcot
  64. Hilaire de Chardonnet
  65. Jacques Charles
  66. Gaston Charlot
  67. Georges Charpak
  68. Georges Charpy
  69. Michel Chasles
  70. Gaspard Adolphe Chatin
  71. Joannes Charles Melchior Chatin
  72. Auguste Chauveau
  73. Yves Chauvin
  74. Jean Chazy
  75. Pafnuty Chebyshev
  76. Shiing-Shen Chern
  77. Auguste Chevalier (botanist)
  78. Eugène Chevandier de Valdrome
  79. Pierre Chevenard
  80. Michel Eugène Chevreul
  81. Pierre Chirac
  82. Robert Hippolyte Chodat
  83. César Gabriel de Choiseul-Praslin
  84. Pierre-Jean-Baptiste Chomel
  85. Pyotr Chikhachyov
  86. Daniel Choquet
  87. Gustave Choquet
  88. Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat
  89. Joanne Chory
  90. Claude-Henri Chouard
  91. Philippe G. Ciarlet
  92. André Chrétien
  93. François Chicoyneau
  94. Alexis Claude Clairaut
  95. Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron
  96. Charles Pierre Claret de Fleurieu
  97. Marc Antoine Louis Claret de La Tourrette
  98. Claude Debru
  99. Georges Claude
  100. Jules Germain Cloquet
  101. Claude Cohen-Tannoudji
  102. Ferdinand Julius Cohn
  103. Jean-Baptiste Colbert de Torcy
  104. Henri Colin (priest)
  105. Michel Combarnous
  106. Alain Colmerauer
  107. Charles Combes
  108. Claude Combes
  109. Françoise Combes
  110. Marquis de Condorcet
  111. Alain Connes
  112. Yves Coppens
  113. Louis Cordier
  114. Gaspard-Gustave de Coriolis
  115. Marie Alfred Cornu
  116. Raymond Cornubert
  117. Pierre Corvol
  118. Suzanne Cory
  119. Pascale Cossart
  120. Eugène Cosserat
  121. Ernest Cosson
  122. Julien Noël Costantin
  123. Jacques Marie Cyprien Victor Coste
  124. Aimé Cotton
  125. Frank Albert Cotton
  126. André Couder
  127. Charles-Augustin de Coulomb
  128. Jean Coulomb
  129. Robert Courrier
  130. François-César Le Tellier de Courtanvaux
  131. Georges Courtès (astronomer)
  132. Vincent Courtillot
  133. Marin Cureau de La Chambre
  134. Claude Antoine Couplet
  135. Pierre Couplet
  136. Francis Crick
  137. Pierre Curie
  138. Hubert Curien
  139. Frédéric Cuvier
  140. Georges Cuvier
D
  1. Louis Daguerre
  2. Count Patrick D'Arcy
  3. Michel Ferdinand d'Albert d'Ailly
  4. Jean Dalibard
  5. Marie-Charles-Théodore de Damoiseau de Montfort
  6. Thibault Damour
  7. Antoine Danchin
  8. Pierre Dangeard
  9. Pierre Augustin Dangeard
  10. Philippe de Courcillon de Dangeau
  11. André Danjon
  12. Jean Gaston Darboux
  13. Eugène Darmois
  14. Georges Darmois
  15. Georges Jean Marie Darrieus
  16. Pierre Daru
  17. Darius Paul Dassault
  18. Louis-Jean-Marie Daubenton
  19. Gabriel Auguste Daubrée
  20. Raymond Daudel
  21. Jean Dausset
  22. Robert Dautray
  23. Michel Davier
  24. William Morris Davis
  25. Jules Henri Debray
  26. Robert Debré
  27. Gérard Debreu
  28. Joseph Decaisne
  29. Henri Décamps
  30. Bernard Decaux
  31. Richard Dedekind
  32. Christian de Duve
  33. Georges Deflandre
  34. Charles De Geer
  35. Ennio De Giorgi
  36. Stanislas Dehaene
  37. Pierre Paul Dehérain
  38. Anne Dejean-Assémat
  39. Yves Delage
  40. Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre
  41. Charles-Eugène Delaunay
  42. Max Delbrück
  43. Marcel Delépine
  44. Achille Delesse
  45. Benjamin Delessert
  46. François-Marie Delessert
  47. Charles Delezenne
  48. Jean Delhaye
  49. Pierre Deligne
  50. Guillaume Delisle
  51. Joseph-Nicolas Delisle
  52. Jean-André Deluc
  53. Jean-Pierre Demailly
  54. Anatoly Nikolaievich Demidov
  55. Albert Demolon
  56. Jean Dénarié
  57. Jean-François Denisse
  58. Arnaud Denjoy
  59. Antoine Deparcieux (1703-1768)
  60. Charles Depéret
  61. Marcel Deprez
  62. Bernard Derrida
  63. Jean Dercourt
  64. Peter Dervan
  65. Paul-Quentin Desains
  66. Alfred Des Cloizeaux
  67. René Louiche Desfontaines
  68. René-Nicolas Dufriche Desgenettes
  69. Alexandre Desgrez
  70. Henri Deslandres
  71. Pierre Deslongchamps
  72. Nicolas Desmarest
  73. Charles-Bernard Desormes
  74. César-Mansuète Despretz
  75. Nicolas Deyeux
  76. Jean Dieudonné
  77. Achille Pierre Dionis du Séjour
  78. Alfred Ditte
  79. Philbert Maurice d'Ocagne
  80. Denis Dodart
  81. Wolfgang Doeblin
  82. Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu
  83. Simon Donaldson
  84. Franciscus Cornelis Donders
  85. David Donoho
  86. Joseph L. Doob
  87. Jean Dorst
  88. Urbain Dortet de Tessan
  89. Jean-Jacques Dortous de Mairan
  90. Paul Dorveaux
  91. Adrien Douady
  92. François-Joseph Double
  93. James Douglas, 14th Earl of Morton
  94. Joseph Henri Ferdinand Douvillé
  95. Jules Drach
  96. Charles Stark Draper
  97. Reinhart Dozy
  98. Charles François de Cisternay du Fay
  99. Jean-Baptiste du Hamel
  100. Joseph-Guichard Du Verney
  101. Guillaume Dubois
  102. Charles Dubost (surgeon)
  103. Denis Duboule
  104. Émile Duclaux
  105. Jacques Duclaux
  106. Jean Dufay
  107. Michel Duflo
  108. Charles Dufraisse
  109. Armand Dufrénoy
  110. René-Nicolas Dufriche Desgenettes
  111. Pierre Dugac
  112. Antoine Louis Dugès
  113. Jean-Marie Duhamel
  114. Henri Louis Duhamel du Monceau
  115. Henri Dulac
  116. Pierre Louis Dulong
  117. Jean-Baptiste Dumas
  118. André Marie Constant Duméril
  119. Auguste Duméril
  120. Louis Isidore Duperrey
  121. Abel Aubert du Petit-Thouars
  122. Charles Dupin
  123. Gaston Dupouy
  124. Henri Dupuy de Lôme
  125. Guillaume Dupuytren
  126. Michel Durand-Delga
  127. Henri Dutrochet
  128. Jacques-François-Marie Duverney
  129. Pierre Duverney
  130. Georges Louis Duvernoy
  131. Freeman Dyson
E
  1. Thomas Ebbesen
  2. Gerald Edelman
  3. Sam Edwards (physicist)
  4. Jean-Marc Egly
  5. Manfred Eigen
  6. Georg Christoph Eimmart
  7. Léonce Élie de Beaumont
  8. Ebenezer Emmons
  9. Pierre Encrenaz
  10. Anne Ephrussi
  11. Ernest Esclangon
  12. Robert Esnault-Pelterie
  13. Victor Marie d'Estrées
  14. Leonhard Euler
F
  1. Charles Fabry
  2. Ludvig Faddeev
  3. Guy-Crescent Fagon
  4. Paul Fallot
  5. Thomas Fantet de Lagny
  6. Michael Faraday
  7. Olivier Faugeras
  8. Pierre Faurre
  9. Idelphonse Favé
  10. Alexandre Favre
  11. Pierre-Antoine Favre
  12. Hervé Faye
  13. Gaston Fayet
  14. Pierre Fayet
  15. Charles Fehrenbach (astronomer)
  16. Gérard Férey
  17. Antoine Ferrein
  18. Gustave-Auguste Ferrié
  19. Albert Fert
  20. Carlos Chagas Filho
  21. Henri Filhol
  22. Gilles Filleau des Billettes
  23. Mathias Fink
  24. Alain Fischer
  25. Hippolyte Fizeau
  26. Philippe Flajolet
  27. Patrick Flandrin
  28. André Hercule de Fleury
  29. Paul Fliche
  30. Michel Fliess
  31. Jean Pierre Flourens
  32. Ferdinand Foch
  33. Alexis Fontaine des Bertins
  34. Jean-Marc Fontaine
  35. Maurice Fontaine (biologist)
  36. Marc Fontecave
  37. Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle
  38. François Véron Duverger de Forbonnais
  39. Léon Foucault
  40. Antoine François, comte de Fourcroy
  41. Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier
  42. Auguste Denis Fougeroux de Bondaroy
  43. Ferdinand André Fouqué
  44. Louis-Benjamin Francœur
  45. Jean Fréchet
  46. René Maurice Fréchet
  47. Claude Fréjacques
  48. Edmond Frémy
  49. Bernard Frénicle de Bessy
  50. Augustin-Jean Fresnel
  51. Louis Claude de Saulces de Freycinet
  52. Amédée-François Frézier
  53. Charles Friedel
  54. Jacques Friedel
  55. Uriel Frisch
G
  1. Pierre Gabriel
  2. Jean Gallois
  3. François Alexandre Pierre de Garsault
  4. Henri Gambey
  5. René Garnier
  6. Adrien de Gasparin
  7. Charles Gaudichaud-Beaupré
  8. Albert Gaudry
  9. Roger Jean Gautheret
  10. Armand Gautier (chemist)
  11. Claude Gay
  12. Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac
  13. Louis Gayant
  14. Ulysse Gayon
  15. Walter Jakob Gehring
  16. Israel Gelfand
  17. Pierre-Gilles de Gennes
  18. Louis Gentil
  19. Reinhard Genzel
  20. Augustin Saint-Hilaire
  21. Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire
  22. Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire
  23. Claude-Joseph Geoffroy
  24. Étienne-François Geoffroy
  25. Paul Germain (scientist)
  26. Paul Gervais (zoologist)
  27. Étienne Ghys
  28. Fabiola Gianotti
  29. Alfred Mathieu Giard
  30. Martin Gibbs
  31. Maurice Gignoux
  32. François Gigot de Lapeyronie
  33. François-Hilaire Gilbert
  34. Jean-Yves Girard
  35. Pierre-Simon Girard
  36. Justin Girod-Chantrans
  37. Jacques Glowinski
  38. Roland Glowinski
  39. Jean Godin des Odonais
  40. Louis Godin
  41. Dominique Alexandre Godron
  42. André Goffeau
  43. Marcel Golay (astronomer)
  44. Marcel J. E. Golay (mathematician)
  45. Maurice Goldman
  46. Jean Ogier de Gombauld
  47. John B. Goodenough
  48. Pierre de Gorsse
  49. Jules Gosselet
  50. Léon Athanese Gosselin
  51. André Gougenheim
  52. Édouard Goursat
  53. Louis Georges Gouy
  54. Thomas Gouye
  55. Arnaud de Gramont (1861-1923)
  56. Armand de Gramont (1879-1962)
  57. François Cyrille Grand'Eury
  58. Alfred Grandidier
  59. Jean-Paul Grandjean de Fouchy
  60. Pierre-Paul Grassé
  61. Charles Joseph Gravier
  62. Howard Green (physician)
  63. Alfred George Greenhill
  64. Mikhail Leonidovich Gromov
  65. Victor Grignard
  66. Édouard Grimaux
  67. Pierre Grivet
  68. François Gros (biologist)
  69. Jean Grosse
  70. Marianne Grunberg-Manago
  71. Jean-Paul de Gua de Malves
  72. Jean-Étienne Guettard
  73. Claude Guichard (mathematician)
  74. Chrétien-Louis-Joseph de Guignes
  75. Georges Guillain (neurologist)
  76. Roger Guillemin
  77. Jean-Pierre-François Guillot-Duhamel
  78. André Guinier
  79. Philibert Guinier
  80. John Gurdon
  81. Camille Gutton
  82. Jean Casimir Félix Guyon
  83. Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau
H
  1. Jean Nicolas Pierre Hachette
  2. Louis Hackspill (academician)
  3. Jacques Hadamard
  4. Johann Kaspar Hagenbuch
  5. Paul Hagenmuller
  6. Erwin Hahn
  7. George Ellery Hale
  8. Stephen Hales
  9. Michel Haïssaguerre
  10. James Hall (paleontologist)
  11. Jean Noël Hallé
  12. Albin Haller
  13. Ferdinand Augustin Hallerstein
  14. Bernard Halpern
  15. Georges Henri Halphen
  16. Victor Hambartsumian
  17. Jean Hamburger
  18. Maurice Hamy
  19. Theodor W. Hänsch
  20. Serge Haroche
  21. Godfrey Harold Hardy
  22. Nicolaas Hartsoeker
  23. Julien Haton de La Goupillière
  24. Émile Haug
  25. Johann Friedrich Ludwig Hausmann
  26. Paul Hautefeuille
  27. René Just Haüy
  28. Edmond Hébert
  29. Paul Helbronner
  30. Claude-Adrien Helvétius
  31. Louis-Félix Henneguy
  32. Frère Héribaud-Joseph
  33. Louis-Étienne Héricart de Thury
  34. Michael Herman (mathematician)
  35. Jakob Hermann
  36. Charles Hermite
  37. Antoine-Marie Héron de Villefossev
  38. Jean-Marie Heurtault de Lammerville
  39. Corneille Heymans
  40. Gustave-Adolphe Hirn
  41. Heisuke Hironaka
  42. Friedrich Hirzebruch
  43. Jules A. Hoffmann
  44. Wilhelm Homberg
  45. Xavier Hommaire de Hell
  46. Gerard 't Hooft
  47. Camille d'Hostun
  48. Jacques-Julien Houtou de La Billardière
  49. Auguste Houzeau
  50. Francis Clark Howell
  51. François Huber
  52. Jean-Baptiste Hubert
  53. Gérard Huet
  54. François-Joseph Hunauld
  55. Henri Jean Humbert
  56. Georges Humbert
  57. Alexander von Humboldt
  58. Christiaan Huygens
  59. Jean-Baptiste Huzard
I
  1. Jean Ichbiah
  2. Christian Ludwig Ideler
  3. John Iliopoulos
  4. Édouard Imbeaux
  5. Antoine-Tristan Danty d'Isnard
  6. Gérard Iooss
  7. Kiyosi Itô
  8. James Ivory (mathematician)
J
  1. François Jacob
  2. Maurice Jacob
  3. Hervé Jacquet
  4. Pierre Jacquinot
  5. Jules Jamin
  6. Edward Janczewski
  7. Paul Janet (physicist)
  8. Maurice-Marie Janot
  9. Jules Janssen
  10. Gabriel Jars
  11. Erik Jarvik
  12. Hippolyte François Jaubert
  13. André Jaumotte
  14. Claude Jaupart
  15. Maurice Javillier
  16. Marc Jeannerod
  17. Edme-Sébastien Jeaurat
  18. Antoine-Joseph Jobert de Lamballe
  19. Niels Kaj Jerne
  20. Pierre Jolibois
  21. Frédéric Joliot-Curie
  22. Pierre Joliot-Curie
  23. Nicolas Joly (zoologist)
  24. Camille Jordan
  25. Alfred Jost
  26. Louis Joubin
  27. Émile Jouguet
  28. Michel Jouvet
  29. Gaston Julia
  30. Marc Julia
  31. Edmond Jurien de La Gravière
  32. Adrien-Henri de Jussieu
  33. Antoine de Jussieu
  34. Antoine Laurent de Jussieu
  35. Bernard de Jussieu
  36. Joseph de Jussieu
K
  1. Fotis Kafatos
  2. Henri B. Kagan
  3. Jean-Pierre Kahane
  4. Axel Kahn
  5. Gilles Kahn
  6. Olivier Kahn
  7. Rudolf E. Kalman
  8. Eric Kandel
  9. Daniel Kaplan
  10. Henry Seymour Kaplan
  11. Richard M. Karp
  12. Éric Karsenti
  13. Masaki Kashiwara
  14. Alfred Kastler
  15. Ephraim Katzir
  16. Friedrich Kick
  17. Brigitte Kieffer
  18. Wilfrid Kilian
  19. Sergiu Klainerman
  20. Daniel Kleppner
  21. Aaron Klug
  22. Ernst Knobil
  23. Paul Knochel
  24. Donald Knuth
  25. Gabriel Koenigs
  26. Andrey Kolmogorov
  27. Johann Samuel König
  28. Maxim Kontsevich
  29. Jean-Louis Koszul
  30. Vladimir Mikhaïlovitch Kotlyakov
  31. Philippe Kourilsky
  32. Jean Kovalevsky
  33. Vladimír Krajina
  34. Christian Kramp
  35. Julius Kühn
  36. Ernst Kummer
  37. Carl Sigismund Kunth
L
  1. Aymar de La Baume Pluvinel
  2. Charles Marie de La Condamine
  3. Jean-Nicolas de La Hire
  4. Philippe de La Hire
  5. Louis Alexandre de La Rochefoucauld d'Enville
  6. François XII de La Rochefoucauld
  7. Antoine Émile Henry Labeyrie
  8. Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille
  9. Antoine Lacassagne
  10. Henri de Lacaze-Duthiers
  11. Bernard Germain de Lacépède
  12. Alfred Antoine François Lacroix
  13. Sylvestre-François Lacroix
  14. Laurent Lafforgue
  15. Philippe-Étienne Lafosse
  16. Anne-Marie Lagrange
  17. Joseph-Louis Lagrange
  18. Edmond Laguerre
  19. Joseph Jérôme Lefrançois de Lalande
  20. Michel Lefrançois de Lalande
  21. Léon Lalanne
  22. André Lallemand
  23. Charles Lallemand (geophysicist)
  24. Jean-Yves Lallemand
  25. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
  26. Kurt Lambeck
  27. William Lambton
  28. Gabriel Lamé
  29. Jean Vincent Félix Lamouroux
  30. Louis Landouzy
  31. Paul Langevin
  32. Odilon Lannelongue
  33. Louis Lapicque
  34. Pierre-Simon Laplace
  35. Yves Laporte
  36. Albert de Lapparent
  37. Charles-Louis Largeteau
  38. Dominique-Jean Larrey
  39. Jacques Laskar
  40. Joseph-Marie-François de Lassone
  41. Raymond Latarjet
  42. Pierre André Latreille
  43. Maxime Laubeuf
  44. Lucien Laubier
  45. Charles Laubry (physician)
  46. Stanislas Laugier
  47. Gérard Laumon
  48. Louis de Launay
  49. Aimé Laussedat
  50. Guy Laval
  51. Alphonse Laveran
  52. Antoine Lavoisier
  53. Sandra Lavorel
  54. John Law de Lauriston
  55. Peter Lax
  56. Michel Lazdunski
  57. Guy Lazorthes
  58. Joseph Achille Le Bel
  59. Denis Le Bihan
  60. Henry Le Chatelier
  61. Nicole Marthe Le Douarin
  62. Philippe Gustave le Doulcet, comte de Pontécoulant
  63. Jean Le Fèvre (astronomer)
  64. Gérard Le Fur
  65. Jean-François Le Gall
  66. Guillaume Le Gentil
  67. Henry Léauté
  68. Paul Lebeau
  69. Henri-Léon Lebesgue
  70. Maurice Leblanc (engineer)
  71. Jean-Baptiste Leblond
  72. Emmanuel Leclainche
  73. Albert Mathieu Leclerc du Sablon
  74. Paul Henri Lecomte
  75. Léon Lecornu
  76. Edgar Lederer
  77. Louis Lefèvre‑Gineau
  78. Adrien-Marie Legendre
  79. Jean-Pierre Lehman
  80. Jean-Marie Lehn
  81. Pierre Lelong
  82. Louis Lémery
  83. Nicolas Lémery
  84. Clément Georges Lemoine
  85. Louis Guillaume Le Monnier
  86. Pierre Charles Le Monnier
  87. Pierre Lemonnier (mathematician)
  88. Pierre Léna
  89. Joseph Lepaute Dagelet
  90. Michel Robert Le Peletier des Forts
  91. Pierre Lépine
  92. Louis Leprince-Ringuet
  93. Xavier Le Pichon
  94. Jean Leray
  95. René Leriche
  96. François-Xavier Lesbre
  97. Marcel Lesieur
  98. Ferdinand de Lesseps
  99. Tullio Levi-Civita
  100. Charles Le Roy
  101. Jean-Baptiste Le Roy
  102. Pierre Le Roy
  103. Camille Le Tellier de Louvois
  104. Louis Auguste Le Tonnelier de Breteuil
  105. Hervé Le Treut
  106. Rita Levi-Montalcini
  107. Pierre Lévêque (scientist)
  108. Auguste Michel-Lévy
  109. Maurice Lévy (mathematician)
  110. Paul Lévy (mathematician)
  111. Alexandre Félix Gustave Achille Leymérie
  112. Urbain Le Verrier
  113. Anders Johan Lexell
  114. Guillaume François Antoine de l'Hôpital
  115. Charles Louis L'Héritier de Brutelle
  116. Albert J. Libchaber
  117. Guglielmo Libri Carucci dalla Sommaja
  118. Émile Licent
  119. André Lichnerowicz
  120. Sophus Lie
  121. Joseph Lieutaud
  122. James Lighthill
  123. Carl Linnaeus
  124. Jacques-Louis Lions
  125. Pierre-Louis Lions
  126. Joseph Liouville
  127. Gabriel Lippmann
  128. Fyodor Litke
  129. Alexis Littré
  130. Jacques Livage
  131. Rodolfo Llinás
  132. Maurice Loewy
  133. Étienne-Charles de Loménie de Brienne
  134. Claude Lorius
  135. Auguste-Louis Loubatières
  136. Antoine Louis
  137. Johann von Löwenstern-Kunckel
  138. René Lucas
  139. Just Lucas-Championnière
  140. Carl Ludwig (psychologist)
  141. Auguste and Louis Lumière
  142. Henry de Lumley
  143. Paul d'Albert de Luynes
  144. André Michel Lwoff
  145. Bernard Lyot
M
  1. Odile Macchi
  2. Jean-Baptiste de Machault d'Arnouville
  3. Pierre Joseph Macquer
  4. François Magendie
  5. Guillaume-Chrétien de Lamoignon de Malesherbes
  6. Pierre Magnol
  7. Heinrich Gustav Magnus
  8. Heinz Maier-Leibnitz
  9. Pedro Vicente Maldonado
  10. Ernest Maindron
  11. Lucien Malavard
  12. Nicolas Malebranche
  13. Nicolas de Malézieu
  14. Bernard Malgrange
  15. François Ernest Mallard
  16. Edmond Malinvaud
  17. Bernard Malissen
  18. Paul Malliavin
  19. Paul-Jacques Malouin
  20. Étienne-Louis Malus
  21. Jean-Louis Mandel
  22. Szolem Mandelbrojt
  23. Eustachio Manfredi
  24. Louis Mangin
  25. Yuri Manin
  26. Daniel Mansuy
  27. Giacomo Filippo Maraldi
  28. Giovanni Domenico Maraldi
  29. Jean Marchant
  30. Gury Ivanovich Marchuk
  31. André Maréchal
  32. Étienne-Jules Marey
  33. Emmanuel Marie Pierre Martin Jacquin de Margerie
  34. Edme Mariotte
  35. Auguste-Frédéric-Louis Viesse de Marmont
  36. André Martin (physicist)
  37. Louis Martin (physician)
  38. Emmanuel de Martonne
  39. Martin van Marum
  40. Éleuthère Mascart
  41. Nevil Maskelyne
  42. Claude-Louis Mathieu
  43. Camille Matignon
  44. Charles-Victor Mauguin
  45. Pierre Louis Maupertuis
  46. Victor Mauvais
  47. Michel Mayor
  48. Ernst Mayr
  49. Cyrus McCormick
  50. Pierre Méchain
  51. Gérard Mégie
  52. Johann Friedrich Meckel, the Elder
  53. Macedonio Melloni
  54. Matthew Meselson
  55. Félix Mesnil
  56. Charles Messier
  57. Charles Maurain
  58. Jean-Baptiste Marie Meusnier de La Place
  59. Paul-André Meyer
  60. Yves Meyer
  61. Elliot Meyerowitz
  62. Louis Michel (physicist)
  63. Robert Andrews Millikan
  64. Henri Milloux
  65. Alphonse Milne-Edwards
  66. Henri Milne-Edwards
  67. Robin Milner
  68. Charles-François Brisseau de Mirbel
  69. Maryam Mirzakhani
  70. Eilhard Mitscherlich
  71. Gösta Mittag-Leffler
  72. Hugo von Mohl
  73. Abraham de Moivre
  74. Keith Moffatt
  75. Henri Moissan
  76. Théodose Du Moncel
  77. Henri Mondor
  78. Gaspard Monge
  79. Jean-André Mongez
  80. Roger Monier
  81. Théodore Monod
  82. Camille Montagne
  83. Luc Montagnier
  84. Étienne Mignot de Montigny
  85. Marc-René de Montalembert (1714-1800)
  86. Paul Montel (mathematician)
  87. Montgolfier brothers
  88. Pierre Raymond de Montmort
  89. Étienne Mignot de Montigny
  90. Jean-Étienne Montucla
  91. Alfred Moquin-Tandon
  92. Sauveur François Morand
  93. Dino Moras
  94. Jean-Pierre Morat
  95. Alessandro Morbidelli (astronomer)
  96. Jean Moreau de Séchelles
  97. Charles-Gilbert Morel de Vindé
  98. François Morel (biologist)
  99. Giovanni Battista Morgagni
  100. W. Jason Morgan
  101. Arthur Morin
  102. Jürgen Moser
  103. Amédée Ernest Mouchez
  104. Vernon Benjamin Mountcastle
  105. Charles Moureu
  106. Gustave Moussu
  107. Teruaki Mukaiyama
  108. Otto Friedrich Müller
  109. Ferdinand von Müller
  110. Ernest Munier-Chalmas
  111. Arnold Munnich
  112. Roderick Murchison
  113. James D. Murray
  114. Pieter Van Musschenbroek
N
  1. Napoleon
  2. Giulio Natta
  3. Claude-Louis Navier
  4. Louis Néel
  5. Robert Nègre
  6. Auguste Nélaton
  7. Franz Ernst Neumann
  8. Ngô Bảo Châu
  9. Miguel Nicolelis
  10. François Nicole (mathematician)
  11. Charles Nicolle
  12. Louis Nirenberg
  13. Yasutomi Nishizuka
  14. Maurice Nivat
  15. Jean de Noailles
  16. Jean Antoine Nollet
  17. Gustav Nossal
  18. W. Albert Noyes Jr.
  19. Philippe Nozières
  20. Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
O
  1. Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers
  2. Guillaume-Antoine Olivier
  3. Jean-Baptiste Julien d'Omalius
  4. Satoshi Ōmura
  5. Jean Orcel
  6. Gérard Orth
  7. Ernst-Wilhelm Otten
  8. Mikhail Ostrogradsky
  9. Jean Abraham Chrétien Oudemans
  10. Guy Ourisson
  11. Richard Owen
  12. Jacques Ozanam
  13. Paul Ozenda
P
  1. Svante Pääbo
  2. Paul Painlevé
  3. Pierre Bernard Palassou
  4. Hans Pallmann
  5. Jacob Palis
  6. Ambroise Marie François Joseph Palisot de Beauvois
  7. Antoine Parent
  8. Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky
  9. Denis Papin
  10. François-Edmond Pâris
  11. Jean Édouard Gabriel Narcisse Paris
  12. Giorgio Parisi
  13. George Parker, 2nd Earl of Macclesfield
  14. Antoine Parmentier
  15. Hippolyte Parodi
  16. Paul Pascal
  17. Antoine François Passy
  18. Louis Pasteur
  19. Renaud Paulian
  20. Linus Pauling
  21. Ivan Pavlov
  22. Anselme Payen
  23. Jean-Baptiste Payer
  24. Jean-Claude Pecker
  25. Jean Pecquet
  26. Rudolf Peierls
  27. Philippe-Jean Pelletan
  28. Bertrand Pelletier
  29. Pierre Joseph Pelletier
  30. Pedro II of Brazil
  31. Théophile-Jules Pelouze
  32. Paul Pelseneer
  33. Pierre-François Percy
  34. Jean-Marie Pérès
  35. Joseph Pérès
  36. Marguerite Perey
  37. Claude Perrault
  38. François Perrier
  39. Francis Perrin
  40. Jean Baptiste Perrin
  41. Jean-Rodolphe Perronet
  42. Max Perutz
  43. Peter the Great
  44. Richard Peto
  45. Antoine Petit
  46. Christine Petit
  47. François Pourfour du Petit
  48. Jean-Louis Petit (anatomist)
  49. Ivan Peychès
  50. Bernhard Peyer
  51. Johann Friedrich Pfaff
  52. Jean-Frédéric Phélypeaux de Maurepas
  53. Louis Phélypeaux de Saint-Florentin
  54. Édouard Phillips
  55. Alfred Maurice Picard
  56. Émile Picard
  57. Jean Picard
  58. Emilio Picasso
  59. Bernard Picinbono
  60. Nathaniel Pigott
  61. Philippe Pinel
  62. Alexandre Guy Pingré
  63. Guillaume Piobert
  64. Olivier Pironneau
  65. Gilles Pisier
  66. Pierre Joseph Aimé Pissis
  67. Henri Pitot
  68. Joseph Pitton de Tournefort
  69. Jean Piveteau
  70. Giovanni Antonio Amedeo Plana
  71. Lucien Plantefol
  72. Marcin Odlanicki Poczobutt
  73. Henri Poincaré
  74. Louis Poinsot
  75. Jean-Paul Poirier
  76. Siméon Denis Poisson
  77. Pierre-Isaac Poissonnier
  78. Giovanni Poleni
  79. Melchior de Polignac
  80. Alexander Markovich Polyakov
  81. Yves Pomeau
  82. Jean-Victor Poncelet
  83. John Pond
  84. Maurice Ponte
  85. Antoine Portal
  86. Éric Postaire
  87. Pierre Potain
  88. Laurent Pothenot
  89. Alfred Potier
  90. Pierre Potier
  91. Michel Pouchard
  92. Claude Pouillet
  93. Robert Pound
  94. Frank Press
  95. Constant Prévost
  96. Joseph Privat de Molières
  97. Dmitri Nikolajewitsch Prjanischnikow
  98. Alain Prochiantz
  99. Gaspard de Prony
  100. Jacques Prost
  101. Joseph Louis Proust
  102. Jean-Michel Provençal
  103. Victor Prunelle
  104. Pierre Pruvost
  105. Jean-Loup Puget
  106. Pierre Puiseux
  107. Victor Puiseux
  108. Louis Puissant
  109. Bernard Pullman
  110. Mihajlo Pupin
  111. Jan Evangelista Purkyně
  112. Marc-Antoine Puvis
Q
  1. Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages de Bréau
  2. Denis-Bernard Quatremère d'Isjonval
  3. Yves Quéré
  4. François Quesnay
  5. Jean René Constant Quoy
R
  1. Michael Rabin
  2. Charles Rabut
  3. Emil Racoviță
  4. Rodolphe Radau
  5. Miroslav Radman
  6. Gaston Ramon
  7. Louis Ramond de Carbonnières
  8. Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr.
  9. Louis-Antoine Ranvier
  10. François-Marie Raoult
  11. Auguste Rateau
  12. Bernard Raveau
  13. Pierre François Olive Rayer
  14. Michel Raynaud
  15. René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur
  16. Paul-Henri Rebut
  17. Pierre-Sylvain Régis
  18. Henri Victor Regnault
  19. Jules Reiset
  20. Bernard Renau d'Eliçagaray
  21. Michel-Louis Reneaulme de Lagaranne
  22. Charles-René Reynaud
  23. Aimé-Henry Résal
  24. Gustaf Retzius
  25. Dimitri Riabouchinsky
  26. Pascal Ribéreau-Gayon
  27. James R. Rice
  28. Alexander Rich
  29. Achille Richard
  30. Louis Claude Richard
  31. Alfred Richet
  32. Charles Richet
  33. Andrés Manuel del Río
  34. Giacomo Rizzolatti
  35. Gilles Personne de Roberval
  36. Charles Philippe Robin
  37. Robert Robinson
  38. Pierre-Jean Robiquet
  39. Alexis-Marie de Rochon
  40. Herbert W. Roesky
  41. Joseph Rogniat
  42. Michel Rohmer
  43. Michel Rolle
  44. Barbara Romanowicz
  45. Ole Christensen Rømer
  46. Bernard Roques
  47. Julius Rosenbaum
  48. François Étienne de Rosily-Mesros
  49. Élisabeth Rossel
  50. Jean Rossier
  51. Émile Roubaud
  52. Marcel Roubault
  53. Eugène Rouché
  54. Guillaume-François Rouelle
  55. Hilaire-Marin Rouelle
  56. Emmanuel de Rougé
  57. Jean-Baptiste Rougier de La Bergerie
  58. François Désiré Roulin
  59. Albin Roussin
  60. Gustave Roussy
  61. Didier Roux
  62. Pierre Paul Émile Roux
  63. Philibert Joseph Roux
  64. Jean Rouxel
  65. François Rozier
  66. David Ruelle
  67. Jacques Ruffié
  68. Henry Norris Russell
  69. Ernest Rutherford
  70. Frederik Ruysch
S
  1. Paul Sabatier
  2. Raphaël Bienvenu Sabatier
  3. José-Alain Sahel
  4. Laure Saint-Raymond
  5. Bertrand Saint-Sernin
  6. Charles Sainte-Claire Deville
  7. Henri Sainte-Claire Deville
  8. Andrei Sakharov
  9. Jean Salençon
  10. Bengt I. Samuelsson
  11. Évariste Sanchez-Palencia
  12. António Nunes Ribeiro Sanches
  13. Jacques-Noël Sané
  14. Frederick Sanger
  15. Philippe Sansonetti
  16. Gaston de Saporta
  17. Émile Sarrau
  18. Joseph Saurin
  19. Philippe Sautet
  20. Jean-Pierre Sauvage (chemist)
  21. Joseph Sauveur
  22. Félix Savart
  23. Félix Savary
  24. Jean-Michel Savéant
  25. Marie Jules César Savigny
  26. Jacob Christian Schäffer
  27. Évry Schatzman
  28. Knut Schmidt-Nielsen
  29. Christian Schönbein
  30. Émile Schribaux
  31. Marcel-Paul Schützenberger
  32. Paul Schützenberger
  33. Laurent Schwartz (mathematician)
  34. Maxime Schwartz
  35. William Scoresby
  36. Hippolyte Sebert
  37. Angelo Secchi
  38. Jean Moreau de Séchelles
  39. Leonid I. Sedov
  40. Pierre-Armand Séguier
  41. Marc Seguin
  42. Eugen Seibold
  43. Paul Séjourné
  44. Nikolay Semyonov
  45. Henri Hureau de Senarmont
  46. Jean-Baptiste Senderens
  47. Jean-Pierre Serre
  48. Étienne Serres
  49. Joseph-Alfred Serret
  50. Adi Shamir
  51. Manne Siegbahn
  52. Wacław Sierpiński
  53. Eugène Simon
  54. Nicholas Sims-Williams
  55. Pierre Sinaÿ
  56. Yuly Shokalsky
  57. Piotr Slonimski
  58. Sergei Sobolev
  59. Ionel Solomon
  60. Susan Solomon
  61. Christophe Soulé
  62. Roger Stanier
  63. Miloslav Stingl
  64. Raymond Stora
  65. Gilbert Stork
  66. Carl Størmer
  67. John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh
  68. Erich Spitz
  69. Jacques Charles François Sturm
T
  1. Michel Talagrand
  2. Jules Tannery
  3. Paul Tapponnier (geophysicist)
  4. Philippe Taquet
  5. Jean-Marie Tarascon
  6. Pierre Tardi
  7. Andrzej Tarkowski
  8. Luc Tartar
  9. John Tate
  10. Daniel Tauvry
  11. Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
  12. Léon Teisserenc de Bort
  13. Valentine Telegdi
  14. Camille le Tellier de Louvois
  15. Roger Temam
  16. Jacques-René Tenon
  17. Pierre-Marie Termier
  18. Jean Terrasson
  19. Henri-Alexandre Tessier
  20. Louis Jacques Thénard
  21. Émile Thellier
  22. Melchisédech Thévenot
  23. René Thom
  24. André Thouin
  25. Nicolas-Christiern de Thy de Milly
  26. Philippe Édouard Léon Van Tieghem
  27. Marc Tiffeneau
  28. Jean Tilho
  29. Mathieu Tillet
  30. Jean Tirole
  31. Félix Tisserand
  32. Camille Tissot
  33. Jacques Tits
  34. Jacques Tréfouël (chemist)
  35. Leonardo Torres y Quevedo
  36. Henri Tresca
  37. Louis-Élisabeth de La Vergne de Tressan
  38. Jean-Jacques Trillat
  39. Louis Joseph Troost
  40. Philibert Trudaine de Montigny
  41. Daniel-Charles Trudaine
  42. René Truhaut
  43. Rudolf Trümpy
  44. Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus
  45. Maurice Tubiana
  46. Edmond Tulasne
  47. Étienne-François Turgot
  48. Raymond Turpin
U
  1. Georges Urbain
V
  1. Constantin Vago
  2. Jean-Baptiste Philibert Vaillant
  3. Sébastien Vaillant
  4. William Vainchenker
  5. Achille Valenciennes
  6. Jean-Baptiste-Henri de Valincour
  7. Alain-Jacques Valleron
  8. Jean-Florent de Vallière
  9. Albert Vandel
  10. Alexandre-Théophile Vandermonde
  11. Jean-Baptiste Van Mons
  12. Pierre de Vanssay de Blavous
  13. Philippe Édouard Léon Van Tieghem
  14. Pierre Varignon
  15. Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban
  16. Jacques Vaucanson
  17. Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin
  18. Alfred Velpeau
  19. Gabriele Veneziano
  20. Étienne Pierre Ventenat
  21. Jean-René de Verdun de La Crenne
  22. Aristide Auguste Stanislas Verneuil
  23. Édouard de Verneuil
  24. Simon de Verville
  25. Ernest Vessiot
  26. Pierre Viala
  27. Louis Vicat
  28. Félix Vicq-d'Azyr
  29. Paul Marie Eugène Vieille
  30. Raymond Vieussens
  31. Louis-François-Armand de Vignerot du Plessis de Richelieu
  32. Jacques Villain
  33. Cédric Villani
  34. Paul Villard
  35. Henri Villat
  36. Clément Adrien Vincendon-Dumoulin
  37. Jean Hyacinthe Vincent
  38. Jean-Didier Vincent
  39. Jules Violle
  40. Olivier Voinnet
  41. Claire Voisin
  42. Alfred Vulpian
W
  1. Paul Wagner
  2. Frédéric Wallerant
  3. Pehr Wilhelm Wargentin
  4. Eugenius Warming
  5. Michael Waterman
  6. James Watt
  7. André Weil
  8. Henri Weil
  9. Pierre Weiss
  10. Jean Weissenbach
  11. Victor Weisskopf
  12. Wendelin Werner
  13. Fernand Widal
  14. Rudolf Wilczek
  15. Andrew Wiles
  16. John R. Willis
  17. Jacob Benignus Winsløw (Jacques-Bénigne Winslow)
  18. Edward Witten
  19. Gérard Wlérick
  20. Ulrich Frédéric Woldemar, Comte de Lowendal
  21. Charles Wolf (astronomer)
  22. Rudolf Wolf (astronomer)
  23. Christian Wolff (philosopher)
  24. Étienne Wolff
  25. Élie Wollman
  26. Lodewijk Woltjer
  27. Almroth Wright
  28. Charles-Adolphe Wurtz
  29. Johann Philipp von Wurzelbauer
  30. Kurt Wüthrich
  31. Jean Wyart
  32. Eric Westhof
Y
  1. Shinya Yamanaka
  2. Jean-Christophe Yoccoz
  3. Magdi Yacoub
  4. Marc Yor
  5. Marat Yusupov
Z
  1. Anton Zeilinger
  2. Hieronymus Georg Zeuthen
  3. Ahmed Zewail
  4. Wang Zhenyi
  5. Jean Zinn-Justin

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Moak, David, ed. (2007). The Encyclopedia of Diderot & d'Alembert Collaborative Translation Project. Ann Arbor: Michigan Publishing, University of Michigan LIbrary. pp. 54–55. Archived from the original on March 31, 2015. 
  2. ^ Alder, Ken (2002), The Measure of All Things – The Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error that Transformed the World, The Free Press, ISBN 0-7432-1675-X 
  3. ^ Crosland 1992
  4. ^ Fresnel, A.J. (1868), OEuvres Completes 1, Paris: Imprimerie impériale 
  5. ^ Fresnel, A.J. (1868), OEuvres Completes 1, Paris: Imprimerie impériale, p. 369 
  6. ^ http://www.academie-sciences.fr/activite/prix/gp_natixis.htm
  7. ^ French wikipedia article; both "Monpetit" and "Montpetit" is found in Academy publications.
  8. ^ http://www.academie-sciences.fr/academie/membre/liste_president.htm

References[edit]

  • Crosland, Maurice P. (1992), Science Under Control: The French Academy of Sciences, 1795–1914, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-52475-X 
  • Stroup, Alice (1987), Royal Funding of the Parisian Académie Royale Des Sciences During the 1690s, DIANE Publishing, ISBN 0-87169-774-2 
  • Sturdy, David J. (1995), Science and Social Status: The Members of the Academie Des Sciences 1666–1750, Boydell & Brewer, ISBN 0-85115-395-X 

External links[edit]