Messier 85

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Messier 85
Messier85 - SDSS DR14 (panorama).jpg
M85 by SDSS
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
ConstellationComa Berenices
Right ascension 12h 25m 24.0s[1]
Declination+18° 11′ 28″[1]
Redshift729 ± 2 km/s[1]
Distance60 ± 4 Mly (18.5 ± 1.2 Mpc)[2]
Apparent magnitude (V)10.0[1]
TypeSA(s)0+ pec[1]/E2[3]
Apparent size (V)7′.1 × 5′.5[1]
Other designations
NGC 4382, UGC 7508, PGC 40515[1]
See also: Galaxy, List of galaxies

Messier 85 (also known as M85 or NGC 4382 or PGC 40515 or ISD 0135852) is a lenticular galaxy, or elliptical galaxy for other authors,[3] in the Coma Berenices constellation. It is 60 million light-years away, and it is estimated to be 125,000 light-years across.

It was discovered by Pierre Méchain in 1781. It is the northernmost outlier of the Virgo cluster discovered as of 2004[citation needed].


M85 is extremely poor in neutral hydrogen[4] and has a very complex outer structure with shells and ripples that are thought to have been caused by a merger with another galaxy that took place between 4 and 7 billion years ago,[4] as well as a relatively young (<3 billion years old) stellar population on its centermost region, some of it in a ring, that may have been created by a late starburst.[5]

While indirect methods imply that Messier 85 should contain a central supermassive black hole of around 100 million solar masses,[6] velocity dispersion observations imply that the galaxy may entirely lack a central massive black hole.[7]

The type I supernova, 1960R was discovered in M85 on December 20, 1960 and reached an apparent magnitude of 11.7.

This galaxy has also been the host of the first luminous red nova identified as such, M85 OT2006-1. It was discovered on January 7 of 2006 and took place on the outskirts of this galaxy.[8]

M85 is interacting with the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 4394, and a small elliptical galaxy called MCG 3-32-38.[9]



  1. ^ a b c d e f g "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". Results for Messier 85. Retrieved 2006-11-18.
  2. ^ J. L. Tonry; A.Dressler; J. P. Blakeslee; E. A. Ajhar; et al. (2001). "The SBF Survey of Galaxy Distances. IV. SBF Magnitudes, Colors, and Distances". Astrophysical Journal. 546 (2): 681–693. arXiv:astro-ph/0011223. Bibcode:2001ApJ...546..681T. doi:10.1086/318301.
  3. ^ a b Kormendy, John; Fisher, David B.; Cornell, Mark E.; Bender, Ralf (2009). "Structure and Formation of Elliptical and Spheroidal Galaxies". Astrophysical Journal Supplement. 182 (1): 216–309. arXiv:0810.1681. Bibcode:2009ApJS..182..216K. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/182/1/216.
  4. ^ a b Hibbard, J. E.; Sansom, A. E. (2003). "A Search for H I in Five Elliptical Galaxies with Fine Structure". The Astronomical Journal. 125 (2): 667–683. arXiv:astro-ph/0211003. Bibcode:2003AJ....125..667H. doi:10.1086/345822.
  5. ^ Fisher, David; Franx, Marijn; Illingworth, Garth (1996). "Line Strengths and Line-Strength Gradients in S0 Galaxies". Astrophysical Journal. 459 (1): 110. Bibcode:1996ApJ...459..110F. doi:10.1086/176873.
  6. ^ Kormendy, John; Bender, Ralf (2009). "Correlations between Supermassive Black Holes, Velocity Dispersions, and Mass Deficits in Elliptical Galaxies with Cores". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 691 (2): L142–L146. arXiv:0901.3778. Bibcode:2009ApJ...691L.142K. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/691/2/L142.
  7. ^ Gultekin, Kayhan; Richstone, Douglas O.; et al. (2011). "Is There a Black Hole in NGC 4382?". Astrophysical Journal. 741 (1): L142–L146. arXiv:1108.1808. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...38G. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/1/38.
  8. ^ Kulkarni, S. R.; Ofek, E. O.; Rau, A.; Cenko, S. B.; et al. (2007). "An unusually brilliant transient in the galaxy M85". Nature. 447 (7143): 458–460. arXiv:0705.3668. Bibcode:2007Natur.447..458K. doi:10.1038/nature05822. PMID 17522679.
  9. ^ "M85, Lenticular Galaxy". Messier's Nebulae and Star Clusters. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
  10. ^ "The darkness within?". Retrieved 4 February 2019.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: Sky map 12h 25m 24s, +18° 11′ 28″