Minamisanriku Town Hall, May 2013
Location of Minamisanriku in Miyagi Prefecture
|• Total||163.40 km2 (63.09 sq mi)|
|Population (September 2015)|
|• Density||82.9/km2 (215/sq mi)|
|Time zone||Japan Standard Time (UTC+9)|
|- Tree||Persera thunbergii|
|- Bird||Golden eagle|
|Address||77 Shioiri, Shizugawa, Minamisanriku-cho, Motoyoshi-gun Miyagi-ken 986-0792|
Minamisanriku (南三陸町 Minamisanriku-chō?) is a town in the Motoyoshi District of Miyagi Prefecture, in the Tohoku region of northern Japan. As of September 2015, it had an estimated population of 13,544 and a population density of 82.9 persons per km². The total area was 163.40 square kilometres (63.09 sq mi). It is a resort town on a coastline of wooded islands and mountainous inlets; large sections of which suffered from damage due to the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami.
Minamisanriku is in the far northeastern corner of Miyagi Prefecture. Its coastline is part of the Sanriku Fukkō National Park, which stretches north all the way to Aomori Prefecture. The town is bordered to the north, west, and south by the Kitakami Mountains. About 70% of the area of the town is forested.
The area of present-day Minamisanriku was part of ancient Mutsu Province and came under the control of the Date clan of Sendai Domain during the Edo period, under the Tokugawa shogunate. The area has suffered from the effects of tsunami since ancient times, including the 869 Sanriku earthquake, and more recently during the 1896 Sanriku earthquake and the 1933 Sanriku earthquake.
The villages of Shizukugawa and Utatsu were established on June 1, 1889 with the establishment of the municipalities system. Shizukugawa was elevated to town status on October 31, 1895 and Utatsu on April 1, 1959.
The Great Chilean earthquake of 1960 triggered a tsunami that crossed the Pacific Ocean and struck the town of Shizugawa with a height of up to 2.8 metres (9.2 ft), causing extensive damage. As a result, two-storey-high harbor walls were built by 1963, and residents held tsunami drills each year on the anniversary. To mark the 30th anniversary of the disaster in 1990, a bilingual Spanish-Japanese plaque was installed, with a message from President Patricio Aylwin of Chile, accompanied by a replica moai statue.
The harbor walls proved ineffective in the 2011 tsunami, which washed over four-storey buildings.
2011 earthquake and tsunami disaster
|Wikinews has related news: Death toll rises from Japan quake|
Immediate aftermath accounts suggested 95 percent of the town was destroyed by the 2011 Japanese tsunami that followed the 2011 Tohuku earthquake. Only the tallest buildings remained, and roughly half the population was unaccounted for during the days following the disaster; only 9,700 people were confirmed alive and evacuated in the first week. In late June 2011, a total of 1206 were counted as dead or missing, according to the Kahoku Shinpou.
The town had two evacuation centres where residents could go in the event of a tsunami, one on the southern headland overlooking the town, the other back from the centre of the town. Although both were 20 metres above sea level, the tsunami inundated them and washed people away. At least 31 of the town's 80 designated evacuation sites were inundated by the tsunami.
According to an English teacher at the high school on a hill above the tsunami, "The entire town was simply swept away. It just no longer exists. There were around 7,000 of us on the hill that day. Perhaps a few thousand at the school on the hill opposite. But there are 17,000 in the town. All the others have gone." Since the schools were all on high ground, many children were orphaned. Survivors wrote "SOS" in white lettering, in the playing field of Shizugawa High School.
When the earthquake struck, the mayor, Jin Sato (佐藤仁), was talking at the town assembly about the (much smaller) tsunami caused by the March 9 foreshock of the March 11 earthquake. The three-story building of the town's Crisis Management Department (防災対策庁舎 Bōsai Taisaku Chōsha?) which Sato escaped to was submerged by the tsunami. Out of the 130 people who worked at the town hall, Sato was one of only 30 who reached the roof and one of only 10 who survived. He endured the torrent under the tsunami for about 3 minutes. He returned to government affairs, founding the headquarters for disaster control at the Bayside Arena in Miyagi on March 13, 2011.
Shizugawa Hospital was one of the few major buildings that survived the tsunami. It was partly inundated, and 74 out of 109 patients died. Close to 200 people were rescued from the roof.
Miki Endo (遠藤未希), a 25-year-old employed by the town's Crisis Management Department to voice disaster advisories and warnings, was hailed in the Japanese news media as a heroine for sacrificing her life by continuing to broadcast warnings and alerts over the community loudspeaker system, in the Crisis Management Department's building, as the tsunami overwhelmed it. She was credited with saving many lives. The three-story headquarters of the department remained standing but was completely gutted, with only a red-colored steel skeleton remaining. In the aftermath of the disaster, Endo was missing and was later confirmed to have died. Photos show the roof of the building completely submerged at the height of the inundation, with some people clinging to the rooftop antenna.
The town is the site of the first field hospital established by an outside nation offering assistance following the disaster. An initial team of five doctors from Israel set up a surgery in preparation for a larger team once needs were assessed. A 53-member delegation of medical personnel from the Home Front Command and the IDF’s Medical Corps opened a field hospital near Minamisanriku on March 29. The clinic included surgical, pediatrics and maternity wards, and an intensive care unit, pharmacy and laboratory along with 62 tons of medical supplies. The clinic was active in treating patients immediately upon opening.
Minamisanriku has five elementary schools, two middle schools and one high school.
- East Japan Railway Company (JR East) – Kesennuma Line (Suspended following March 11, 2011 destruction)
|This section requires expansion. (May 2014)|
- Inside Minamisanriku Channel 4 News, 13 March 2011
- flickr.com user ataq411. "Shizugawa Hospital, Minamisanriku-cho, Miyagi" (photo).
legend on marker in photo reads: 昭和35年5月24日 チリ地震津波水位 2.8m
- かつての宮城県志津川町（現・南三陸町） 津波への取り組み（1990年） (video). YouTube.com (in Japanese). Retrieved 2011-04-26. (video shows damage from 1960 tsunami)
- "南三陸町 Minamisanrikucho #5" (video). YouTube.com. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- Todd Pitman. "Japan tsunami: Nothing to do but run". Associated Press. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "宮城・南三陸町で130cmの津波観測 漁港で冠水も（10/02/28）" (video). YouTube.com (in Japanese). Retrieved 2011-04-24.
- "9,500 still unaccounted in Minamisanriku of Japan's Miyagi Prefecture: Kyodo". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
- Kyung Lah, CNN (March 12, 2011). "Rescuers scramble to save lives as aftershocks jolt Japan". CNN.com. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
- 9,500 People Reported Missing in Small Town Following Japan Quake
- Horiuchi, Junko, (Kyodo News) "Evacuees persevere, eye future", Japan Times, 29 March 2011, p. 3.
-  (Japanese)
- Natures fury leaves a silt-covered graveyard The Age, 16 March 2011
- Kyodo News, "Tsunami hit more than 100 designated evacuation sites", Japan Times, 14 April 2011, p. 1.
- Minamisanriku: Japan's tsunami-hit ground zero Channel 4 News, 14 March 2011
- Flock, Elizabeth (March 13, 2011). "Japan tsunami: Minamisanriku, a fishing port that vanished". The Washington Post. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
- Zenrin Co. Ltd. (2011). "Google Maps". Google. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
- 安否不明の町長生還 骨組みだけの庁舎で一夜 宮城・南三陸 (in Japanese). Kahoku Shimpo. March 14, 2011. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
- Carswell, Andrew (March 14, 2011). "Minami Sanriku - the town that disappeared in the Japan earthquake". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- Jiji Press, "Saitama to teach about Miyagi's tsunami 'angel'", Japan Times, 30 January 2012, p. 2.
- "Miki Endo, missing heroine of Minamisanriku" (video). NHK World. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- [画像]宮城県南三陸町の防災対策庁舎の人を押し流す津波+南三陸町津波動画 (in Japanese). Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "Israel first to set up field hospital in Japan", The Jerusalem Post, 21 March 2011, retrieved 2011-03-21
- Katz, Yakov (29 March 2011). "IDF field hospital officially open doors to Japanese". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2011-03-30.
- "IDF medical delegation to Japan treats homeless baby". The Jerusalem Post. 30 March 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-30.
- [hhttp://www.clair.or.jp/cgi-bin/simai/e/03.cgi?p=04&n=Miyagi%20Prefecture "International Exchange"]. List of Affiliation Partners within Prefectures. Council of Local Authorities for International Relations (CLAIR). Retrieved 21 November 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Minamisanriku.|
- Official website (Japanese)
- video showing aerial view, before and after: "Minamisanriku – before and after the tsunami" (video). YouTube.com. NHK World. 2011-03-11. Retrieved 2015-02-03.
- video of tsunami, shot from Shizugawa High School (志津川高校): 南三陸町志津川高校から見た津波の様子 [Tsunami attacking in Minami-Sanriku] (video). YouTube.com (in Japanese). . 2011-03-11. Retrieved 2015-02-03.
- another video from a similar vantage point as above, showing a wider-angle view of some parts: "【個人撮影】志津川津波【東日本大震災】【東北地方太平洋沖地震】" (video). YouTube.com. 2011-04-15. Retrieved 2015-02-03.
- video of tsunami, shot from Shizugawa Junior High School (志津川中学校): 南三陸町を襲った津波の一部始終 [tsunami Minamisanriku, Miyagi, japan] (video). YouTube.com (in Japanese). . 2011-03-11. Retrieved 2015-02-03.
- video shot from a train (facing east) in 2009, stopping at Shizugawa Station and then proceeding to Rikuzen-Togura Station on the Kesennuma Line. Satellite photos (e.g., in Google Maps) and aftermath videos show that virtually every building visible (except the very largest white buildings in the background) in the first three minutes, and in the final minute, were washed away in the 2011 tsunami, as well as the train track and infrastructure and both stations; buildings and track in the middle part were undamaged. "Kesennuma Line Window View from Approaching Shizukawa Sta. to Rikuzen Tokura." (video). YouTube.com. 2009-03-22. Retrieved 2015-02-03.
- the same train trip in the opposite direction, in 2010: "気仙沼線 陸前戸倉⇒志津川 車窓 キハ110系 2010年1月2日撮影" (video). YouTube.com. 2010-01-02. Retrieved 2015-02-03.
- tsunami aftermath videos (driving around in the town): #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11
- video shot inside Shizugawa Hospital, showing tsunami damage reaching as high as the fourth floor: "宮城県南三陸町「志津川病院」壊滅屋内映像！４階部分ハイビジョン" (video). YouTube.com. 2011-04-22. Retrieved 2015-02-03.
- News Video of Tsunami Destroying Minamisanriku The Telegraph, UK news outlet
- Video of Tsunami Aftermath in Minamisanriku "Some Kind of Armageddon", Channel 4 News, UK