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CNN

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CNN
Cnn.svg
Launched June 1, 1980 (1980-06-01)
Owned by Turner Broadcasting System
(Time Warner)
Picture format 1080i (HDTV)
(Downgraded to letterboxed 480i for SDTV feed)
Slogan Go There
This is CNN
Country United States
Language English
Broadcast area United States
Canada
Worldwide (via CNN International)
online (via CNNGo)
radio (news reports on the half-hour)
Headquarters CNN Center,
Atlanta, Georgia
Sister channel(s) CNN International
CNN Philippines
CNN-IBN
CNN Airport Network
CNN Türk
CNN en Español
HLN
CNN Chile
TNT
Turner Classic Movies
Cartoon Network
Boomerang
TruTV
TBS
Website www.cnn.com
Availability
Satellite
DirecTV (U.S.) 202 (HD/SD)
1202 (VOD)
Dish Network 200 (HD/SD)
9436 (HD)
Bell TV (Canada) 500 (SD)
1578 (HD)
Shaw Direct (Canada) 140/500 (SD)
257/331 (HD)
Cablevision (Mexico) 712
Cable
Verizon FiOS (U.S.) 600 (HD)
60 (SD)
Available on most other U.S. cable systems Consult your local cable provider for channel availability
Satellite radio
Sirius (U.S.) 115
XM (U.S.) 115
Sirius XM (U.S.) 115
IPTV
AT&T U-verse (U.S.) 1202 (HD)
202 (SD)
Bell Fibe TV (Canada) 500 (HD)
1500 (SD)
Google Fiber (U.S.) 101 (HD)
Streaming media
CNN.com/live Watch live
(U.S. cable subscribers only; requires login from participating television providers to access stream)
Sling TV Internet Protocol television
PlayStation Vue Internet Protocol television

The Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television channel that is owned by the Turner Broadcasting System division of Time Warner.[1] The 24-hour cable news channel was founded in 1980 by American media proprietor Ted Turner.[2][3] Upon its launch, CNN was the first television channel to provide 24-hour news coverage,[4] and was the first all-news television channel in the United States.[5]

While the news channel has numerous affiliates, CNN primarily broadcasts from the Time Warner Center in New York City, and studios in Washington, D.C. and Los Angeles, its headquarters at the CNN Center in Atlanta is only used for weekend programming. CNN is sometimes referred to as CNN/U.S. to distinguish the American channel from its international sister network, CNN International. As of August 2010, CNN is available in over 100 million U.S. households.[6] Broadcast coverage of the U.S. channel extends to over 890,000 American hotel rooms,[6] as well as carriage on cable and satellite providers throughout Canada. Globally, CNN programming airs through CNN International, which can be seen by viewers in over 212 countries and territories.[7]

As of February 2015, CNN is available to approximately 96,289,000 cable, satellite and, telco television households (82.7% of households with at least one television set) in the United States.[8]

History

Early history

The Cable News Network was launched at 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on June 1, 1980. After an introduction by Ted Turner, the husband and wife team of David Walker and Lois Hart anchored the channel's first newscast.[9] Burt Reinhardt, the executive vice president of CNN at its launch, hired most of the channel's first 200 employees, including the network's first news anchor, Bernard Shaw.[10]

Since its debut, CNN has expanded its reach to a number of cable and satellite television providers, several websites, and specialized closed-circuit channels (such as CNN Airport). The company has 36 bureaus (10 domestic, 26 international), more than 900 affiliated local stations (which also receive news and features content via the video newswire service CNN Newsource), and several regional and foreign-language networks around the world. The channel's success made a bona-fide mogul of founder Ted Turner and set the stage for conglomerate Time Warner's eventual acquisition of the Turner Broadcasting System in 1996.

A companion channel, CNN2, was launched on January 1, 1982 and featured a continuous 24-hour cycle of 30-minute news broadcasts. The channel, which later became known as CNN Headline News and is now known as simply HLN, eventually focused on live news coverage supplemented by personality-based programs during the evening and primetime hours.

Major events

Replica of the newsroom at CNN Center.

Challenger disaster

On January 28, 1986, CNN carried the only live television coverage of the launch and subsequent break-up of Space Shuttle Challenger, which killed all seven crew members on board.

Baby Jessica rescue

On October 14, 1987, Jessica McClure, an 18-month-old toddler, fell down a well in Midland, Texas. CNN quickly reported on the story, and the event helped make its name. The New York Times ran a retrospective article in 1995 on the impact of live video news:

If a picture is worth a thousand words, then a moving picture is worth many times that, and a live moving picture makes an emotional connection that goes deeper than logic and lasts well beyond the actual event. This was before correspondents reported live from the enemy capital while American bombs were falling. Before Saddam Hussein held a surreal press conference with a few of the hundreds of Americans he was holding hostage. Before the nation watched, riveted but powerless, as Los Angeles was looted and burned. Before O. J. Simpson took a slow ride in a white Bronco, and before everyone close to his case had an agent and a book contract. This was uncharted territory just a short time ago.[11]

Gulf War

The first Persian Gulf War in 1991 was a watershed event for CNN that catapulted the channel past the "Big Three" American networks for the first time in its history, largely due to an unprecedented, historical scoop: CNN was the only news outlet with the ability to communicate from inside Iraq during the initial hours of the Coalition bombing campaign, with live reports from the al-Rashid Hotel in Baghdad by reporters Bernard Shaw, John Holliman, Peter Arnett and Charles Jaco.

Operation Desert Storm as captured live on a CNN night vision camera with reporters narrating.

The moment when bombing began was announced on CNN by Bernard Shaw on January 16, 1991, as follows:[12]

This is Bernie Shaw. Something is happening outside. ... Peter Arnett, join me here. Let's describe to our viewers what we're seeing... The skies over Baghdad have been illuminated. ... We're seeing bright flashes going off all over the sky.

Because it was unable to immediately broadcast live pictures from Baghdad, CNN's coverage of the initial hours of the Gulf War had the dramatic feel of a radio broadcast – and was compared to legendary CBS news anchor Edward R. Murrow's gripping live radio reports of the German bombing of London during World War II. Despite the lack of live pictures, CNN's coverage was carried by television stations and networks around the world, resulting in CNN being watched by over a billion viewers worldwide – a feat that led to the subsequent creation of CNN International.

The Gulf War experience brought CNN some much sought-after legitimacy and made household names of previously obscure reporters. Many of these reporters now comprise CNN's "old guard." Bernard Shaw became CNN's chief anchor until his retirement in 2001. Others include then-Pentagon correspondent Wolf Blitzer (now host of The Situation Room) and international correspondent Christiane Amanpour. Amanpour's presence in Iraq was caricatured by actress Nora Dunn in the role of the ruthless reporter Adriana Cruz in the 1999 film Three Kings. Time Warner-owned sister network HBO later produced a television movie, Live from Baghdad, about CNN's coverage of the first Gulf War.

Coverage of the first Gulf War and other crises of the early 1990s (particularly the infamous Battle of Mogadishu) led officials at the Pentagon to coin the term "the CNN effect" to describe the perceived impact of real time, 24-hour news coverage on the decision-making processes of the American government.

September 11 attacks

CNN was the first cable news channel to break the news of the September 11 attacks.[13] Anchor Carol Lin was on the air to deliver the first public report of the event. She broke into a commercial at 8:49 a.m. Eastern Time that morning and said:

This just in. You are looking at obviously a very disturbing live shot there. That is the World Trade Center, and we have unconfirmed reports this morning that a plane has crashed into one of the towers of the World Trade Center. CNN Center right now is just beginning to work on this story, obviously calling our sources and trying to figure out exactly what happened, but clearly something relatively devastating happening this morning there on the south end of the island of Manhattan. That is once again, a picture of one of the towers of the World Trade Center.

Sean Murtagh, CNN vice president of finance and administration, was the first network employee on the air. He called into CNN Center from his office at CNN's New York City bureau and reported that a commercial jet had hit the Trade Center.[14]

Daryn Kagan and Leon Harris were live on the air just after 9:00 a.m. Eastern Time as the second plane hit the North Tower of the World Trade Center and through an interview with CNN correspondent David Ensor, reported the news that U.S. officials determined "that this is a terrorist act."[15] Later, Aaron Brown anchored through the day and night as the attacks unfolded. Brown had just joined CNN from ABC to serve as the breaking news anchor.

Paula Zahn assisted in the September 11, 2001, coverage on her first day as a CNN reporter, a fact that she mentioned as a guest clue presenter on a 2005 episode of Jeopardy!.

CNN has made archival files of much of the day's broadcast available in five segments, plus an overview.

2008 U.S. election

The stage for the second 2008 CNN-YouTube presidential debate.

Leading up to the 2008 U.S. presidential election, CNN devoted large amounts of its coverage to politics, including hosting candidate debates during the Democratic and Republican primary seasons. On June 3 and 5, CNN teamed up with Saint Anselm College to sponsor the New Hampshire Republican and Democratic Debates.[16] Later in 2007, the channel hosted the first CNN-YouTube presidential debates, a non-traditional format where viewers were invited to pre-submit questions over the internet via the YouTube video-sharing service.[17] In 2008, CNN partnered with the Los Angeles Times to host two primary debates leading up to its coverage of Super Tuesday.[18] CNN's debate and election night coverage led to its highest ratings of the year, with January 2008 viewership averaging 1.1 million viewers, a 41% increase over the previous year.[18]

2012 U.S. election

CNN again devoted large amounts of coverage to the 2012 U.S. Presidential campaign. Chief political correspondent Candy Crowley acted as moderator for one of the three debates between Mitt Romney and Barack Obama. Some conservatives viewed her as overly partisan/biased due to her attempts at correcting statements by both candidates on the 2012 Benghazi consulate attack.[19]

Programming

CNN's current weekday schedule consists mostly of rolling news programming during daytime hours, followed by more in-depth news and interview programs during the evening and primetime hours.

The network's morning programming consists of Early Start, an early-morning news program hosted by John Berman and Christine Romans, which is followed by New Day, the network's morning show, hosted by Chris Cuomo, Alisyn Camerota and Michaela Pereira. Most of CNN's late-morning and early afternoon programming consists of CNN Newsroom, a rolling news program hosted by Carol Costello in the morning and Brooke Baldwin in the afternoon. The network began to rework its daytime programming to include more distinct shows, beginning with Ashleigh Banfield's hour-long block of Newsroom as Legal View in August 2013 (with an emphasis on legal issues and court cases) and an hour of Newsroom as Wolf hosted by Wolf Blitzer at 1 p.m. Eastern. The introduction of @ThisHour with John Berman and Michaela Pereira at 11 a.m. Eastern which recently changed to CNN Newsroom with John Berman and Kate Bolduan.

CNN's late afternoon and early evening lineup consists of The Lead, hosted by Jake Tapper at 4 p.m. Eastern and The Situation Room with Wolf Blitzer at 5–7 p.m. Eastern. The network's evening and primetime lineup shifts towards more in-depth programming, including Erin Burnett OutFront at 7 p.m. Eastern,[20] Anderson Cooper 360° at 8 p.m. Eastern and CNN Tonight, a live program that airs Monday through Thursday at 10 p.m. Eastern hosted by Don Lemon.

On April 11, 2014 during its upfronts presentation, CNN officially announced a permanent shift towards factual programming in the 9 p.m. Eastern timeslot, including new programs such as John Walsh's The Hunt, This is Life with Lisa Ling, Mike Rowe's Somebody's Gotta Do It, and a new documentary series The Jesus Code that premiers in March 2015. Jeff Zucker explained that this new lineup was intended to shift CNN away from a reliance on pundit-oriented programs, and attract younger demographics to the network. Despite this, Zucker emphasized a continuing commitment to news programming, especially during breaking news events (where the 9 p.m. hour can be pre-empted for special coverage). These changes coincided with the introduction of a new imaging campaign for the network, featuring the slogan "Go there".[21][22][23]

CNN's weekend lineup also consists primarily of CNN Newsroom with Fredricka Whitfield and various anchors. Weekend primetime is dedicated mostly to factual programming, including the reality series Anthony Bourdain: Parts Unknown, along with topical documentaries and specials under banners such as CNN Presents, CNN Special Investigations Unit and CNN Films. The network's Sunday morning lineup consists primarily of political talk shows, including Inside Politics with John King, State of the Union, the international affairs program Fareed Zakaria GPS, and the media analysis program Reliable Sources.

On-air presentation

In December 2008, CNN introduced a comprehensive redesign of its on-air appearance, which replaced an existing style that had been used since 2004. On-air graphics took a rounded, flat look in a predominantly black, white, and red color scheme, and the introduction of a new box next to the CNN logo for displaying show logos and segment-specific graphics, rather than as a large banner above the lower-third. The redesign also replaced the scrolling ticker with a static "flipper", which could either display a feed of news headlines (both manually inserted and taken from the RSS feeds of CNN.com), or "topical" details related to a story.[24][25]

CNN's next major redesign was introduced on January 10, 2011, replacing the dark, flat appearance of the 2008 look with a glossier, blue and white color scheme, and moving the secondary logo box to the opposite end of the screen. Additionally, the network began to solely produce its programming in the 16:9 aspect ratio, with standard definition feeds using a letterboxed version of the HD feed.[25] On February 18, 2013, the "flipper" was dropped and reverted to a scrolling ticker; originally displayed as a blue background with white text, the ticker was reconfigured a day later with blue text on a white background to match the look of the 'flipper'.[26]

On August 11, 2014, CNN introduced its most recent graphics package, dropping the glossy appearance for a flat, rectangular scheme incorporating red, white, and black colors, and the Gotham typeface. The ticker now alternates between general headlines and financial news from CNNMoney, and the secondary logo box was replaced with a smaller box below the CNN bug, which displays either the title, hashtag, or Twitter handle for the show being aired or its anchor.[27]

Former programs

Program Terms Description
AC360° Later 2013–2014 An occasional spin-off of Anderson Cooper 360° that featured panel discussions on recent events led by Cooper. After being faced with irregular and inconsistent scheduling (sometimes being replaced by factual programs or reruns of the evening's earlier broadcast of AC360° in its 10:00 p.m. Eastern Time slot), it was discontinued in February 2014.[28]
American Morning 2001–2011 A weekday morning news program which aired from 6–9 a.m. Eastern Time. Replaced by Starting Point.
Around the World 2013–2014 An hour-long weekday news program that focused on international headlines, and was anchored by Suzanne Malveaux and Michael Holmes. Replaced by Legal View.[29]
Ballot Bowl 2008 An election news program focused on the 2008 Presidential and (occasionally) Congressional races.
Both Sides with Jesse Jackson 1992–2000 A political talk show, hosted by civil rights leader and two-time presidential candidate Jesse Jackson, that aired on Sundays. Each program began with a short taped report on the topic by CNN correspondent John Bisney. The show ran from 1992 to 2000.[30]
Burden of Proof 1995–2001 A show that discussed the legal issues of the day, hosted by Greta Van Susteren and Roger Cossack.
Campbell Brown 2008–2010 A political debate show hosted by Campbell Brown. The program ended after Brown resigned from CNN.
Capital Gang 1988–2005 One of cable news' longest-running programs, focusing on discussions of the week's political news stories. The original panelists were Pat Buchanan, Al Hunt, Mark Shields and Robert Novak. When Buchanan left CNN to run for president, Margaret Warner, Mona Charen and later Margaret Carlson and Kate O'Beirne became regular panelists. Capital Gang aired Saturday nights at 7:00 p.m. Eastern Time from 1988 to 2005.
CNN Daybreak 1980–2005 A first look at the day's stories that aired live from New York City at 5:00 a.m. Eastern Time.
CNN Live Saturday / CNN Live Sunday Unknown–2006 A weekend news and analysis program, airing live from Atlanta. Anchored by Fredricka Whitfield from 12:00–6:00 p.m. Eastern Time and Carol Lin from 6:00–11:00 p.m. Eastern Time. Replaced in 2006 by CNN Newsroom Weekend.
CNN Live Today 2001–2006 A program that provided a daily look at current news stories, airing live from Atlanta Monday through Friday at 10:00 a.m. Eastern Time. Anchored by Daryn Kagan.
CNN Money CNN's weekend show breaking down the business news of the week.
CNN NewsSite 2001 A news program which incorporated participation via the internet; based out of Atlanta, it was anchored by Joie Chen that aired Monday through Friday at 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time.
CNN Saturday Night / CNN Sunday Night Unknown–2006 The channel's weekend evening news program, airing at 6:00 and 10:00 p.m. Eastern Time and anchored by Carol Lin. Replaced in 2006 by CNN Newsroom Weekend.
CNN Sports Sunday Co-anchored by Bob Kurtz and Nick Charles.
CNN Tonight 2001 Anchored by Bill Hemmer at 10:00 p.m. Eastern Time and Catherine Callaway at 1:00 a.m. Eastern Time. The program was brought back in late 2009 to replace Lou Dobbs Tonight as a placeholder until new programming debuted in 2010.
Computer Connection A program focusing on issues and advancements in the computer industry.
Crossfire First aired from 1982-2005, and again from 2013–2014 Crossfire was a nightly current events debate television program that aired on CNN for many years. The show's format was designed to present and challenge the opinions of a politically liberal pundit, and a conservative pundit.
Connie Chung Tonight 2002–2003 A news and analysis program, hosted by Connie Chung. Cancelled in March 2003.
Diplomatic License 1994–2006 A weekly program on CNN International hosted by Richard Roth, focusing on the United Nations.
Evans and Novak 1980–2002 Saturday night political interview program hosted by Rowland Evans and Robert Novak. The show's title was changed to Evans, Novak, Hunt & Shields in 1998 when Al Hunt and Mark Shields became permanent panelists. Following Evans' death in 2001, the title was changed to Novak, Hunt & Shields, which remained until its cancellation.
First Evening News 2001 A half-hour news program was anchored by Bill Hemmer, originally airing at 6:00 p.m. Eastern Time when it debuted in June 2001 before moving to 7:00 p.m. the following month, where it remained until it ended on September 10, 2001.
Freeman Reports 1980–1985 One of the channel's original programs from 1980. Host Sandi Freeman interviewed guests and took live telephone call-ins regarding current news events and other topics of interest. For a brief period, the program featured a live audience based in Atlanta. The program's former timeslot was later occupied by Larry King Live.
Future Watch A program focusing on issues and advancements in the technological industry.
(Get To) The Point 2013 A panel discussion program featuring Donny Deutsch, Rick Reilly, Margaret Hoover and Jason Taylor; announced and premiered on April 1, 2013 as a week-long trial.[31]
Global View 1994–1999 International policy interview show hosted by world affairs correspondent Ralph Begleiter, aired weekly on CNN (1994–1995) and CNN International (1994–1999). Each edition began with a story package on the subject by Begleiter, followed by a lengthy interview with international figure and ended with a brief "Reporter's Notebook" segment, featuring insider tidbits from the host's extensive travels covering global politics.
Greenfield at Large 2001–2002 A half-hour weeknight news analysis program that was anchored by Jeff Greenfield and based in New York City.
In the Arena 2010–2011 Originally titled Parker Spitzer and hosted by Kathleen Parker and Eliot Spitzer, the hour-long early primetime program featured discussions on the day's news with top journalists and contributors.
John King, USA 2010–2012 Hosted by John King, the program discussed the day's political news.
Larry King Live 1985–2010 Hosted by Larry King, the hour-long interview program was CNN's longest running program as well as its most watched, with over one million viewers nightly.[32]
Live From... A weekday early afternoon newscast, airing live from Atlanta, featuring a lively look at the day's stories. Anchored by Kyra Phillips.
Live From The Headlines 2003 Hosted by Paula Zahn, the two-hour primetime show (airing from 7:00–9:00 p.m. Eastern Time) debuted at the same time Zahn moved from her previous morning slot;[33] it was later co-hosted by Anderson Cooper. The program was replaced by Paula Zahn Now in 2003.
Lou Dobbs This Week A weekly analysis program hosted by Lou Dobbs.
Lou Dobbs Tonight 1980–2009 Anchored by Lou Dobbs, the business news and analysis program originally aired as Moneyline before relaunching as Lou Dobbs Tonight in 2003.
Newshour An hour-long daily program focusing on the day's news stories.
NewsNight with Aaron Brown 2001–2005 A hard-news program anchored by Aaron Brown, which took an in-depth look at the main U.S. and international stories of the day. Was cancelled on November 5, 2005, leading to Brown's immediate resignation from CNN.
Newsstand 1999–2001 A weeknight newsmagazine series.
Next@CNN 2002–2005 A weekend science and technology oriented program, hosted by Daniel Sieberg.
On the Story Unknown–2006 Anchored by Ali Velshi, it was CNN's interactive "week-in-review" series featuring an in-depth look at the story behind some of the week's biggest stories. However, the show was suspended in June 2006, and was later cancelled that July.
Paula Zahn Now 2003–2007 A newsmagazine that featured a look at the current issues affecting the world, with former CBS and Fox News anchor Paula Zahn. The program ended on August 2, 2007.
People in the News 2001–2005 A feature-formatted weekend program produced in conjunction with People magazine, which profiled newsmakers from the worlds of politics, sports, business, medicine and entertainment. The program aired on and was first hosted by Daryn Kagan and later by Paula Zahn.
People Now 1980–Unknown An live hour-long program, based at the CNN Los Angeles bureau, featuring celebrity interviews and discussions on entertainment news stories. Originally hosted by Lee Leonard, the program was later hosted by Mike Douglas, who himself was replaced by Bill Tush in December 1982.
Piers Morgan Live 2011-2014 An hour-long weeknight interview program hosted by Piers Morgan (which was broadcast live on most nights, with some pre-recorded broadcasts), often featuring celebrity interviews; serving as a replacement for Larry King Live, the program ended on March 28, 2014.
Pinnacle Unknown–2004 A business program, hosted by Tom Cassidy, featuring news and interviews with industry leaders.
The Point with Greta Van Susteren 2001–2002 A primetime news and interview program, hosted by Greta Van Susteren. Canceled when Van Susteren moved to Fox News Channel.
Rick's List 2010 Anchored by Rick Sanchez, the two-hour afternoon program featured discussions of the day's news with interaction from viewers via social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter. Sanchez was fired from the channel after making controversial statements about Jewish people on a radio show (see Controversy for further details).
Sanjay Gupta MD Medical news program hosted by Dr. Sanjay Gupta, airs Saturdays at 4:30 p.m. and Sundays at 7:30 a.m. eastern.
Science and Technology Week Unknown–2001[34] A weekly half-hour program featuring scientific and technology reports and commentary on the week's news headlines on those subjects. Anchored most recently by Miles O'Brien.
Sonya / Sonya Live in L.A. 1987–1994 A weekday call-in show airing at 1:00 p.m. Eastern Time in the late 1980s and early 1990s, hosted by Dr. Sonya Friedman.
The Spin Room 2001 A half-hour weeknight primetime political talk show hosted by Tucker Carlson and Bill Press.
Sports Tonight 1980–2001 A nightly sports news program co-anchored by Nick Charles and Fred Hickman.
Starting Point 2012–2013 A two-hour weekday morning news program, anchored by Soledad O'Brien. Replaced by New Day.
Style with Elsa Klensch 1980–2000 A weekly half-hour Saturday morning program that featured news on style and fashion.
TalkBack Live 1994–2003 A call-in talk show with a live audience; originally hosted by Susan Rook, its subsequent hosts were Bobbie Battista, Karyn Bryant, and Arthel Neville.
Wolf Blitzer Reports 2001–2005 An hour-long late afternoon program, broadcast live from the Washington D.C. bureau, featuring a look at the day's news stories. Replaced by The Situation Room in 2005.
Unguarded with Rachel Nichols 2013–2014 CNN's weekly sports show hosted by Rachel Nichols, airs Friday nights at 10:30 eastern and pacific.
Your Health A weekend afternoon program focusing on health news.

Staff

Main article: List of CNN anchors
Anderson Cooper, anchor of AC 360°
Richard Quest, London-based correspondent

On July 27, 2012, CNN president Jim Walton announced that he was quitting, after a 30-year tenure at the network. Walton remained with CNN until the end of that year.[35] In January 2013, former NBCUniversal president Jeff Zucker replaced Walton.[36]

On January 29, 2013, longtime political analysts James Carville and Mary Matalin, and fellow political contributor Erick Erickson were let go by CNN.[37]

High definition

CNN began broadcasting in the high definition 1080i resolution format in September 2007.[38] This format is now standard for CNN and is available on all major cable and satellite providers.

The CNN Election Express bus, used for broadcasts.

CNN's political coverage in HD was first given mobility by the introduction of the CNN Election Express bus in October 2007. The Election Express vehicle, capable of five simultaneous HD feeds, was used for the channel's CNN-YouTube presidential debates and for presidential candidate interviews.[39]

Other platforms

Online

International version in April 2011

CNN launched its website, CNN.com (initially an experiment known as CNN Interactive), on August 30, 1995. The site attracted growing interest over its first decade and is now one of the most popular news websites in the world. The widespread growth of blogs, social media and user-generated content have influenced the site, and blogs in particular have focused CNN's previously scattershot online offerings, most noticeably in the development and launch of CNN Pipeline in late 2005.

In April 2009, CNN.com ranked third place among online global news sites in unique users in the U.S., according to Nielsen/NetRatings; with an increase of 11% over the previous year.[40]

CNN Pipeline was the name of a paid subscription service, its corresponding website, and a content delivery client that provided streams of live video from up to four sources (or "pipes"), on-demand access to CNN stories and reports, and optional pop-up "news alerts" to computer users. The installable client was available to users of PCs running Microsoft Windows. There was also a browser-based "web client" that did not require installation. The service was discontinued in July 2007, and was replaced with a free streaming service.

The topical news program Judy Woodruff's Inside Politics was the first CNN program to feature a round-up of blogs in 2005.[41] Blog coverage was expanded when Inside Politics was folded into The Situation Room (Inside Politics later returned to CNN in 2014, this time hosted by the network's chief national correspondent John King.[42]). In 2006, CNN launched CNN Exchange and CNN iReport, initiatives designed to further introduce and centralize the impact of everything from blogging to citizen journalism within the CNN brand. CNN iReport which features user-submitted photos and video, has achieved considerable traction, with increasingly professional-looking reports filed by amateur journalists, many still in high school or college. The iReport gained more prominence when observers of the Virginia Tech shootings sent-in first hand photos of what was going on during the shootings.[43]

In early 2008, CNN began maintaining a live streaming broadcast available to cable and satellite subscribers who receive CNN at home (a precursor to the TV Everywhere services that would become popularized by cable and satellite providers beginning with Time Warner's incorporation of the medium).[44] CNN International is broadcast live, as part of the RealNetworks SuperPass subscription service outside the U.S. CNN also offers several RSS feeds and podcasts.

On April 18, 2008, CNN.com was targeted by Chinese hackers in retaliation for the channel's coverage on the 2008 Tibetan unrest. CNN reported that they took preventative measures after news broke of the impending attack.[45][46]

The company was honored at the 2008 Technology & Engineering Emmy Awards for development and implementation of an integrated and portable IP-based live, edit and store-and-forward digital news gathering (DNG) system.[47] The first use of what would later win CNN this award was in April 2001 when CNN correspondent Lisa Rose Weaver[48] covered, and was detained,[49] for the release of the U.S. Navy crew of a damaged electronic surveillance plane after the Hainan Island incident. The technology consisted of a videophone produced by 7E Communications Ltd of London, UK.[50] This DNG workflow is used today by the network to receive material worldwide using an Apple MacBook Pro, various prosumer and professional digital cameras, software from Streambox Inc., and BGAN terminals from Hughes Network Systems.

On October 24, 2009, CNN launched a new version of the CNN.com website; the revamped site included the addition of a new "sign up" option, in which users can create their own username and profile, and a new "CNN Pulse" (beta) feature, along with a new red color theme.[51] However, most of the news stories archived on the website were deleted.

CNN also has a channel in the popular video-sharing site YouTube, but its videos can only be viewed in the United States, a source of criticism among YouTube users worldwide. In 2014, CNN launched a radio version of their popular Television programming on TuneIn Radio.[52]

In April 2010, CNN announced via Twitter that it would launch a food blog called "Eatocracy," which will "cover all news related to food – from recalls to health issues to culture."[53] CNN had an internet relay chat (IRC) network at chat.cnn.com. CNN placed a live chat with Benjamin Netanyahu on the network in 1998.[54]

Films

Main article: CNN Films

In October 2012, CNN formed a film division called CNN Films to distribute and produce made-for-TV and feature documentaries. Its first acquisition was a documentary entitled Girl Rising, a documentary narrated by Meryl Streep that focused on the struggles of girls' education.[55]

Radio

In July 2014, Cumulus Media announced that it would end its partnership with ABC News Radio, and enter into a new partnership with CNN to syndicate national and international news content for its stations through Westwood One beginning in 2015, including access to a wire service, and digital content for its station websites. CNN will not use its name on-air, allowing individual stations to use its own news brands.[56]

Specialized channels

CNN en Español televised debate for the 2005 Chilean elections.
Post production editing offices in Atlanta.

Over the years, CNN has launched spin-off networks in the United States and other countries. Channels that currently operate as of 2014 include:

Former channels

CNN has also launched television and online ventures that are no longer in operation, including:

  • CNN Checkout Channel (out-of-home place-based custom channel for grocery stores that started in 1991 and shuttered in 1993)
  • CNN Italia[57] (an Italian news website launched in partnership with the publishing company Gruppo Editoriale L'Espresso, and after with the financial newspaper Il Sole 24 Ore, it launched on November 15, 1999[58][59] and closed on September 12, 2003)
  • CNN Pipeline (24-hour multi-channel broadband online news service, replaced with CNN.com Live)
  • CNN Sports Illustrated (also known as CNNSI; U.S. sports news channel, closed in 2002)
  • CNN+ (a partner channel in Spain, launched in 1999 with Sogecable)
  • CNN.com Live
  • CNNfn (financial channel, closed in December 2004)

Experiments

CNN launched two specialty news channels for the American market which would later close amid competitive pressure: the sports news channel CNNSI shut down in 2002, while business news channel CNNfn shut down after nine years on the air in December 2004. CNN continues to maintain a partnership with Sports Illustrated through the sports website CNNSI.com. CNNfn's former website now redirects to money.cnn.com, a product of CNN's strategic partnership with Money magazine. Money and Sports Illustrated were both Time Warner properties until 2014, when the company's magazine division was spun off into the separate Time Inc.

Bureaus

CNN bureau locations
The CNN Center in Atlanta
CNN in New York City
CNN Center studios
Note: Boldface indicates that the city is home to one of CNN's original bureaus, meaning it has been in operation since the network's founding.

United States

Worldwide

Many of the following bureaus have been closed or – due to the financial crisis – had their budget cut:

In parts of the world without a CNN bureau, reports from local affiliate station the network will be used to file a story.

Controversy

Main article: CNN controversies

In a joint study by the Joan Shorenstein Center on Press, Politics and Public Policy at Harvard University and the Project for Excellence in Journalism, the authors found disparate treatment by the three major cable channels of Republican and Democratic candidates during the earliest five months of presidential primaries in 2007:

The CNN programming studied tended to cast a negative light on Republican candidates – by a margin of three-to-one. Four-in-ten stories (41%) were clearly negative while just 14% were positive and 46% were neutral. The network provided negative coverage of all three main candidates with McCain faring the worst (63% negative) and Romney faring a little better than the others only because a majority of his coverage was neutral. It's not that Democrats, other than Obama, fared well on CNN either. Nearly half of the Illinois Senator's stories were positive (46%), vs. just 8% that were negative. But both Clinton and Edwards ended up with more negative than positive coverage overall. So while coverage for Democrats overall was a bit more positive than negative, that was almost all due to extremely favorable coverage for Obama.[60]

CNN is one of the world's largest news organizations, and its international channel, CNN International is the leading international news channel in terms of viewer reach.[61][62] CNN International makes extensive use of affiliated reporters that are local to, and often directly affected by, the events they are reporting. The effect is a more immediate, less detached style of on-the-ground coverage. This has done little to stem criticism, largely from Middle Eastern nations, that CNN International reports news from a pro-American perspective. This is a marked contrast to domestic criticisms that often portray CNN as having a "liberal" or "anti-American" bias.

A political cartoon titled "CNN whitewashing Bahrain dictatorship"

CNN President Walter Isaacson met with Republican Party leaders in Washington, DC in 2001 saying afterwards "I was trying to reach out to a lot of Republicans who feel that CNN has not been as open covering Republicans, and I wanted to hear their concerns,"[63] As said by CNN founder Ted Turner, "There really isn't much of a point getting some Tom, Dick or Harry off the streets to report on when we can snag a big name whom everyone identifies with. After all, it's all part of the business." However, in April 2008, Turner criticized the direction that CNN has taken.[64] Others have echoed that criticism, especially in light of CNN's ratings declines since the late 2000s.

On April 24, 2008, beautician Liang Shubing and teacher Li Lilan sued commentator Jack Cafferty and CNN for $1.3 billion damages ($1 per person in China), in New York, for "violating the dignity and reputation of the Chinese people". This was in response to an incident during CNN's "The Situation Room" on April 9, where Cafferty stated his opinion that "[the USA] continue to import their junk with the lead paint on them and the poisoned pet food" despite his view that "[the Chinese leaders were] basically the same bunch of goons and thugs they've been for the last 50 years". Further, amid China's Foreign Ministry demand for an apology, 14 lawyers filed a similar suit in Beijing.[65][66]

In June 2009, musician M.I.A. stated she did an hour-long interview with CNN condemning the mass bombing and Tamil civilian fatalities at the hands of Government forces in Sri Lanka in 16 weeks the same year, "and they cut it down to one minute and made it about my single Paper Planes. When I went to the Grammys, I saw the same reporter from CNN, and I was like, 'Why did you do that?' And she said, 'Because you used the G-word.'" "Genocide. I guess you’re not allowed to say that on CNN," raising questions concerning CNN's coverage and commitment to free speech.[67][68]

On November 11, 2009, longtime CNN anchor Lou Dobbs resigned on-air after discussions with network President Jonathan Klein, who had agreed to release Dobbs from his contract "that will enable me to pursue new opportunities." He had previously expressed to Klein that he wished to go "the opinion route". Dobbs' advocacy journalism-style coverage of immigration, Obama birthers, and free trade topics has attracted controversy both to him and to CNN.[69][70]

On July 7, 2010, Octavia Nasr, senior Middle East editor and a CNN journalist for 20 years, was fired after she expressed on her Twitter account admiration for a liberal-minded Muslim cleric who had recently died, casting doubts on the company's commitment to freedom of speech.[71]

On October 1, 2010, CNN anchor Rick Sanchez was fired after remarks he made during an interview with comedian Pete Dominick on a radio show the previous day about prejudices he faced during his television career, at CNN and jokes about him by comedian Jon Stewart. Calling him a "bigot" before retracting this and describing him instead as "prejudiced" and "uninformed", the interviewer invoked Stewart's faith as an example of how Stewart was "a minority as much as you are". Sanchez stated his view that Jewish people were not an oppressed minority in America, and his view that "everybody that runs CNN is a lot like Stewart" before stating "And a lot of people who run all the other networks are a lot like Stewart."[72]

In October 2011, Amber Lyon told a European news service that she had been directed by CNN to report selectively, repetitively, and falsely in order to sway public opinion in favor of direct American aggression against Iran and Syria,[73] and that this was common practice under CNN. She subsequently reconfirmed this in detail, addressing the degraded state of journalistic ethics in an interview with American radio host Alex Jones,[74] during which she also discussed the Bahraini episode, suggesting paid-for content was also taken from Georgia, Kazakhstan and other states, that the War on Terrorism had also been employed as a pretext to pre-empt substantive investigative journalism within the U.S., and that following the Bahrain reporting, her investigative department had been terminated and "reorganized", and her severance and employee benefits used as a threat to intimidate and attempt to purchase her subsequent silence.

Lyon had met with Tony Maddox, president of CNN International, twice about this issue in 2011 and had claimed that during the second meeting she was threatened and intimated to stop speaking on the matter.[75] Lyon spoke heavily on RT about this, claiming that CNN reporters, headed by Maddox, have been instructed to over-cover Iran as a form of propaganda and that CNN International has been paid by the Bahraini government to produce and air news segments intentionally painting them in a positive light.[76]

Awards and honors

In 1998, CNN received the Four Freedom Award for the Freedom of Speech.[77]

See also

References

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External links