|Morgan Seth Earp|
Morgan Earp, about 1881, in Tombstone
April 24, 1851|
|Died||March 18, 1882
|Occupation||Marshal and Deputy|
|Known for||Gunfight at the O.K. Corral|
|Opponent(s)||William Brocius, Frank McLaury, Frank Stillwell|
|Spouse(s)||Louisa A. Houston|
|Parent(s)||Nicholas Porter Earp and his second wife, Virginia Ann Cooksey|
|Relatives||Siblings Newton, Mariah Ann, James, Virgil, Martha, Wyatt, Warren, Virginia Ann, and Douglas Earp|
|O.K. Corral gunfight|
Morgan Seth Earp (April 24, 1851 – March 18, 1882) was a Tombstone, Arizona Special Policeman when he helped his brothers Virgil and Wyatt and Doc Holliday confront outlaw Cowboys in the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral on October 26, 1881. All three Earp brothers had been the target of repeated death threats made by the Cowboys who were upset by the Earps' interference in their illegal activities. The lawmen killed Cowboys Tom and Frank McLaury and Billy Clanton. All four lawmen were charged with murder by Billy's older brother, Ike Clanton, who had run from the gunfight. During a month-long preliminary hearing, Judge Wells Spicer exonerated the men, concluding they had been performing their duty.
Friends of the slain outlaws retaliated, and on December 29, Cowboys ambushed Virgil, leaving him maimed. Two and a half months later, on March 18, 1882, they ambushed Morgan, shooting him at night through the window of a door while he was playing billiards and killed him. The Cowboys suspected in both shootings were let off on technicalities or lack of evidence.:242 Wyatt Earp felt he could not rely on civil justice and decided to take matters into his own hands. He concluded the only way to get justice for his murdered brother was to avenge his death. Wyatt assembled a posse that included their brother Warren Earp and set out on a vendetta to kill those they felt were responsible.
Morgan married Louisa Alice Houston sometime in the 1870s. They lived in Montana before joining his brothers in Tombstone. Louisa was staying with his parents in California when Morgan was murdered.
When elder brothers Newton, James, and Virgil went off to the American Civil War, they left their young teenage brothers Wyatt and Morgan to tend the family farm. James and Morgan grew up close, with a shared wish for adventure and a dislike of farming. Before adulthood, teen-aged Morgan followed James Earp up to Montana for a couple of years. Later he was with Wyatt on the Western frontier.
Sometime between 1871 and 1877 Morgan met Louisa Alice Houston, the daughter of H. Samuel Houston and Elizabeth Waughtal. Louisa (born January 24, 1855) was the second eldest of 12 children. In 1875, Morgan left his family in Wichita, Kansas and became a deputy marshal under Charlie Bassett at Dodge City. In late 1877, Morgan and Louisa moved to Miles City, Montana, where they bought a home. Shortly after Wyatt and Virgil headed for Tombstone, Arizona, Morgan and Louisa sold their home in Montana and headed west. Morgan apparently didn't think the wild mining town of Tombstone was suitable for Louisa, who was a petite woman and suffered from rheumatoid arthritis. He took her instead to stay with his parents in Temescal, California, in March 1880. Morgan set out to meet his older brothers in Tombstone on July 20, 1880. Louisa followed him in early December.
At different times in Arizona, both Wyatt and Morgan worked as shotgun messengers for Wells Fargo & Co., deputy sheriffs for Pima County, and as deputies under Tombstone's Chief of Police Virgil Earp, their older brother. During early 1882, Morgan was appointed to the federal position of Deputy U.S. Marshal, an office subservient to Wyatt Earp, who had been given the position by the U.S. Marshal C. Dake, after Virgil was wounded, and had authority to deputize.
Morgan gained a modern reputation as a hot-tempered man, but this appears to be based on incidents described in the book The Earp Brothers of Tombstone purportedly written by Virgil Earp's wife Allie. However, the incidents in the book involving Morgan, like much else in the book, are almost certainly fabricated. From the rest of what is known of Morgan's life, he normally showed the same even temper and cool reactions to danger as did his brothers.
Gunfight at the OK Corral
On Wednesday, October 26, 1881, the tension between the Earps and the Cowboys came to a head. Ike Clanton, Billy Claiborne, and other Cowboys had been threatening to kill the Earps for several weeks. Tombstone city Marshal Virgil Earp learned that the Cowboys were armed in violation of a city ordinance and had gathered near the O.K. Corral. Morgan was a deputy to his brother Virgil and on October 26, 1881, responded with Virgil and Wyatt to reports that Cowboys were armed on the streets of Tombstone. Ike Clanton had repeatedly threatened the Earps and he was backed up by Cowboys Tom McLaury, Frank McLaury, and Billy Clanton. Virgil asked Wyatt and Morgan and Doc Holliday to assist him, as he intended to disarm them. At approximately 3:00 p.m. the Earps headed towards Fremont Street where the Cowboys had been reported to be gathering.
They confronted five Cowboys on Fremont Street in an alley between the Harwood House and Fly's Boarding House and Photography Studio, the two parties were initially only about 6 to 10 feet (1.8 to 3.0 m) apart. Ike Clanton and Billy Claiborne fled the gunfight. Tom and Frank McLaury, along with Billy Clanton, were killed. Morgan was clipped by a shot across his back that nicked both shoulder blades and a vertebra, although he was able to continue to fire his weapon. Virgil was shot through the calf and Holliday was grazed by a bullet.
Two months after the gunfight at the O.K. Corral, in December 1881, Virgil Earp was seriously wounded in an assassination attempt that left him with a permanently crippled left arm. By February 1882, Morgan grew wary of the danger to the Earps in Tombstone and sent Louisa to live with his parents in Colton, California. Morgan remained in Tombstone to support his brothers.
Ambush and murder
At 10:50 p.m. on Saturday, March 18, 1882, after returning from a musical at Schieffelin Hall, Morgan was ambushed. He was playing a late round of billiards at the Campbell & Hatch Billiard Parlor against owner Bob Hatch. Dan Tipton, Sherman McMaster, and Wyatt watched, having received threats that same day.:38
The assailant shot Morgan through the upper half of a four-pane windowed door. The bottom two windows had been painted over. The door opened onto a dark alley that ran through the block between Allen and Fremont Streets. Morgan, about 10 feet (3.0 m) from the door, was struck in the right side and the bullet shattered his spine, passed through his left side, and entered the thigh of mining foreman George A. B. Berry. Another bullet lodged in the wall near the ceiling over Wyatt's head. Several men rushed into the alley but found the shooter had fled.
After Morgan was shot, his brothers tried to help him stand, but Morgan said "Don't, I can't stand it. This is the last game of pool I'll ever play.":97 They moved him to the floor near the card room door. Dr. William Miller arrived first, followed by Drs. Matthews and George Goodfellow. They all examined Morgan. Goodfellow, recognized in the United States as the nation's leading expert at treating abdominal gunshot wounds, concluded that Morgan's wounds were fatal.:97
Goodfellow described Morgan's wounds:
He was in a state of collapse resulting from a gunshot, or pistol wound, entering the body just to the left of the spinal column in the region of the left kidney emerging on the right side of the body in the region of the gall bladder. It certainly injured the great vessels of the body causing hemorrhage which, undoubtedly, causes death. It also involved the spinal column. It passed through the left kidney and also through the loin.
In the book Wyatt Earp: Frontier Marshal, author Stuart Lake wrote that Wyatt said:233 that Morgan, before dying, whispered to Wyatt, "I can't see a damned thing." Wyatt said that they had promised each other to report visions of the next world when at the point of death.:2 They moved him to a lounge and Morgan's family—Wyatt, Virgil, and James, along with Allie and Bessie—gathered around him. Morgan's wife Louisa was in Colton with his parents, and Warren Earp was out of town. Morgan died less than an hour after he was shot.
After his death, Morgan was laid out in a blue suit belonging to Doc Holliday. The Earps took his body by wagon the next day to the New Mexico and Arizona railroad station in Contention. From there, his older brother James Earp accompanied Morgan's body to Colton, California where Morgan's wife and parents were waiting. Morgan was first buried in the old city cemetery of Colton, near Mount Slover. When the cemetery was moved in 1892, Morgan's body was reburied in the Hermosa Cemetery in Colton.
While Wyatt and James were traveling to Contention with Morgan's body, Coroner Dr. D. M. Mathew organized a Coroner's Jury to conduct an inquest into Morgan's death.
Wyatt seeks personal justice
Wyatt Earp finally concluded that he could not rely on the court system for justice and decided to take matters into his own hands. He concluded that only way to deal with Virgil's shooters and Morgan's murderers was to find and kill the Cowboys he believed were responsible. He gathered a band of loyal men and deputized them. They rode out to find those responsible.
Accused go free
While Wyatt was out of town, Pete Spence's wife, Marietta Duarte, was ready to talk to the Coroner's Jury. She had been abused by her husband and may have had motivation to implicate him. She testified that the day before, her husband and Indian Charlie were on the front porch, when they saw Morgan Earp walk by. She said Pete Spence told Indian Charlie; (Florentino Cruz) "That's him; that's him," and the Indian walked ahead of Earp to get a good look at him. The night of the shooting, her husband was away. Around midnight, Indian Charlie and Frank Stilwell showed up, armed with pistols and carbines, and her husband arrived soon after with Freis (Frederick Bode) and a fifth unidentified man, all carrying rifles. They talked in low and excited tones. The next morning, her husband struck both her and her mother, and threatened to shoot Marietta if she told what she knew. Witnesses said they saw Frank Stilwell running from the scene.
Morgan Earp... came to his death in the city of Tombstone on the 18th day of March, 1882... by reason of a gunshot or pistol wound inflicted at the hands of Pete Spence, Frank Stilwell, a party by the name of Freis, and two Indian half-breeds, one whose name is Charlie, but the name of the other not ascertained.
When the prosecution called Marietta Duarte to testify at the preliminary hearing, the defense objected because her testimony was hearsay and because a spouse could not testify against her husband. The judge agreed and the charges were dismissed.
Cowboys in jail
Unknown to Wyatt, three of the Cowboys he sought were in Behan's jail. After the Coroner's Jury ended, Spence immediately turned himself in, protected in Behan's jail. On the day of the inquest, two of Behan's deputy sheriffs arrested two of the suspects for other reasons. Cochise County Deputy Sheriff William Bell brought Indian Charlie from Charleston and placed him under arrest in the Tombstone jail for shooting a man in Charleston. Separately, Cochise County Deputy Sheriff Frank Hereford arrested "John Doe" Freeze [sic]. They were all later released.
The Earp Vendetta ride killed two of the suspects in Morgan Earp's death and one suspect in Virgil Earp's shooting (and maiming):
- Frank Stilwell, named by Pete Spence's wife in Morgan's death, killed March 20, 1882
- Florentino "Indian Charlie" Cruz, also named by Spence's wife, killed March 23, 1882
- Johnny Barnes, suspected in shooting Virgil, killed March 24, 1882
In regard to the other alleged suspects in the shootings of Virgil and Morgan Earp:
- Hank Swilling's last confirmed reference was when questioned in August 1878 in regard to participation in robbing of the US Mail
- Frederick Bode's last confirmed reference was his listing in the 1880 US Census as Fred Bode age 31 born in Germany, resident of Charleston, Pima County Arizona occupation teamster
- Johnny Ringo's hours-old body was found in 1882 with one gunshot through the head, deemed a suicide by the coroner.
- Ike Clanton was killed in 1887 by Apache County lawmen one month after they had arrested his brother Phineas for their joint cattle rustling activities.
- Phineas Clanton, starting in 1887, served 17 months of a ten year jail sentence in Yuma Territorial Prison for multiple convictions of cattle rustling and died in 1906.
- Pete Spence, starting in 1883, served 18 months of a five year sentence in Yuma Territorial Prison for a manslaugther conviction, married his friend Phineas Clanton's widow in 1910 and died in 1914.
The actor Ray Boyle played Morgan Earp in fifteen episodes between 1956 and 1961 of the ABC/Desilu Productions western television series, The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp, with Hugh O'Brian as Wyatt Earp. DeForest Kelley played Morgan Earp in the 1957 film Gunfight at the O.K. Corral alongside Burt Lancaster as Wyatt Earp, and Kirk Douglas as Doc Holliday. Sam Melville played Morgan Earp and James Garner Wyatt Earp in the 1967 film Hour of the Gun. Bill Paxton played Morgan Earp in the 1993 movie Tombstone with Kurt Russell as Wyatt, Sam Elliot as Virgil, and Val Kilmer as Doc Holliday. In the 1994 film Wyatt Earp, Morgan is portrayed by actor Linden Ashby, with Kevin Costner as Wyatt, Michael Madsen as Virgil, David Andrews as James, Dennis Quaid as Doc, and Jim Caviezel as Warren Earp.
- Roberts, Gary L. (2007). Doc Holliday: The Life and Legend. New York, NY: Wiley, J. p. 544. ISBN 978-0-470-12822-0.
- "Wyatt Earp's Vendetta Posse". HistoryNet.com. January 29, 2007. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
- WGBH American Experience: Wyatt Earp, Complete Program Transcript. January 25, 2010.
- Monahan, Sherry (January 6, 2014). "The Dedicated Women Behind the Earp Men". True West magazine. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
- Barra, Allen (1998). Inventing Wyatt Earp: His Life and Many Legends. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 0-7867-0685-6.
- Linder, Douglas (2005). "The Earp Trial: A Chronology". Famous Trials. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- "The Longhorn Restaurant - Tombstone, Arizona - Great Family Dining". Bignosekates.info. Retrieved October 31, 2012.
- Dodge, Fred; Lake, Carolyn (1999). Under Cover for Wells Fargo The Unvarnished Recollections of Fred Dodge. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. p. 336. ISBN 978-0-8061-3106-1.
- Johnson, Paul Lee. The McLaurys in Tombstone, Arizona : an O. K. Corral obituary (1st ed.). Denton, Tex.: University of North Texas Press. p. 281. ISBN 978-1574414509.
- O'Neal, Bill. Encyclopedia of Western Gunfighters. ISBN 978-0-8061-2335-6.
- "Dr. George E. Goodfellow". Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- Paula Mitchell Marks (1989). And Die in the West: the Story of the O.K. Corral Gunfight. New York: Morrow. ISBN 0-671-70614-4.
- Ruffin, C. Bernard (2006). A Dictionary of Deathbed Quotations. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co. ISBN 978-0-7864-2552-5.
- "The Assassin at Last Successful in His Devilish Mission Morgan Earp Shot Down and Killed While Playing Billiards". The Tombstone Epitaph. March 20, 1882.
- "Morgan Seth Earp B. 04/24/1851 D. 03/18,1882". Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- "Contention City and It's Mills". Wyatt Earp Explorers. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- Morgan Earp at Find a Grave
- Boardman, Mark. "BBB's Blog". True West Magazine. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- DeArment, Robert K. Bat Masterson: The Man and the Legend. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 206. ISBN 978-0-8061-2221-2.
- "Wyatt Earp's Vendetta Posse". HistoryNet.com. January 29, 2007. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
- Barra, Alan (December 1998). "Who Was Wyatt Earp?". 49 (8). American Heritage Magazine.
- "Arizona weekly citizen. (Tucson, Ariz) 1880-1901, March 26, 1882, Image 2".
- "Arizona citizen. (Tucson, Pima County, A.T. [i.e. Ariz.]) 1870-1880, August 09, 1878, Image 1".
- "Ray Boyle". Internet Movie Data Base. Retrieved April 20, 2014.
- "DeForest Kelley". Internet Movie Data Base. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
- tfrizzell (25 December 1993). "Tombstone". IMDb.
- Barra, Allen (1998). Inventing Wyatt Earp: His Life and Many Legends. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 0-7867-0685-6. Barra examines the Wyatt Earp legend and analyses its place in American mythology, fiction, and film.