Victor Mature

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Victor Mature
Victor Mature - publicity.JPG
circa 1940s
Born Victor John Mature
(1913-01-29)January 29, 1913
Louisville, Kentucky, U.S.
Died August 4, 1999(1999-08-04) (aged 86)
Rancho Santa Fe, California, U.S.
Cause of death Leukemia
Occupation Actor
Years active 1939–84
Spouse(s) Frances Charles (m. 1938–40)
Martha Stephenson Kemp (m. 1941–43)
Dorothy Standford Berry (m. 1948–55)
Adrienne Joy Urwick (m. 1959–69)
Loretta G. Sebena (m. 1974–99) 1 daughter

Victor John Mature (January 29, 1913 – August 4, 1999) was an American stage, film and television actor who starred most notably in several Biblical movies during the 1950s and was known for his dark good looks and mega-watt smile. His best known film roles include One Million B.C. (1940), My Darling Clementine (1946), Kiss of Death (1947), Samson and Delilah (1949) and The Robe (1953). He also appeared in a large number of musicals opposite such stars as Rita Hayworth and Betty Grable.

Early life[edit]

Mature was born in Louisville, Kentucky. His father, Marcello Gelindo Maturi, later Marcellus George Mature, was an Italian-speaking immigrant from the town of Pinzolo, in the Italian part of the former County of Tyrol (now Trentino in Italy, at that time part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire);[1][2] he was a cutler. His mother, Clara P. (Ackley), was Kentucky-born and of Swiss heritage.[3] An older brother, Marcellus Paul Mature, died at 11 in 1918 from osteomyelitis.[4] Victor Mature attended St. Xavier High School[5] in Louisville, Kentucky, the Kentucky Military Institute, and the Spencerian Business School. He briefly sold candy and operated a restaurant before moving to California.[6]

Career[edit]

Pasadena Playhouse[edit]

Mature studied and acted at the Pasadena Community Playhouse. For three years he lived in a tent in the backyard of Mrs Willigan, a mother of a fellow student, Catherine Lewis. He was spotted by an agent for Hal Roach while acting in a production of To Quito and Back. Mature signed a seven-year contract with Roach in September 1939.[7]

Hal Roach[edit]

Roach cast Mature in a small role in The Housekeeper's Daughter, then gave him his first leading role, as a fur-clad caveman in One Million B.C. (1940). The film was highly publicized and it raised Mature's profile; Hedda Hopper called him "a sort of miniature Johnny Weismuller.[8]) Roach then put him in a swashbuckler set during the War of 1812, Captain Caution (1940).[9][10]

As Hal Roach only made a handful of movies every year, he lent out Mature's services to RKO, who used him as a leading man in the Anna Neagle-Herbert Wilcox musical, No, No Nanette. The studio were so pleased with his performance they bought an option to take over half of Mature's contract with Hal Roach, enabling them to draw on his services for two films a year over three years.[11] Wilcox wanted to reunite Mature with Neagle in Sunny[12][13] Roach announced Mature would support Victor McLaglen in Broadway Limited[14] but the film was never made.

Lady in the Dark[edit]

Mature was worried about the direction of his career at this stage, claiming "nobody was going to believe I could do anything except grunt and groan."[15] So he went to New York to try the theatre. He signed to appear in a play with the Group Theatre, Retreat to Pleasure by Irwin Shaw. Shortly afterwards it was announced he would appear instead in the musical Lady in the Dark with a book by Moss Hart and songs from Ira Gershwin and Kurt Weill; Mature played Randy Curtis, a film star boyfriend of the show's protagonist, magazine editor Liza Elliott (Gertrude Lawrence).[16] Mature later described his role:

First, this secretary came out saying 'What a beautiful hunk of man!' Then Danny Kaye topped that with a long long introductory number. Finally, I made my entrance. John Barrymore told me I was the only person who could have followed up all that.[17]

The musical debuted on Broadway in January 1941 and was a smash hit, making a star of Danny Kaye and Macdonald Carey, and causing fresh appreciation for Mature's talents. His performance was well received, Brooks Atkinson of the New York Times calling him "unobjectionably handsome and affable".[18] The description of Randy Curtis in the musical - "Beautiful Hunk of Man" - would be frequently used to describe Mature throughout his career. Mature missed some of the run due to an emergency appendectomy[19] but ended up playing the role until June.

20th Century Fox[edit]

When Mature left Lady in the Dark he announced that 20th Century Fox had bought out half of Mature's contract with Hal Roach. His first film under the contract was to be Bowery Nightingale with Alice Faye. He was going to follow this with The Shanghai Gesture for Arnold Pressburger and Josef von Sternberg at United Artists.[20]

Bowery Nightingale was not made so Fox instead assigned Mature to appear in a thriller with Faye, I Wake Up Screaming (which had a working title of Hot Spot); Faye ended up being replaced with Betty Grable. Filming of The Shanghai Gesture was postponed to enable Mature to finish Screaming, which was a popular success.[21] The Shanghai Gesture also proved popular.

Mature was announced for a Fox musical, Highway to Hell, which ended up being postponed; instead he replaced John Payne in a Betty Grable musical, Song of the Islands (Mature was replaced in turn on Highway by Cesar Romero).[22][23]

Mature was paid $450 a week under his contract with Roach for Shanghai Gesture but Roach received $3750 a week for Mature's services. Roach received $22,000 for Mature in Song of the Islands but Mature was paid $4,000. He asked for a pay increase of $1,250 a week.[24]

RKO wanted Mature for Passage to Bordeaux and Josef Von Sternberg wanted him for Lady Paname.[25] Instead Mature made another musical for Fox, supporting Rita Hayworth in My Gal Sal (a role originally meant for Don Ameche).

In November 1941 Fox bought out the four years remaining on Mature's contract with Hal Roach for $80,000. (This included loan out provisions to RKO.) Roach had not wanted to sell but he was in financial difficulties and his backers insisted. Mature would be paid $1,500 a week. He had also had six commitments with RKO. "The studio [Fox] will have to make a success of me," said Mature.[26]

"I wasn't pampered the way a Tyrone Power was," Mature recalled later of his time at Fox. "Zanuck would say, 'If you're not careful, I'll give you Mature for your next picture'."[27]

Fox talked of reuniting Hayworth and Mature in a Russian set war film Ski Patrol.[28] Instead Mature was lent to RKO for a musical with Lucille Ball, Seven Days' Leave. This was followed by Footlight Serenade with Grable and Payne. All these films were very popular at the box office.

World War II[edit]

In July 1942, Mature attempted to enlist in the U.S. Navy, but was rejected for color blindness. He enlisted in the U.S. Coast Guard after taking a different eye test the same day. He was assigned to the USCGC Storis, which was doing Greenland Patrol work. This meant that when Paramount filmed Lady in the Dark, Mature was unable to reprise his stage role.[29]

After 14 months aboard the Storis, Mature was promoted to the rank of chief boatswain's mate.

In 1944, he did a series of War Bond tours and acted in morale shows. He assisted Coast Guard recruiting efforts by being a featured player in the musical revue Tars and Spars, which opened in Miami, Florida, in April 1944 and toured the United States for the next year. In May 1945, Mature was reassigned to the Coast Guard manned troop transport USS Admiral H. T. Mayo, which was involved in transferring troops to the Pacific Theater. Mature was honorably discharged from the Coast Guard in November 1945 and he resumed his acting career.[6]

Resumption of career[edit]

After the war, Mature was cast by John Ford in My Darling Clementine, playing Doc Holliday opposite Henry Fonda's Wyatt Earp. The film was produced by 20th Century Fox whose head of production Darryl F. Zanuck was delighted that Ford wanted to use Mature, telling the director that:

Personally, I think the guy has been one of the most under-rated performers in Hollywood. The public is crazy about him and strangely enough every picture that he has been in has been a big box-office hit. Yet the Romanoff round table has refused to take him seriously as an actor. A part like Doc Holiday will be sensational for him and I agree with you that the peculiar traits of his personality are ideal for a characterisation such as this.[30]

Zanuck promised Mature he would keep him away from musicals and stuck to that, casting him in the period thriller Moss Rose; Mature received a $50,000 bonus after shooting completed.[31] His next film was the film noir, Kiss of Death, which had been developed specifically as a vehicle for him.[32] The movie, shot mostly on location in New York, was not a particularly large hit but was popular, earned Mature some of his best reviews and turned Richard Widmark into a star.

Still at Fox, Mature made his first Western, Fury at Furnace Creek, replacing John Payne.[33] That film co-starred Colleen Gray who had been in Kiss of Death and Fox announced plans to team them for a third time in a remake of Seventh Heaven.[34] However the film was not made. Instead he co-starred with Richard Conte in a thriller directed by Robert Siodmak, Cry of the City.

Mature still had an obligation to make a movie at RKO which dated from before the war. He was announced for Battleground and Mr Whiskers before eventually being cast in a serious drama about football, Interference, which became Easy Living, with Lucille Ball.[35]

Samson and Delilah[edit]

Mature's career received a massive lift when borrowed by Cecil B. DeMille at Paramount to play the lead in Samson and Delilah. De Mille described the role as "a combination Tarzan, Robin Hood, and Superman."[36] Mature was reluctant to take the role at first out of fear of risking his new post-war reputation as a serious actor but he changed his mind.[37]

While Samson was in post production, Paramount kept Mature on for a second film, co-starring with Betty Hutton in Red, Hot and Blue, his first musical in a number of years.[38] It was not particularly popular and Easy Living was a flop but Samson and Delilah proved to be a massive hit.

He returned to Fox and was put in a popular musical with Betty Grable, Wabash Avenue.

RKO[edit]

In late 1949 Mature was meant to fulfill another commitment at RKO, Alias Mike Fury (the new title for Mr Whiskers). Mature refused to make the movie and was put on suspension by Fox.[39] The script was rewritten and Mature ended up making the film, which was retitled Gambling House.[40]

Back at Fox he supported Ann Sheridan in a comedy, Stella.[41]

In September 1950 he was making a film in Montana about fire fighters, Wild Winds, for Fox with John Lund. Mature injured himself in a motorcycle accident .[42][43] After Lund was stung by a wasp and location was snowed in, it was decided to abandon the film.[44] (It was later filmed with new stars as Red Skies of Montana.)

Mature took a number of months off, before returning to filmmaking with The Las Vegas Story, with Jane Russell at RKO.[45] RKO released - but did not produce - Mature's next film, Androcles and the Lion, an adaptation of the play by George Bernard Shaw with Mature as a Roman centurion.[46] Like Las Vegas Story it was a box office failure.

Far more popular was a musical he made at MGM, Million Dollar Mermaid with Esther Williams, a biopic of Annette Kellermann, playing Kellermann's promoter husband.[47] According to William's autobiography, she and Mature had a romantic relationship.[48]

Back at Fox, Mature was meant to be reteamed with Betty Grable in a musical, The Farmer Takes a Wife, but the studio instead reassigned him to a comedy with Patricia Neal, Something for the Birds.[49]

Back at RKO, Mature was meant to star in Split Second but instead was reteamed with Jean Simmons in the romantic drama Affair with a Stranger.[50] RKO still wanted him for Split Second but instead Fox put him in a Korean War film, The Glory Brigade.

He followed this with a movie at Universal, The Veils of Bagdad. The release of this was held up until after that of Mature's next film, The Robe.

The Robe[edit]

The Robe had been in development in Hollywood for over a decade. In December 1952 Mature signed to play Demetrius in two movies, The Robe and a sequel, Demetrius and the Gladiator.[51] The films were shot consecutively.[52]

The Robe, the first CinemaScope movie, was an enormous success, one of the most popular movies of all time.[53] Veils of Bagdad was not as popular, but Demetrius and the Gladiator was another hit.

Back at RKO, Mature made Dangerous Mission for producer Irwin Allen. He travelled to Holland in September 1953 to support Clarke Gable and Lana Turner in a World War Two film made at MGM, Betrayed, another popular success.[54]

Fox put Mature into another Ancient history spectacle, The Egyptian. He was originally meant to co-star with Marlon Brando and Kirk Douglas.[55] Mature renewed his contract with Fox for another year, his 12th at that studio.[56][57] The Egyptian ended up starring Mature with Edmund Purdom and Michael Wilding, plus Bella Darvi; it was a box office disappointment.

Mature went over to Universal to play the title role in Chief Crazy Horse, in exchange for a fee and a percentage of the profits.[58]

End of contract with Fox[edit]

Fox wanted Mature to support Tyrone Power and Susan Hayward in Untamed (1955) but Mature refused, claiming he had worked for two years and wanted a vacation. The studio replaced him with Richard Egan and put him under what they called a "friendly" suspension.[59]

In 1954, Mature signed a two-picture deal with Columbia Pictures, giving him script and co-star approval, at $200,000 a film.[60] The first movie he made under this contract was The Last Frontier (1955).

Before he started making that, however, he was called back to Fox to appear in the heist thriller, Violent Saturday.[61] This was the last movie he made at Fox.

United Artists and Warwick Productions[edit]

In March 1955, while making Last Frontier, Mature announced he had also signed a contract with United Artists for them to finance and distribute six films over five years for Mature's own company.[62]

In May 1955 Mature signed a two-picture contract with Warwick Productions. Warwick was an English company who had success making films aimed at the international market with American stars; they released their films in the USA through Columbia Pictures. The first of Mature's films for Warwick was to be Zarak.[63] He ended up making Safari beforehand, a tale of the Mau Mau with location filming in Kenya. Both Safari and Zarak were successful.[64]

Sam Goldwyn Jr hired him to make The Sharkhunters, released through United Artists and shot on location in Cuba.[65] He was back with Warwick for Interpol, reteaming him with his Zarak co-star, Anita Ekberg, filmed throughout Europe. In London he made The Long Haul, a truck driving drama with Diana Dors, the second film under his deal with Columbia.

Mature finally made a movie for his own production company, Romina Productions, in conjunction with United Artists and Batjac Productions: China Doll, directed by Frank Borzage, with whom Mature co-produced. Mature and Borzage announced they would also make The Incorrigibles and Vaults of Heaven.[66]

Mature signed to make two more films with Warwick Productions, No Time to Die and The Man Inside.[67] He ended up only making the first, a World War Two film with Libyan locations; Jack Palance took his role in The Man Inside.

Mature made another movie for Romina and Batjac, a Western, Escort West. It was released by United Artists, who also distributed Timbuktu, a French foreign legion adventure tale that Mature made for producer Edward Small.

Mature was reunited with producer Irwin Allen for The Big Circus, shot in early 1959.[68] Mature then made his second film for Warwick under his two-picture contract with them, The Bandit of Zhobe. He followed this with an Italian peplum, Hannibal, with Mature in the title role. It was shot in Italy, as was The Tartars with Orson Welles. Mature then retired.[27]

"It wasn't fun anymore," said Mature. "I was ok financially so I thought what the hell - I'll become a professional loafer."[69]

Retirement[edit]

After five years of retirement, he was lured back into acting by the opportunity to parody himself in After the Fox (1966), co-written by Neil Simon. Mature played "Tony Powell", an aging American actor who is living off his reputation from his earlier body of work. In a similar vein in 1968 he played a giant, The Big Victor, in Head, a potpourri movie starring The Monkees. The character poked fun at both his screen image and, reportedly, RCA Victor who distributed Colgems Records, the Monkees's label. Mature enjoyed the script while admitting it made no sense to him, saying "All I know is it makes me laugh."

Mature was famously self-deprecatory about his acting skills. Once, after being rejected for membership in a country club because he was an actor, he cracked, "I'm not an actor — and I've got sixty-four films to prove it!"[70][71] He was quoted in 1968 on his acting career: "Actually, I am a golfer. That is my real occupation. I never was an actor. Ask anybody, particularly the critics."[72]

He came out of retirement again in 1971 to star in Every Little Crook and Nanny and again in 1976 along with many other former Hollywood stars in Won Ton Ton, the Dog Who Saved Hollywood. His last feature film appearance was a cameo as a millionaire in Firepower in 1979, while his final acting role was that of Samson's father Manoah in the TV movie Samson and Delilah in 1984.

I was never that crazy about acting. I had a compulsion to earn money, not to act. So I worked as an actor until I could afford to retire. I wanted to quit while I could still enjoy life... I like to loaf. Everyone told me I would go crazy or die if I quit working. Yeah? Well what a lovely way to die.[73]

In 1980 he said he was "pretty proud of about 50% of my motion pictures. Demetrius and the Gladiators wasn't bad. The Robe and Samson and Delilah weren't bad. I made 72 of them and I made close to $18 million. So what the hell."[74] He said in the same interview his favourite actors were Al Pacino, Dustin Hoffman and especially Burt Reynolds.[74]

George Clooney played a caricature of Victor Mature in the 2016 Coen brothers movie "Hail Caesar!"

Personal life[edit]

Mature was married five times.[27]

  • Frances Charles - annulled
  • Martha Stephenson Kemp, the widow of bandleader Hal Kemp (m 1941 - 1943)[75]
  • Dorothy Standford Berry (1948-1955)[76]
  • Adriene Urwick (m 1959)
  • Loretta Sebena (1974 until his death) - he had his only child, daughter Victoria, with her.

He had also been engaged to Rita Hayworth (before she married Orson Welles) and Anne Shirley.[77]

Death[edit]

Mature died of leukemia in 1999 at his Rancho Santa Fe, California home, at the age of 86. He was buried in the family plot, marked by a replica of the Angel of Grief, at St. Michael's Cemetery in his hometown of Louisville.

For his contribution to the motion picture industry, Mature has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame located at 6780 Hollywood Boulevard.

Critical appraisal[edit]

David Thomson wrote a critical appraisal of Mature in his book, The New Biographical Dictionary of Film:

Mature is an uninhabited creature of the naive. Simple, crude and heady - like ketchup or treacle - he is a diet scorned by the knowing, but obsessive if succumbed to in error. It is too easy to dismiss Mature, for he surpasses badness. He is a strong man in a land of hundred pound weaklings, an incredible concoction of beef steak, husky voice and brilliantine - a barely concealed sexual advertisement for soiled goods. Remarkably, he is as much himself in the cheerfully meretricious and the pretentiously serious. Such a career has no more pattern than a large ham; it slices consistently forever. The more lurid or distasteful the art the better Mature comes across.[78]

Selected filmography[edit]

Feature films
Year Title Role Company Notes
1939 The Housekeeper's Daughter Lefty Hal Roach Studios Film debut
1940 One Million B.C. Tumak Hal Roach Studios Alternative title: Cave Man
1940 Captain Caution Dan Marvin Hal Roach Studios
1940 No, No, Nanette William Trainor RKO Studios First screen musical
1941 I Wake Up Screaming Frankie Christopher (Botticelli) 20th Century Fox Alternative title: Hot Spot
1941 Shanghai Gesture, TheThe Shanghai Gesture Doctor Omar United Artists
1942 My Gal Sal Paul Dresser 20th Century Fox
1942 Seven Days' Leave Johnny Grey RKO
1942 Song of the Islands 20th Century Fox
1942 Footlight Serenade 20th Century Fox
1943 Show Business at War Himself Short subject
1946 My Darling Clementine Doc Holliday 20th Century Fox First Western; directed by John Ford
1947 Moss Rose Michael Drego 20th Century Fox
1947 Kiss of Death Nick Bianco 20th Century Fox First film noir
1948 Cry of the City Lt. Candella 20th Century Fox
1948 Fury at Furnace Creek Cash Blackwell/Tex Cameron 20th Century Fox Western
1949 Red, Hot and Blue Danny James Paramount
1949 Easy Living Pete Wilson RKO
1949 Samson and Delilah Samson Paramount
1950 Wabash Avenue Andy Clark 20th Century Fox
1950 Stella Jeff DeMarco
1950 Gambling House Marc Fury RKO
1952 Las Vegas Story, TheThe Las Vegas Story Lt. Dave Andrews RKO
1952 Something for the Birds Steve Bennett 20th Century Fox
1952 Million Dollar Mermaid James Sullivan MGM
1952 Androcles and the Lion Captain RKO
1953 The Glory Brigade Lt. Sam Pryor
1953 Affair with a Stranger Bill Blakeley RKO
1953 Robe, TheThe Robe Demetrius 20th Century Fox First movie in CinemaScope
1954 The Veils of Bagdad Antar Universal
1954 Dangerous Mission Matt Hallett RKO Alternative title: Rangers of the North
1954 Demetrius and the Gladiators Demetrius 20th Century Fox Sequel to The Robe
1954 Egyptian, TheThe Egyptian Horemheb 20th Century Fox
1954 Betrayed "The Scarf" MGM First movie at MGM
1955 Chief Crazy Horse Chief Crazy Horse Universal
1955 The Last Frontier Jed Cooper
1955 Violent Saturday Shelley Martin 20th Century Fox
1956 Zarak Zarak Khan Warwick Films First film for Warwick Films
1956 Safari Ken Duffield Warwick Films
1956 The Sharkfighters Lt. Commander Ben Staves United Artists
1957 Interpol Charles Sturgis Warwick Films Alternative title: Pickup Alley
1957 Long Haul, TheThe Long Haul Harry Miller
1958 China Doll Captain Cliff Brandon Made for Romina Productions, Mature's own company
1958 No Time to Die Sgt. David H. Thatcher Alternative title: Tank Force Warwick Films
1958 Escort West Ben Lassiter Made for Romina Productions, Mature's own company
1959 Big Circus, TheThe Big Circus Henry Jasper "Hank" Whirling Allied Artists
1959 Timbuktu Mike Conway
1959 Hannibal Hannibal Alternative title: Annibale
1959 The Bandit of Zhobe Kasim Khan Last movie for Warwick Films
1962 The Tartars Oleg MGM
1966 After the Fox Tony Powell
1968 Head The Big Victor
1972 Every Little Crook and Nanny Carmine Ganucci MGM
1976 Won Ton Ton, the Dog Who Saved Hollywood Nick Paramount cameo
1979 Firepower Harold Everett cameo at film's conclusion
Television
Year Title Role Notes
1977 M*A*S*H Dr. John "Doc" Holliday TV series, episode: "Movie Tonight"
Uncredited
1984 Samson and Delilah Manoah Television movie

Theatre credits[edit]

Radio appearances[edit]

Year Program Episode/source
1946 Lux Radio Theatre Coney Island[84]
1949 Escape The Fortune Of Vargas
1953 Suspense Joaquin Murietta, California Outlaw [85]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1920 U.S. Census, Louisville Ward 4, Jefferson, Kentucky; Roll: T625_578; Page: 1B; Enumeration District: 98; Image: 1039
  2. ^ World War I Draft Registration, Jefferson County, Kentucky; Roll: 1653508; Draft Board: 3
  3. ^ 1900 U.S. Census, Louisville Ward 4, Jefferson, Kentucky; Roll: T623 529; Page: 10A
  4. ^ Kentucky Birth, Marriage and Death Records (1852-1910). Microfilm rolls #994027-994058. Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives, Frankfort, Kentucky
  5. ^ Applegate, Kris (2014). Legendary Locals of Louisville, Kentucky. United States: Arcadia Publishing. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-4671-0138-7. 
  6. ^ a b Wise, James E., Jr. and Anne Collier Rehill. Stars in Blue. Naval Institute Press, 1997, p. 201. ISBN 1-55750-937-9.
  7. ^ Tentin' Tonight, As Usual, Vic Will Be a Star: Rebellious Young Man Quits Business to Starve, but Wins The Washington Post (1923-1954) [Washington, D.C] 04 Sep 1939: 12
  8. ^ Hedda Hopper's HOLLYWOOD Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 13 Nov 1939: 16.
  9. ^ Town Called Hollywood Scheuer, Philip K. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 14 June 1942: C3.
  10. ^ THIRD CHOICE FIRST: Victor Mature was broke. He stood at the fork of three paths--all dark. The reason you are reading about him is that he chose the third Hough, Donald. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 02 Feb 1941: I7.
  11. ^ NEWS OF THE SCREEN: 'Replenish the Earth,' Novel, Is Purchased by Fox-- 'East of the River' Arrives at the Globe Of Local Origin By DOUGLAS W. CHURCHILL Special to THE NEW YORK TIMES.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 26 Oct 1940: 18.
  12. ^ Stardom for Mitchell as College Professor: Gwenn Also to 'Teach' Sylvia Sidney Signed Mature May Do 'Sunny Withers Subject Named Butler Plans Race Yarn Scheuer, Philip K. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 20 Sep 1940: A12.
  13. ^ TALES FROM HOLLYWOOD By DOUGLAS W. CHURCHILL. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 29 June 1941: X3.
  14. ^ 22 FILMS PLANNED BY UNITED ARTISTS New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 14 May 1940: 31.
  15. ^ CRITIC AT LARGE: MATURE STILL HAS A HUNK OF A TIME Champlin, Charles. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 29 Mar 1984: m1
  16. ^ MATURE WILL ACT IN HART MUSICAL: His Contract to Act Opposite Gertrude Lawrence Leads to Dispute With Group 'SUZANNA' TO PLAY SUNDAY Ten Shows Will Begin New Policy Weak Later--Additional Theatre News Engaged for Dennis King Show Maeterlinck Play Opens Dec. 15 New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 13 Nov 1940: 28.
  17. ^ Victor Mature Hits Stride Thomas, Kevin. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 07 Dec 1966: D15.
  18. ^ THE PLAY IN REVIEW: Gertrude Lawrence Appears in Moss Hart's Musical Drama, 'Lady in the Dark,' With a Score by Kurt Weill and Lyrics by Ira Gershwin By BROOKS ATKINSON. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 24 Jan 1941: 14.
  19. ^ ALDRICH AND MYERS BUY PLAY BY ACTOR: Allen Nourse's 'John Burgess, Berlin' Is Purchased for Production in Fall BARBARA KENT GETS ROLE Joins Cast of 'The Happiest Days' -- 'Theatre' Undergoing Changes in Personnel New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 28 Apr 1941: 11.
  20. ^ Victor Mature Cast in Leading Roles for Two Films -- 'Tight Shoes' Opening Tonight at Rialto By DOUGLAS W. CHURCHILLBy Telephone to THE NEW YORK TIMES.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 18 June 1941: 25.
  21. ^ SCREEN NEWS HERE AND IN HOLLYWOOD: Gene Tierney to Play Role of Poppy in 'Shanghai Gesture' for United Artists THE GET-AWAY' ARRIVES Melodrama Opens Today at Rialto -- Fred MacMurray to Have Lead in New Comedy By DOUGLAS W. CHURCHILLBy Telephone to THE NEW YORK TIMES.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 16 July 1941: 14.
  22. ^ Subjects Once Banned May Become Pictures: 'Gesture' Generates Idea Stewart to Adapt Shaw Mature Going Tropical Berlin Pens Film Tunes Dorsey Singers to Sign Schallert, Edwin. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 16 Oct 1941: 16.
  23. ^ Vallance, Tom (1999-08-11). "Obituary: Victor Mature". independent.co.uk. Retrieved 20 March 2010. 
  24. ^ DISCORD IN HOLLYWOOD: Being a Resume of Why Three Stars Are Unhappy -- Shaking Out the Moth Balls By DOUGLAS W. CHURCHILL. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 26 Oct 1941: X5.
  25. ^ SCREEN NEWS HERE AND IN HOLLYWOOD: Victor Mature to Star in New Film After Adjustment of Salary by Hal Roach R.A.F. PICTURE TO ARRIVE ' Target for Tonight,' Opening at Globe Friday, Shows Air Raids Over Germany By DOUGLAS W. CHURCHILLBy Telephone to THE NEW YORK TIMES.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 14 Oct 1941: 29.
  26. ^ YANKEE DOODLE DANDY' NEARS THE CAMERAS: Film About George M. Cohan Will Boost The Democratic Way -- A Star Is Sold By THOMAS BRADY. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 23 Nov 1941: X5.
  27. ^ a b c Victor Mature--Fresh Out of Rancho Santa Fe: Fresh Out of Rancho Santa Fe Fresh Out of Rancho Santa Fe ALJEAN HARMETZ. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 12 Dec 1971: z1.
  28. ^ DRAMA: Rita Hayworth, Mature Reunion Much Sought Kaye's Sylvia Scripter Tone's Bride Makes Test Cotten in 'Casablanca' John Beal Faces Camera Carlson in 'White Cargo' Schallert, Edwin. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 18 May 1942: 14.
  29. ^ SCREEN NEWS HERE AND IN HOLLYWOOD: Rosemary Lane to Return to Films in Feminine Lead in Republic's 'Chatterbox' THREE PICTURES TO OPEN ' Casablanca' Due at Hollywood -- 'White Cargo' at Capitol, 'Ravaged Earth' at Gaiety By Telephone to THE NEW YORK TIMES.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 26 Nov 1942: 41
  30. ^ Memo from Darryl F. Zanuck to John Ford dated 8 January 1946, Rudy Behlmer, ed. Memo from Darryl F. Zanuck, Grove Press, 1993 p102
  31. ^ TO VICTOR BELONG THE SPOILS: TO VICTOR BELONG THE SPOILS Chicago Daily Tribune (1923-1963) [Chicago, Ill] 20 Apr 1947: g13.
  32. ^ MATURE WILL STAR IN 'KISS OF DEATH': Fox Buys Story of Convict by Lawrence Blaine for Actor --Hathaway to Direct Special to THE NEW YORK TIMES.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 12 Nov 1946: 53.
  33. ^ THE NEWS OF THE SCREEN By THOMAS F. BRADYSpecial to THE NEW YORK TIMES.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 30 Aug 1947: 9.
  34. ^ DRAMA AND FILM: March 'Saxon' Lured; 'Seventh Heaven' Astir Schallert, Edwin. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 06 Nov 1947: A3
  35. ^ TWO MOVIE LEADS TO VICTOR MATURE: He Will Co-Star With Lamarr in 'Samson and Delilah,' Be Seen in 'Interference' By THOMAS F. BRADYSpecial to THE NEW YORK TIMES.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 12 June 1948: 9.
  36. ^ HAIRCUT BY DE MILLE: Biblical Strong Man Meets Tough Foe in Director By PHIL KOURYHOLLYWOOD.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 20 June 1948: X3.
  37. ^ HOLLYWOOD DOSSIER: Biblical Drama With DeMille Flourishes -- Musical Documentary -- Other Items By THOMAS F. BRADYHOLLYWOOD.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 31 Oct 1948: X5.
  38. ^ Betty Hutton, Victor Mature For New Film By Frank Daugherty. The Christian Science Monitor (1908-Current file) [Boston, Mass] 28 Jan 1949: 5.
  39. ^ Thomas Pryor, 'STUDIO SUSPENSION FOR VICTOR MATURE: FOX STAR REFUSES TO PLAY ROLE IN RKO FILM, 'MIKE FURY,' ON LOAN-OUT COMMITMENT', New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 14 Dec 1949: 44.
  40. ^ MATURE RETURNED TO PAYROLL AT FOX: Actor Had Been Suspended for Refusing Role in RKO Deal --Now Agrees to Part Of Local Origin By THOMAS F. BRADY Special to THE NEW YORK TIMES.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 04 Jan 1950: 31
  41. ^ HAWKS, LASKER BUY RIGHTS TO 'BIG SKY': Producing Firm Acquires A. B. Guthrie Novel for Filming in the Late Summer Ross Acquires "Rendezvous" By THOMAS F. BRADY Special to THE NEW YORK TIMES.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 13 Mar 1950: 15.
  42. ^ Mature Injured in 'Cycle Crash' New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 06 Sep 1950: 47
  43. ^ Marbles New Gimmick on Film; Pine-Thomas to Put Out 'Big Fire' Scheuer, Philip K. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 08 Sep 1950: B11
  44. ^ Wasp, Snow Help Cancel Picture Work Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 11 Sep 1950: 26
  45. ^ Cowan Seeking Unique Musical Cast; New Norse Find Due in Hollywood Schallert, Edwin. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 15 Dec 1950: 31.
  46. ^ METRO PURCHASES TWO NEW STORIES: 'Death at Attention,' Recently Published Serial, and 'Oh Promise Me' Acquired By THOMAS F. BRADY Special to THE NEW YORK TIMES.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 12 June 1951: 35.
  47. ^ Annette Kellerman's All for Esther Now: Original One-Piece Bathing Suit Girl Recalls 'Indecent Exposure' Furor Scheuer, Philip K. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 23 Mar 1952: D3.
  48. ^ The Million Dollar Mermaid: An Autobiography, Esther Williams, Simon & Schuster, 1999 pgs. 212-213 ISBN 0-15-601135-2
  49. ^ FILM MEN TO FIGHT 2 G. O. P. CANDIDATES: Decrying 'Unfair' Attacks, Anti-Communists Will Oppose Their Congressional Bids By THOMAS M. PRYORSpecial to THE NEW YORK TIMES.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 26 Apr 1952: 18.
  50. ^ Victor Mature Stars Opposite Simmons; Wald Seeks New Hayward Deal Schallert, Edwin. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 10 July 1952: A11.
  51. ^ Victor Mature to Do 'Story of Demetrius' Hopper, Hedda. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 10 Jan 1953: 14.
  52. ^ RANDOM OBSERVATIONS ON PICTURES AND PEOPLE By HOWARD THOMPSON. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 20 Sep 1953: X5.
  53. ^ CinemaScope Supporters Confident: Hollywood Letter By Richard Dyer MacCann. The Christian Science Monitor (1908-Current file) [Boston, Mass] 24 Nov 1953: 11.
  54. ^ Drama: Victor Mature Likely for Europe; Westerns Claiming Philip Carey Schallert, Edwin. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 18 Sep 1953: 20.
  55. ^ MOVIE PRODUCERS 'LURED' OVERSEAS: Foreign 'Pressures,' Including Subsidies, Basis for Trend, Actors' Spokesman Says By THOMAS M. PRYORSpecial to THE NEW YORK TIMES.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 27 Nov 1953: 22.
  56. ^ Drama: Gann Book About Hong Kong Likely for Wayne; Gomez to Play Skipper Schallert, Edwin. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 01 Jan 1954: B7.
  57. ^ Mature Renews Pact 12th Time Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 17 Jan 1954: E4.
  58. ^ SUBSIDIES TO ITALY ON FILMS DECRIED: Talks on New Agreement Are Seeking End to the Practice, Held 'Dangerous' Precedent By THOMAS M. PRYORSpecial to The New York Times.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 22 May 1954: 8.
  59. ^ M-G-M TO MAKE 27 FILMS IN YEAR: 8 Movies Will Start Within 60 Days -- Three Broadway Plays on Studio Schedule Special to The New York Times.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 04 Aug 1954: 17.
  60. ^ Hedda Hopper, 'Victor Mature Signs Deal for 2 Films at $200,000 Each' Chicago Daily Tribune (1923-1963) [Chicago, Ill] 06 Nov 1954: 16.
  61. ^ SPIEGEL ACQUIRES BOOK FILM RIGHTS: Producer Hopes to Get John Ford to Direct 'The Bridge Over the River Kwai' By THOMAS M. PRYORSpecial to The New York Times.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 20 Nov 1954: 10
  62. ^ FILM LADIES' DAY: THREE STARS CAST: Elizabeth Taylor, Rosalind Russell and Eleanor Holm Signed for New Movies By THOMAS M. PRYORSpecial to The New York Times.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 18 Mar 1955: 33.
  63. ^ TV PACT IS SIGNED BY SCREEN GUILD: Agreement by Du Mont and Union Includes Use of New Video Filming Method By THOMAS M. PRYORSpecial to The New York Times.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 09 May 1955: 28.
  64. ^ I Wasn't Meant To Be A Hero MATURE, VICTOR. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 16 Dec 1956: N10.
  65. ^ 'SHARKFIGHTERS' IN THE CARIBBEAN: Sam Goldwyn Jr. Films Drama on Location In and Off Cuba The Stars Seafarers The Story By GRADY JOHNSON. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 01 Apr 1956: 99.
  66. ^ Mature Arranges Pact With Borzage; Curtis Plans Matador Cinema Schallert, Edwin. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 25 Sep 1957: C13.
  67. ^ STUDIO SUSPENDS KIM NOVAK PACT: Columbia Acts After She Refuses Paramount Role-- Debbie Reynolds to Star Nature Has Its Way Special to The New York Times.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 31 Aug 1957: 18.
  68. ^ HOLLYWOOD ARENA: 'Big Circus' Troupe Works to Equal Big Top's Authenticity and Color By THOMAS M. PRYORHOLLYWOOD.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 11 Jan 1959: X7.
  69. ^ Whatever Happened to Lady Joan? Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 27 June 1978: f6.
  70. ^ Department of Homeland Security, United States Coast Guard History
  71. ^ Kevin Thomas, 'Victor Mature Hits Stride', Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 07 Dec 1966: D15.
  72. ^ Shipman, David. The Great Movie Stars: The International Years. St. Martin's Press, 1972, p. 330
  73. ^ Scott Vernon, 'Victor Mature's back', Chicago Tribune (1963-Current file) [Chicago, Ill] 21 Nov 1971: t20.
  74. ^ a b No Lions to Slay at Rancho Santa Fe Tedrick, Dan. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 29 May 1980: sd_a6
  75. ^ "VICTOR MATURE DIVORCED". The Sydney Morning Herald (32,802). New South Wales, Australia. 12 February 1943. p. 6. Retrieved 8 July 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  76. ^ 'Victor Mature's Wife Wins Divorce, $500,000: Judge Grants Decree After Hearing Her Testify He Often Flew Into Rages in Public', Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 09 Nov 1955: A1.
  77. ^ 'Victor Mature Takes 4th Wife at Tijuana', Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 13 Dec 1959: A.
  78. ^ David Thomson, The New Biographical Dictionary of Film, Little Brown 2002 p 576
  79. ^ SHAW BECOMES PRANKISH IN SATIRE AT PLAYHOUSE Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 09 Aug 1938: 9.
  80. ^ COMINGS AND GOINGS LATEST STUDIO AND THEATER GOSSIP THE DRAMA WORLD: NEW PLAY TAKES LOOK BEHIND HOTEL SCENE von Blon, Katherine T. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 02 Oct 1938: C2.
  81. ^ 'PARADISE PLANTATION' POIGNANT FOOTLIGHT PIECE KATHERINET VON BLON. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 26 Nov 1938: A7.
  82. ^ LITTLE THEATERS Katherine Von Blon. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 16 Apr 1939: C4.
  83. ^ Production details Lady in the Dark at IBDB
  84. ^ "Lux Star". Harrisburg Telegraph. September 28, 1946. p. 19. Retrieved October 5, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  85. ^ Kirby, Walter (February 15, 1953). "Better Radio Programs for the Week". The Decatur Daily Review. p. 42. Retrieved June 21, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read

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