Names for India

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The geographic region containing the Indian subcontinent


"Bharat", the name for India in several Indian languages, is variously said to be derived from the name of Dushyanta's son Bharata or Rishabha's son Bharata.[1] At first the name Bharata referred only the western part of the Gangetic Valley in North India, but was later more broadly applied to the Indian subcontinent and the region of Greater India, as was the name India. Today it refers to the contemporary Republic of India located therein. The name India is originally derived from the name of the river Sindhu (Indus River) and has been in use in Greek since Herodotus (4th century BCE).[2][better source needed] The term appeared in Old English as early the 9th century and reemerged in Modern English in the 17th century.

The Republic of India has two principal short names in both official and popular English usage, each of which is historically significant, India and Bharat. The first article of the Constitution of India states that "India, that is Bharat, shall be a union of states," implicitly codifying India and Bharat as equally official short names for the Republic of India. A third name, Hindustan as an alternative name for the region comprising most of the modern nations of the subcontinent when Indians speak among themselves. The usage of Bharat, Hindustan or India is dependent on the context and language of conversation.

Although the Aryavarta was eventually accepted as a term for all of India, previously it was only a name of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. According to Manusmṛti[3] North India (i.e., India north of the Vindhyas) is also known as Āryāvarta (Sanskrit: आर्यावर्त, abode of the Vedic people).[4]

India[edit]

The English term is from Greek Ἰνδία (Hindia), via Latin transliteration India.[5] Greek did not have a separate letter for the H sound in 500 BCE and used a sign of aspiration above the first vowel, which was eventually lost in Latin transliteration.[6][7]

The name derives from Sanskrit Sindhu, which was the name of the Indus River as well as the country at the lower Indus basin (modern Sindh, in Pakistan).[8] Darius I conquered Sindh in about 516 BCE, upon which the Persian equivalent Hinduš was used for both the river and the country.[9][10] Skylax of Karyanda who explored Sindh for the Persian emperor probably took over the Persian name and passed it into Greek.[11] The terms Hindos (Ἰνδός) for the Indus river as well as "an Indian", and the plurals Hindoi (Ἰνδοί) and Hinduan (Ἰνδῶν) for Indians are found in Herodotus's Geography.[12] Herodotus also generalised the term "Indian" from the people of Sindh, to all the people living to the east of Persia, even though he had no knowledge of the geography of the land.[13]

By the time of Alexander, Indía in Koine Greek denoted the region beyond the Indus. Alexander's companions were aware of at least North India up to the Ganges delta ("Gangaridai"). Later, Megasthenes included in "India" the southern peninsula as well.[14]

Latin India is used by Lucian (2nd century AD).

The name India was known in Old English language and was used in King Alfred's translation of Paulus Orosius. In Middle English, the name was, under French influence, replaced by Ynde or Inde, which entered Early Modern English as Indie. The name India then came back to English usage from the 17th century onwards, and may be due to the influence of Latin, or Spanish or Portuguese.

Sanskrit indu "drop (of Soma)", also a term for the Moon, is unrelated, but has sometimes been erroneously connected.

Āryāvarta[edit]

Āryāvarta (Sanskrit: आर्यावर्त, abode of Aryans) is a name for North India, where the culture of the Indo-Aryans was based, in classical Sanskrit literature. Manu Smriti (2.22) gives the name to "the tract between the Himalaya and the Vindhya ranges, from the Eastern (Bay of Bengal) to the Western Sea (Arabian Sea)".[15][16]

Bhārata[edit]

Bhārata was selected as the name of the country of India in 1950.[17]

The name Bhārata or Bhārata-varṣa (Bharata-varsha) is said to be derived from the name of either Dushyanta's son Bharata or Rishabha's son Bharata.[1] Several Puranas state that it is derived from the name of Bharata, the son of Rishabha. However, some Puranic passages state that it is derived from Bharata, which was another name for Rishabha's ancestor Manu. Some other Puranic passages refer to the Bharata people, who are described as the descendants of Dushyanta's son Bharata in the Mahabharata.[18]

The earliest recorded use of Bhāratavarṣa in a geographical sense is in the Hathigumpha inscription of King Kharavela (first century BCE), where it applies only to a restrained area of northern India, namely the part of the Gangetic Valley west of Magadha.[19][20] In the Sanskrit epic, the Mahabharata (200 BCE to 300 CE), a larger region of North India is encompassed by the term, but much of the Deccan and South India are still excluded.[21]

Bhārata has been used as a self-ascribed name by some people of the Indian subcontinent and the Republic of India.[22] The designation Bhārata appears in the official Sanskrit name of the country, Bhārata Gaṇarājya. The name is derived from the ancient Hindu Puranas, which refer to the land that comprises India as Bhāratavarṣa (Sanskrit: भारतवर्ष, lit. country of Bharata) and uses this term to distinguish it from other varṣas or continents.[23] For example, the Vayu Purana says "he who conquers the whole of Bhāratavarṣa is celebrated as a samrāt (Vayu Purana 45, 86)."[24]

The Sanskrit word bhārata is a vṛddhi derivation of Bharata, which was originally an epithet of Agni. The term is a verbal noun of the Sanskrit root bhr-, "to bear/to carry", with a literal meaning of to be maintained (of fire). The root bhr is cognate with the English verb to bear and Latin ferō. This term also means "one who is engaged in search for knowledge". Barato, the Esperanto name for India, is also a derivation of Bhārata

According to the Puranas, this country is known as Bharatavarsha after Bharata, the son of Rishabha. This has been mentioned in Vishnu Purana (2,1,31), Vayu Purana (33,52), Linga Purana (1,47,23), Brahmanda Purana (14,5,62), Agni Purana (107,11–12), Skanda Purana, Khanda (37,57) and Markandaya Purana (50,41), all using the designation Bharata Varsha.

Vishnu Purāna mentions:

ऋषभो मरुदेव्याश्च ऋषभात भरतो भवेत्
भरताद भारतं वर्षं, भरतात सुमतिस्त्वभूत्
Rishabha was born to Marudevi, Bharata was born to Rishabha,
Bharatavarsha (India) arose from Bharata and Sumati arose from Bharata.
—Vishnu Purana (2,1,31)
ततश्च भारतं वर्षमेतल्लोकेषुगीयते
भरताय यत: पित्रा दत्तं प्रतिष्ठिता वनम (विष्णु पुराण, २,१,३२)
This country is known as Bharatavarsha since the times the father entrusted the kingdom to the son Bharata and he himself went to the forest for ascetic practices.[25]
—Vishnu Purana (2,1,32)
uttaraṃ yatsamudrasya himādreścaiva dakṣiṇam
varṣaṃ tadbhārataṃ nāma bhāratī yatra santatiḥ
उत्तरं यत्समुद्रस्य हिमाद्रेश्चैव दक्षिणम् ।
वर्षं तद् भारतं नाम भारती यत्र संततिः ।।
"The country (varṣam) that lies north of the ocean and south of the snowy mountains is called Bhāratam; there dwell the descendants of Bharata."
—Vishnu Purana

The Srimad Bhagavat Purana mentions(Canto 5, Chapter 4)[26] - "He (Rishabha) begot a hundred sons that were exactly like him... He (Bharata) had the best qualities and it was because of him that this land by the people is called Bhârata-varsha"

The Bhāratas were also a Vedic tribe mentioned in the Rigveda, notably participating in the Battle of the Ten Kings.

The realm of Bharata is known as Bharātavarṣa in the Mahabhārata (the core portion of which is itself known as Bhārata) and later texts. According to the text, the term Bharata is from the king Bharata, who was the son of Dushyanta and Shakuntala and the term varsa means a division of the earth or a continent.[citation needed]

Bharata Khanda (or Bharata Ksetra[27]) is a term used in Hindu texts, including the Vedas, Mahabharata, Ramayana and the Puranic, to describe the geographic region that encompassed the modern countries of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Myanmar—that is, South Asia at the term's furthest extent.

Jambudvīpa[edit]

Jambudvipa (Sanskrit: जम्बुद्वीप Jambu-dvīpa, lit. "berry island") was used in ancient scriptures for the name of India before Bhārata became the official name. The derivative Jambu Dwipa was the historical term for India in many Southeast Asian countries before the colonial introduction of the English word "India". This alternate name is still used occasionally in Thailand, Malaysia, Java and Bali to describe the Indian Subcontinent. However, it also can refer to the continent of Asia.

Nābhivarṣa[edit]

According to Texts, before India was called Bhāratavarṣa, it was known as Nābhivarṣa (Sanskrit: नाभिवर्ष, lit. land of Nabhi). King Nabhi was a Chakravartin (Universal Sovereign of India) and father of Arihant Rishabha (Jainism).

Hind / Hindustan[edit]

The words Hindū (Persian: هندو‎) and Hind (Persian: هند‎) came from Old Persian hindūš from Indo-Aryan/Sanskrit Sindhu (the Indus river or its region) while -stān (Persian: ستان‎) means "country" or "land" (cognate with Sanskrit sthāna "place, region"). The land which had originally been called Hindūstān (Persian: هندوستان‎) lay to the east of the Indus river and south of the Himalayas. Emperor Babur said, "On the East, the South, and the West it is bounded by the Great Ocean."[28] Hind was notably adapted in the Arabic language as the definitive form Al-Hind (الهند) for India, e.g. in the 11th century Tarikh Al-Hind ("History of India"). It occurs intermittently in usage within India, such as in the phrase Jai Hind (Hindi: जय हिन्द) or in Hind Mahāsāgar (Hindi: हिन्द महासागर), the Standard Hindi name for the Indian Ocean but otherwise is deemed archaic.

Both the names were current in Persian and Arabic from the 11th century Islamic conquests: the rulers in the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal periods called their Indian dominion, centered around Delhi, 'Hindustan' (ہندوستان‬; हिन्दुस्तान). In contemporary Persian and Urdu language, the term Hindustan has recently come to mean the Republic of India. The same is the case with Arabic, where al-Hind is the name for the Republic of India.

Hindustan, as the term Hindu itself, entered the English language in the 17th century. In the 19th century, the term as used in English referred to the Subcontinent. Hindustan was in use simultaneously with India during the British Raj. Today, Hindustan is no longer in use as the official name for India.

Tianzhu[edit]

Tianzhu or Tenjiku (Chinese and Japanese: 天竺) (originally pronounced xien-t'juk) is the historical East Asian name for India that comes from the Chinese transliteration of the Persian Hindu, which itself is derived from the Sanskrit Sindhu, the native name of the Indus River.[29] Tianzhu is one of several Chinese transliterations of Sindhu. Shendu (身毒) appears in Sima Qian's Shiji and Tiandu (天篤) is used in the Hou Hanshu (Book of the Later Han).[30] Yintejia (印特伽) comes from the Kuchean Indaka, another transliteration of Hindu.[29] A detailed account of Tianzhu is given in the "Xiyu Zhuan" (Record of the Western Regions) in the Hou Hanshu compiled by Fan Ye (398–445):

"The state of Tianzhu: Also, named Shendu, it lies several thousand li southeast of Yuezhi. Its customs are the same as those of Yuezhi, and it is low, damp, and very hot. It borders a large river. The inhabitants ride on elephants in warfare; they are weaker than the Yuezhi. They practise the way of Futu the Buddha and therefore it has become a custom among them not to kill or attack [others]. From west of the states Yuezhi and Gaofu, and south until the Western Sea, and east until the state of Panqi, all is the territory of Shendu. Shendu has several hundred separate towns, with a governor, and separate states which can be numbered in the tens, each with its own king. Although there are small differences among them, they all come under the general name of Shendu, and at this time all are subject to Yuezhi. Yuezhi have killed their kings and established a general in order to rule over their people. The land produces elephants, rhinoceros, tortoise shell, gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, and tin. It communicates to the west with Da Qin (the Roman Empire) and so has the exotica of Da Qin."[30]

Tianzhu was also referred to as Wutianzhu (五天竺, literally "Five Indias"), because there were five geographical regions in India known to the Chinese: Central, Eastern, Western, Northern, and Southern India. The monk Xuanzang also referred to India as Wu Yin or "Five Inds".[29]

The term is also used in Japan, where it is pronounced as Tenjiku (天竺). The foreign loanwords Indo (インド) and India (インディア) are also used in some cases. The current Japanese name for modern India is the foreign loanword Indo (インド).

The current Chinese word for India is Yindu (印度). Similar to Hindu and Sindhu, the term yin was used in classical Chinese much like the English Ind.

Hodu[edit]

Hodu (Hebrew: הֹדּוּHoddû) is the Biblical Hebrew name for India mentioned in the Book of Esther part of the Jewish Tanakh (Bible) and Christian Old Testament. In Esther 1:1, Ahasuerus (Xerxes) had been described as King ruling 127 provinces from Hodu (India) to Ethiopia.[31]

Historical definitions of India[edit]

Some historical definitions prior to 1500 are presented below.[32]

Year Name Source Definition
Between first century BCE[33] and Ninth century CE[34][35] Bhāratavarṣa (realm of Bhārata)[36][37][38] Vishnu Purana "उत्तरं यत्समुद्रस्य हिमाद्रेश्चैव दक्षिणम् ।

वर्षं तद् भारतं नाम भारती यत्र संततिः ।।"
i.e. "The country (varṣam) that lies north of the ocean and south of the snowy mountains is called Bhāratam; there dwell the descendants of Bharata."

c.400-300 BC Hodu Book of Esther (Bible) "Now it took place in the days of Ahasuerus, the Ahasuerus who reigned from Hodu (India) to Cush (Ethiopia) over 127 provinces"[39][40][41]
c. 440 BCE India Herodotus "Eastward of India lies a tract which is entirely sand. Indeed, of all the inhabitants of Asia, concerning whom anything is known, the Indians dwell nearest to the east and the rising of the Sun."
300 BCE Aryavarta Vashistha, Vashistha Dharmasutra "In the west [for Aryavarta]_ the boundary-river (Indus), in the east the region where the sun rises (Himalayas),—as far as the black antelopes wander (between these two limits.)"
c. 300 BC India/Indikē Megasthenes "India then being four-sided in plan, the side which looks to the Orient and that to the South, the Great Sea compasseth; that towards the Arctic is divided by the mountain chain of Hēmōdus from Scythia, inhabited by that tribe of Scythians who are called Sakai; and on the fourth side, turned towards the West, the Indus marks the boundary, the biggest or nearly so of all rivers after the Nile."
200 BCE Jambudvipa Chanakya
Arthashastra
"This (Brahmaputra) is the eastern boundary of Jambudvipa, its western boundary being the mouths of the Indus and its southern boundary being the Indian Ocean or Rama Sethu."[42]
100 CE or later Bhāratam Vishnu Purana "उत्तरं यत्समुद्रस्य हिमाद्रेश्चैव दक्षिणम् ।

वर्षं तद् भारतं नाम भारती यत्र संततिः ।।"
i.e. "The country (varṣam) that lies north of the ocean and south of the snowy mountains is called Bhāratam; there dwell the descendants of Bharata."

c. 140. Indoi, Indou Arrian "The boundary of the land of India towards the north is Mount Taurus. It is not still called Taurus in this land; but Taurus begins from the sea over against Pamphylia and Lycia and Cilicia; and reaches as far as the Eastern Ocean, running right across Asia. But the mountain has different names in different places; in one, Parapamisus, in another Hemodus; elsewhere it is called Imaon and perhaps has all sorts of other names; but the Macedonians who fought with Alexander called it Caucasus; another Caucasus, that is, not the Scythian; so that the story ran that Alexander came even to the far side of the Caucasus. The western part of India is bounded by the river Indus right down to the ocean, where the river runs out by two mouths, not joined together as are the five mouths of the Ister; but like those of the Nile, by which the Egyptian delta is formed; thus also the Indian delta is formed by the river Indus, not less than the Egyptian; and this in the Indian tongue is called Pattala. Towards the south this ocean bounds the land of India, and eastward the sea itself is the boundary. The southern part near Pattala and the mouths of the Indus were surveyed by Alexander and Macedonians and many Greeks; as for the eastern part, Alexander did not traverse this beyond the river Hyphasis. A few historians have described the parts which are this side of the Ganges and where are the mouths of the Ganges and the city of Palimbothra, the greatest Indian city on the Ganges.(...) The Indian rivers are greater than any others in Asia; greatest are the Ganges and the Indus, whence the land gets its name; each of these is greater than the Nile of Egypt and the Scythian Ister, even were these put together; my own idea is that even the Acesines is greater than the Ister and the Nile, where the Acesines having taken in the Hydaspes, Hydraotes, and Hyphasis, runs into the Indus, so that its breadth there becomes thirty stades. Possibly also other greater rivers run through the land of India."
c. 590. Hind Istakhri "As for the land of the Hind it is bounded on the East by the Persian Sea (i.e. the Indian Ocean), on the W. and S. by the countries of Islām and on the N. by the Chinese Empire... The length of the land of the Hind from the government of Mokrān, the country of Mansūra and Bodha and the rest of Sind, till thou comest to Kannauj and thence passest on to Tibet, is about 4 months and its breadth from the Indian Ocean to the country of Kannūj about three months."
c. 650 Five Indies Xuanzang "The circumference of 五印 (Modern Chinese: Wǔ Yìn, the Five Indies) is about 90,000 li; on three sides it is bounded by a great sea; on the north it is backed by snowy mountains. It is wide at the north and narrow at the south; its figure is that of a half-moon."
c. 1020 Hind Al-Birūnī "Hind is surrounded on the East by Chín and Máchín, on the West by Sind (Baluchistan) and Kábul and on the South by the Sea."
Hindustan John Richardson, A Smaller Manual of Modern Geography. Physical and Political "The boundaries of Hindustan are marked on every side by natural features; e.g., the Himalayas, on the N.; the Patkoi Mountains, Tippera Hills, &c., on the N.E.; the Sea, on the E., S., and W.; and the Hala, and Sulaiman Mountains, on the N.W."[43]

Historical definitions of a Greater India[edit]

Writers throughout history, both Indian and of other nationalities have written about a 'Greater India', which Indians have called either Akhand Bharat or Mahabharata.[44]

Year Name Source Definition
944 Al-Hind El-Mas'udi
Muruj adh-dhahab wa ma'adin al-jawhar
"The Hindu nation (Al-Hind) extends from the mountains of Khorasan (Afghanistan) and of es-Sind (Baluchistan) as far as et-Tubbet (Tibetan Plateau.)"[45]
1205 Hind Hasan Nizāmī "The whole country of Hind, from Peshawar in the north, to the Indian Ocean in the south; from Sehwan (on the west bank of the Indus) to the mountains on the east dividing from China."
1298 India the Greater
India the Minor
Middle India
Marco Polo "India the Greater is that which extends from Maabar to Kesmacoran (i.e. from Coromandel to Mekran) and it contains 13 great kingdoms... India the Lesser extends from the Province of Champa to Mutfili (i.e. from Cochin-China to the Kistna Delta) and contains 8 great Kingdoms... Abash (Abyssinia) is a very great province and you must know that it constitutes the Middle India."
c. 1328. India Friar Jordanus Catalani "What shall I say? The greatness of this India is beyond description. But let this much suffice concerning India the Greater and the Less. Of India Tertia I will say this, that I have not indeed seen its many marvels, not having been there..."
1404 India Minor Ruy González de Clavijo "And this same Thursday that the said Ambassadors arrived at this great River (the Oxus) they crossed to the other side. And the same day... came in the evening to a great city which is called Tenmit (Termez) and this used to belong to India Minor, but now belongs to the empire of Samarkand, having been conquered by Tamurbec."
16th century Indostān Ignazio Danti "The part of India beyond the Ganges extends in length as far as Cathay (China) and contains many provinces in which are found many notable things. As in the Kingdom of Kamul near Campichu (Cambodia)...And in Erguiul...In the Ava Mountains (Burma)..., and in the Salgatgu mountains...In Caindu...In the territory of Carajan..."[46]
982-983 Hindistān Author Unknown
Hudud al-'Alam
"East of it (Hindistān) are the countries of China and Tibet; South of it, the Great Sea; west of it, the river Mihran (Indus); north of it, the country of Shaknan belonging to Vakhan and some parts of Tibet."[47]
1590 Hindustān Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak
Ain-i-Akbari
"Hindustan is described as enclosed on the east, west and south by the ocean, but Sarandip (Sri Lanka), Achin (Indonesia), Maluk (Indonesia) and Malagha (Malaysia) and a considerable number of islands are accounted for within its extent."[48]

Republic of India[edit]

Official Names[edit]

The official names as set down in article 1 of the Indian constitution are:

Sanskrit: भारत (Bhārata)
English: India; Bharat

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Roshen Dalal (2010). The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths. Penguin Books India. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-14-341517-6. 
  2. ^ Dasgupta, Dhiman. "Was the Ramayana actually set in and around today's Afghanistan?". Scroll.in. Retrieved 10 August 2017. 
  3. ^ Manusmṛti 2.21–22
  4. ^ Madhav Deshpande, Sanskrit & Prakrit: Sociolinguistic Issues, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1993, p. 85.
  5. ^ Harris, J. (2012), Indography: Writing the "Indian" in Early Modern England, Palgrave Macmillan US, p. 8, ISBN 978-1-137-09076-8 
  6. ^ Mukherjee, Bratindra Nath (2001), Nationhood and Statehood in India: A historical survey, Regency Publications, p. 3, ISBN 978-81-87498-26-1 : "there having been no letter in Greek of the period concerned to represent correctly the sound h, which was to be indicated only by a sign of aspiration above the first vowel in Greek texts but not in later Latin writings in Roman characters."
  7. ^ Allen, W. Sidney; William Sidney Allen (1987), Vox Graeca, Cambridge University Press, p. 53, ISBN 978-0-521-33555-3 
  8. ^ Mukherjee, Bratindra Nath (2001), Nationhood and Statehood in India: A historical survey, Regency Publications, p. 3, ISBN 978-81-87498-26-1 : "In early Indian sources Sindhu denoted the mighty Indus river and also a territory on the lower Indus."
  9. ^ Kainiraka, Sanu (2016), From Indus to Independence - A Trek Through Indian History: Vol I Prehistory to the Fall of the Mauryas, Vij Books India Pvt Ltd, p. 143, ISBN 978-93-85563-14-0 
  10. ^ Dandamaev, M. A. (1989), A Political History of the Achaemenid Empire, BRILL, p. 147, ISBN 90-04-09172-6 
  11. ^ Mouton, Alice; Rutherford, Ian; Yakubovich, Ilya (2013), Luwian Identities: Culture, Language and Religion Between Anatolia and the Aegean, BRILL, ISBN 90-04-25341-6 
  12. ^ Herodotus, with an English Translation by A. D. Godley, Volume II, London: William Heinemann, 1921, III.97–99 
  13. ^ Arora, Udai Prakash (2005), "Ideas of India in Ancient Greek Literature", in Irfan Habib, India — Studies in the History of an Idea, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, p. 47, ISBN 978-81-215-1152-0 
  14. ^ Mukherjee, Bratindra Nath (2001), Nationhood and Statehood in India: A historical survey, Regency Publications, pp. 3–4, ISBN 978-81-87498-26-1 
  15. ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 70. 
  16. ^ Michael Cook (2014), Ancient Religions, Modern Politics: The Islamic Case in Comparative Perspective, Princeton University Press, p.68: "Aryavarta [...] is defined by Manu as extending from the Himalayas in the north to the Vindhyas of Central India in the south and from the sea in th west to the sea in the east."
  17. ^ Clémentin-Ojha, Catherine (2014). "'India, that is Bharat…': One Country, Two Names". South Asia Multidisciplinary Academic Journal. 10. 
  18. ^ Dineschandra Sircar (1971). Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 3. ISBN 978-81-208-0690-0. 
  19. ^ Dwijendra Narayan Jha, Rethinking Hindu Identity (Routledge: 2014), p.11
  20. ^ Upinder Singh, Political Violence in Ancient India, p.253
  21. ^ D.N. Jha (2014), p.11
  22. ^ Article 1 of the English version of the Constitution of India: "India that is Bharat shall be a Union of States."
  23. ^ Pargiter, F. F. (1922), Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, p. 131 
  24. ^ Pargiter, F. F. (1922), Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, pp. ff. 8 p. 40 
  25. ^ Rishabha/ Rishabdev is First Trithankar(Teacher) of Jainism. He had two sons Bharat and Bahubali.
  26. ^ "S'RÎMAD BHÂGAVATAM : "The Story of the Fortunate One" : Third revised version 2012". Ia801005.us.archive.org. Retrieved 2017-08-10. 
  27. ^ Dikshitar, Ramachandra (1993-01-01). The Gupta Polity. ISBN 9788120810242. 
  28. ^ P. 310 Memoirs of Zahir-ad-Din Muhammad Babur: Emperor of Hindustan By Babur (Emperor of Hindustan)
  29. ^ a b c Cheung, Martha Pui Yiu (2014) [2006]. "Zan Ning (919–1001 CE), To Translate Means to Exchange". An Anthology of Chinese Discourse on Translation: From Earliest Times to the Buddhist Project. Routledge. pp. 179, 181. ISBN 978-1-317-63928-2. 
  30. ^ a b Yu, Taishan (November 2013). "China and the Ancient Mediterranean World: A Survey of Ancient Chinese Sources". Sino-Platonic Papers (242): 73, 77. 
  31. ^ "THE BOOK OF ESTHER". Uskojaelama.net. Retrieved 10 August 2017. 
  32. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-06-28. Retrieved 2012-06-28. 
  33. ^ Wilson, H. H. (2006). The Vishnu Purana: A System of Hindu Mythology and Tradition. Cambridge: Read Country Books. p. xii. ISBN 1-84664-664-2. 
  34. ^ Rocher 1986, p. 249.
  35. ^ Flood, Gavin (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 111. ISBN 0-521-43878-0. 
  36. ^ A History of Civilization in Ancient India, Based on Sanskrit Literature. In Three Volumes. Volume 3. Buddhist and Pauranik Ages, Romesh Chunder Dutt, Publisher Elibron.com, ISBN 0-543-92939-6, ISBN 978-0-543-92939-6
  37. ^ A Text Book of Social Sciences, Dr. N.N. Kher & Jaideep Aggarwal, Pitambar Publishing, ISBN 81-209-1466-X, ISBN 978-81-209-1466-7
  38. ^ VISHŃU PURÁŃA, BOOK II, CHAP. I, The Vishnu Purana, translated by Horace Hayman Wilson, [1840], at sacred-texts.com
  39. ^ "Esther 1:1 This is what happened during the time of Xerxes, the Xerxes who ruled over 127 provinces stretching from India to Cush:". Biblehub.com. Retrieved 10 August 2017. 
  40. ^ [1]
  41. ^ "TARNEGOL HODU, A BIRD CALLED TURKEY". Hodu is the biblical name for India (Esther 1:1), which is derived from the Persian word Hindu, a name for the region around the Indus River 
  42. ^ P. 247 Chanakya and Chandragupta By A. S. Panchapakesa Ayyar
  43. ^ P. 146 A smaller manual of modern geography. Physical and political By John Richardson (Vicar of St. Mary's Hospital, Ilford.)
  44. ^ P. 45 Calcutta Review By University of Calcutta, 1950
  45. ^ P. 177 Kitab Muruj Al-dahab Al-Masudi. El-Masudis Historical Encyclopaedia By 'Abu-l-Hasan 'Ali ibn al-Husain al-Masudi
  46. ^ P. 3 The Mapping of Power in Renaissance Italy By Mark Rosen
  47. ^ P. 187 Journal of Ancient Indian History, Volume 9 By D.C. Sircar
  48. ^ The Ain i Akbari, Volume 3 By Abū al-Faz̤l ibn Mubārak

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