||The neutrality of this article is disputed. (April 2015)|
|15th Prime Minister of India|
26 May 2014
|Preceded by||Manmohan Singh|
|14th Chief Minister of Gujarat|
7 October 2001 – 22 May 2014
|Preceded by||Keshubhai Patel|
|Succeeded by||Anandiben Patel|
|Member of the Indian Parliament
16 May 2014
|Preceded by||Murli Manohar Joshi|
|Member of the Gujarat Legislative Assembly
1 January 2002 – 16 May 2014
|Preceded by||Kamlesh Patel|
|Succeeded by||Suresh Patel|
|Born||Narendra Damodardas Modi
17 September 1950
Vadnagar, Bombay State (presently Gujarat), India
|Political party||Bharatiya Janata Party|
|Spouse(s)||Jashodaben Narendrabhai (m. 1968) (estranged)|
|Residence||7, Race Course Road|
Narendra Damodardas Modi (Gujarati: [nəreːnd̪rə d̪ɑːmoːd̪ərəd̪ɑːs moːd̪iː] ( listen), born 17 September 1950) is the 15th and current Prime Minister of India, in office since 26 May 2014. Modi, a leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), was the Chief Minister of Gujarat from 2001 to 2014 and is the Member of Parliament (MP) from Varanasi. He led the BJP in the 2014 general election, which gave the party a majority in the Lok Sabha (the lower house of the Indian parliament) – a first for any party since 1984 – and was credited for 2014 BJP electoral victories in the states of Haryana, Maharashtra, Jharkhand and Jammu and Kashmir.
Since taking office as Prime Minister, Modi's administration has focused on reforming and modernising India's infrastructure and government, reducing bureaucracy, encouraging increased foreign direct investment, improving national standards of health and sanitation and improving foreign relations. Modi has been appreciated for starting initiatives like Swachh Bharat Mission, Make in India and Digital India. Earlier, as Chief Minister of Gujarat, Modi's economic policies (credited with encouraging economic growth in Gujarat) have been praised, although his administration has also been criticised for failing to significantly improve the human development in the state and failing to prevent the 2002 Gujarat riots. A Hindu nationalist and a former member of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), Modi remains a controversial figure domestically and internationally, despite his progressivism. Known for his tech savvy image, he is the second most followed politician on social media after U.S. President Barack Obama.
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 Early political career, 1975–2001
- 3 Chief Minister of Gujarat (2001–14)
- 4 2014 Indian general election campaign
- 5 Prime Minister (2014–present)
- 6 Personal life
- 7 Image
- 8 Books
- 9 Awards and recognition
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Early life and education
Modi was born on 17 September 1950 to a family of grocers in Vadnagar, Mehsana district, Bombay State (present-day Gujarat). His family belonged to the Modh-Ghanchi-Teli (oil-presser) community, which is categorised as an Other Backward Class by the Indian government. He was the third of six children born to Damodardas Mulchand (1915-1989) and Heeraben Modi (b. c. 1920). As a child, Modi helped his father sell tea at the Vadnagar railway station, and later ran a tea stall with his brother near a bus terminus. He completed his higher secondary education in Vadnagar in 1967, where a teacher described him as an average student and a keen debater with an interest in theatre. An early gift for rhetoric in debates was noted by teachers and students. Modi preferred playing larger-than-life characters in theatrical productions, which has influenced his political image.
At age eight, Modi discovered the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), and began attending its local shakhas (training sessions). There he met Lakshmanrao Inamdar, popularly known as Vakil Saheb, who inducted him as an RSS balswayamsevak (junior cadet) and became his political mentor. While Modi was training with the RSS, he also met Vasant Gajendragadkar and Nathalal Jaghda, Bharatiya Jana Sangh leaders who were founding members of the BJP's Gujarat unit in 1980.
Engaged while still a child to a local girl, Jashodaben Narendrabhai Modi, Modi rejected the arranged marriage at the same time he graduated from high school. The resulting familial tensions contributed to his decision to leave home in 1967. He spent the ensuing two years travelling across northern and north-eastern India, though few details of where he went have emerged. In interviews, Modi has described visiting Hindu ashrams founded by Swami Vivekananda: the Belur Math near Kolkata, followed by the Advaita Ashrama in Almora and the Ramakrishna mission in Rajkot. He remained only a short time at each, since he lacked the required college education. Reaching the Belur Math in the early summer of 1968 and being turned away, Modi wandered through Calcutta, West Bengal and Assam, stopping by Siliguri and Guwahati. He then went to the Ramakrishna ashram in Almora, where he was again rejected, before travelling back to Gujarat via Delhi and Rajasthan in 1968-69. Sometime in late 1969 or early 1970, Modi returned to Vadnagar for a brief visit before leaving again for Ahmedabad. There he lived with his uncle, working in the latter's canteen at the Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation. In Ahmedabad Modi renewed his acquaintance with Inamdar, who was based at Hedgewar Bhavan (RSS headquarters) in the city. After the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, he stopped working for his uncle and became a full-time pracharak (campaigner) for the RSS. In 1978 Modi became an RSS sambhaag pracharak (regional organiser), and received a degree in political science after a distance-education course from Delhi University. Five years later, he received a Master of Arts degree in political science from Gujarat University.
Early political career, 1975–2001
On 26 June 1975, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declared a state of emergency in India which lasted until 1977. During this period, many of her political opponents were jailed and opposition groups (including the RSS) were banned. As pracharak in-charge of the Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad (ABVP), the student wing of the RSS, Modi was forced to go underground in Gujarat and frequently traveled in disguise to avoid arrest. He became involved in printing pamphlets opposing the government, sending them to Delhi and organising demonstrations. During this period, Modi wrote a Gujarati book, Sangharsh ma Gujarat (The Struggles of Gujarat), describing events during the Emergency.
He was assigned by the RSS to the BJP in 1985. In 1988, Modi was elected organising secretary of the party's Gujarat unit, marking his entrance into electoral politics. He rose within the party, helping organise L. K. Advani's 1990 Ayodhya Rath Yatra in 1990 and Murli Manohar Joshi's 1991–92 Ekta Yatra (Journey for Unity). As party secretary, Modi's electoral strategy was considered central to BJP victory in the 1995 state assembly elections. In November of that year Modi was elected BJP national secretary and transferred to New Delhi, where he assumed responsibility for party activities in Haryana and Himachal Pradesh. The following year, Shankersinh Vaghela (one of the most prominent BJP leaders in Gujarat) defected to the INC after losing his parliamentary seat in the Lok Sabha elections. Modi, on the selection committee for the 1998 Assembly elections in Gujarat, favoured supporters of BJP leader Keshubhai Patel over those supporting Vaghela to end factional division in the party. His strategy was credited as key to the BJP winning an overall majority in the 1998 elections, and Modi was promoted to BJP general secretary (organisation) in May of that year.
Chief Minister of Gujarat (2001–14)
In 2001, Keshubhai Patel's health was failing and the BJP had lost seats in the by-elections. Allegations of abuse of power, corruption and poor administration were made, and Patel's standing had been damaged by his administration's handling of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake. The BJP national leadership sought a new candidate for chief minister, and Modi (who had expressed misgivings about Patel's administration) was chosen as a replacement. Although senior BJP leader L. K. Advani did not want to ostracise Patel and was concerned about Modi's lack of experience in government, Modi declined an offer to be Patel's deputy chief minister and told Advani and Atal Bihari Vajpayee he was "going to be fully responsible for Gujarat or not at all". On 3 October 2001 he replaced Patel as Chief Minister of Gujarat, with the responsibility of preparing the BJP for the December 2002 elections. As Chief Minister, Modi favoured privatisation and small government; this was at odds with political commentator Aditi Phadnis' description of the RSS as anti-privatisation and anti-globalisation.
First term, 2001–02
On 7 October 2001, Modi was administered the oath of office. He then won a 24 February 2002 Rajkot – II[clarification needed] assembly election, defeating Ashwin Mehta of the Indian National Congress (INC) by 14,728 votes.
2002 Gujarat riots
On 27 February 2002, a train with several hundred passengers, including a large number of Hindu pilgrims returning from Ayodhya after a religious ceremony at the site of the demolished Babri Masjid, was burned near Godhra; about 60 people were killed.[a] In the wake of rumours that the fire was set by Muslim arsonists, anti-Muslim violence spread through Gujarat. Estimates of that death toll ranged from 900 to over 2,000, with several thousand injured. The Modi government imposed a curfew in major cities, issued shoot-at-sight orders and called for the army to prevent the violence from escalating, but human rights organisations, opposition parties and some media accused the Gujarat government of taking insufficient action against the riots (to the point of condoning them). Modi's decision to move the bodies of the Kar Sevak train victims from Godhra to Ahmedabad was criticised for inflaming the violence.
In March 2008, the Supreme Court asked the state government to re-investigate nine cases from the 2002 riots (including the Gulbarg Society massacre), establishing a Special Investigation Team (SIT). In response to a petition from Zakia Jafri (widow of Ehsan Jafri, who was killed in the Gulbarg Society massacre), in April 2009 the court asked the SIT to investigate her allegation that Modi and another minister were complicit in the killings. The SIT questioned Modi in March 2010; in May, it presented to the court a report finding no evidence to substantiate the allegations. In July 2011, amicus curiae Raju Ramachandran submitted his final report to the court: contrary to the SIT position, Modi could be prosecuted based on the available evidence. The team criticised Ramachandran's report for relying on testimony from Sanjiv Bhatt, who they said fabricated the documents used as evidence. The Supreme Court gave the matter to the magistrate court, with the SIT examining Ramachandran's report. The team submitted its final report in March 2012 seeking closure of the case, with Zakia Jaffri filing a protest petition in response. In December 2013 the magistrate court rejected the protest petition, accepting the SIT's finding that there was no evidence against the chief minister.
Modi's involvement in the 2002 events has continued to be debated. Several scholars have described them as a pogrom, while others have called them state terrorism. Summarising academic views on the subject, Martha Nussbaum said: "There is by now a broad consensus that the Gujarat violence was a form of ethnic cleansing, that in many ways it was premeditated, and that it was carried out with the complicity of the state government and officers of the law." Distinguished Indian lawyer Ram Jethmalani applauded Modi's efforts during 2002 riots. In 2012 Maya Kodnani, a minister in Modi's government from 2007 to 2009, was convicted of participation in the Naroda Patiya massacre during the 2002 riots. Kodnani was the first woman and the first MLA to be convicted in a Godhra-riots case. Although Modi's government had announced that it would seek the death penalty for Kodnani on appeal, in 2013 it retreated from that stance.
Later in 2002, Modi said the way in which he had handled the media was his only regret regarding the episode. He subsequently claimed that some journalists at India's NDTV channel had acted irresponsibly in their coverage of the events.
In the aftermath of the violence came widespread calls for Modi to resign as chief minister from within and outside the state, including leaders of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam and the Telugu Desam Party (allies in the BJP-led National Democratic Alliance coalition), and opposition parties stalled Parliament over the issue. Modi submitted his resignation, which was not accepted, at the April 2002 BJP national executive meeting in Goa. His cabinet had a 19 July 2002 emergency meeting, offered its resignation to the Gujarat Governor S. S. Bhandari and the assembly was dissolved. In the subsequent elections, the BJP won 127 seats in the 182-member assembly. Although Modi later denied it, he made significant use of anti-Muslim rhetoric during his campaign. He won the Maninagar constituency, receiving 1,13,589 of 1,54,981 votes and defeating INC candidate Yatin Oza by 75,333 votes. On 22 December 2002, Bhandari swore Modi in for a second term.
Second term, 2002–07
After accusations of anti-Muslim rhetoric during the campaign, during Modi's second term his emphasis shifted from Hindutva to Gujarat's economic development. He curtailed the influence of Sangh Parivar organisations such as the Bharatiya Kisan Sangh (BKS) and the Vishva Hindu Parishad (VHP), entrenched in the state after the decline of Ahmedabad's textile industry, and dropped Gordhan Zadafia (an ally of former Sangh co-worker and VHP state chief Praveen Togadia) from his cabinet. When the BKS staged a farmers' demonstration Modi ordered their eviction from state-provided houses, and his decision to demolish 200 illegal temples in Gandhinagar deepened the rift with the VHP. Sangh organisations were no longer consulted or informed in advance about Modi's administrative decisions.
His 2002–07 changes have led to Gujarat's description as an attractive investment destination. According to Aditi Phadnis, "There was sufficient anecdotal evidence pointing to the fact that corruption had gone down significantly in the state ... if there was to be any corruption, Modi had to know about it". He established financial and technology parks in Gujarat and during the 2007 Vibrant Gujarat summit, real-estate investment deals worth ₹6.6 trillion were signed in the state.
Despite his second-term focus on economic issues, Modi's relationship with Muslims continued to be criticised. Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee (who asked Modi for tolerance in the aftermath of the 2002 Gujarat violence and supported his resignation as chief minister) distanced himself, reaching out to North Indian Muslims before the 2004 Lok Sabha elections. After the elections Vajpayee called the violence in Gujarat a reason for the BJP's electoral defeat and said it had been a mistake to leave Modi in office after the riots.
During the run-up to the 2007 assembly elections and the 2009 general election, the BJP ramped up its rhetoric on terrorism. On 18 July 2006, Modi criticised Prime Minister Manmohan Singh " ... for his reluctance to revive anti-terror legislation" such as the 2002 Prevention of Terrorism Act. He asked the national government to allow states to invoke tougher laws in the wake of the 2006 Mumbai blasts and demanded the execution of Afzal Guru, a collaborator with Pakistani jihadists who was convicted of terrorism for his involvement in the 2001 Indian Parliament attack.[b] After the November 2008 Mumbai attacks Modi held a meeting to discuss the security of Gujarat's 1,600-kilometre (990 mi)-long coastline, resulting in government authorisation of 30 high-speed surveillance boats. In July 2007 Modi completed 2,063 consecutive days as chief minister of Gujarat (making him the longest-serving holder of that post), and the BJP won 122 of 182 state-assembly seats in that year's election.
Third term, 2007–12
Keshubhai Patel and Modi's BJP governments supported NGOs and communities in the creation of groundwater-conservation projects; according to Tushaar Shah, Gujarat (a semi-arid state) was " ... never known for agrarian dynamism". By December 2008 500,000 structures were built, of which 113,738 were check dams. While most check-dam impoundments dried up during the pre-monsoon period, they helped monsoon rains recharge the aquifers beneath them. Sixty of the 112 tehsils which were found to have depleted the water table in 2004 had regained their normal groundwater levels by 2010, and Gujarat increased its groundwater levels when they were falling in all other Indian states. As a result, the state's production of genetically modified Bt cotton (which could now be irrigated with tube wells) increased to become the largest in India. The boom in cotton production and its semi-arid land use saw Gujarat's agricultural growth increase to 9.6 percent from 2001 to 2007. Although public irrigation measures in central and southern Gujarat (such as the Sardar Sarovar Dam) have been less successful, from 2001 to 2010 Gujarat recorded an agricultural growth rate of 10.97 percent – the highest of any state. However, sociologists have pointed out that the growth rate under the 1992–97 INC government was 12.9 percent.
The Modi government brought electricity to every village in Gujarat, although according to Dipankar Banerjee all but 170 villages had been electrified under the INC administration. Modi significantly changed the state's system of power distribution, greatly impacting farmers. Gujarat expanded the Jyotigram Yojana scheme, in which agricultural electricity was separated from other rural electricity; the agricultural electricity was rationed to fit scheduled irrigation demands, reducing its cost. Although early protests by farmers ended when those who benefited found that their electricity supply had stabilised, according to an assessment study corporations and large farmers benefited from the policy at the expense of small farmers and labourers.
Progress was made on the Gujarat International Finance Tec-City project, considered one of Modi's pet projects. Its first phase, consisting of two skyscrapers (GIFT One and Two), was completed in 2012.
Modi's government has branded Gujarat as a state of dynamic development, economic growth and prosperity with the slogan, "Vibrant Gujarat". He has been praised for facilitating ease of doing business and ending buerocratic logjam which made investment in India an olympic feat. Gujarat topped the World Bank's ease of doing business rankings for two consecutive years. of which the first report was blocked by the then UPA government. Narendra Modi-led Gujarat continued to remain the top-ranked Indian state in terms of "economic freedom" - an index that measures governance, growth, citizens' rights and labour and business regulation among the country's 20 largest states. However, critics have pointed to its relatively poor record on human development, poverty relief, nutrition and education. Gujarat ranks 13th in India in poverty and 21st in education. Nearly 45 percent of children under five are underweight and 23 percent are undernourished, putting the state in the "alarming" category on the India State Hunger Index. According to state officials, Gujarat outperformed India as a whole in improving several human-development indicators (such as female education) from 2001 to 2011; school drop-out rates declined from 20 percent in 2001 to two percent in 2011, and maternal mortality fell by 32 percent during the same period. In a review of the 1894 Land Acquisition Act, the Supreme Court of India identified Gujarat as one of the few states from which there were no complaints of forcible land acquisition.
According to political scientist Christophe Jaffrelot, development in Gujarat has been limited to the urban middle class as rural residents and the lower castes have become increasingly marginalised. The state ranks 10th of the 21 Indian states in the Human Development Index, which he attributes to less rural development. Jaffrelot says that under Modi the number of families below the poverty line has increased and conditions for rural adivasi and dalits, in particular, have declined. In July 2013 economics Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen expressed disapproval of Modi's governance record, saying that under his administration Gujarat's "record in education and healthcare is pretty bad". However, economists Arvind Panagariya and Jagdish Bhagwati say that Gujarat's social indicators have improved from a lower baseline than that of other Indian states. According to them, Gujarat's performance in raising literacy rates has been superior to other states and the "rapid" improvement of health indicators is evidence that "its progress has not been poor by any means."
Fourth term, 2012–14
In the 2012 Gujarat Legislative Assembly elections, Modi won the constituency of Maninagar by 86,373 votes over Shweta Bhatt, the INC candidate and wife of Sanjiv Bhatt. The BJP won 115 of the 182 seats, continuing its majority during his tenure and allowing the party to form the government (as it had in Gujarat since 1995). In later by-elections the BJP won four more assembly seats and two Lok Sabha seats held by the INC, although Modi did not campaign for its candidates. In 2013, the Wharton India Economic Forum (WIEF) at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania cancelled a keynote video-conference speech by Modi following protests by Indian-Americans. After his election as prime minister, Modi resigned as chief minister and surrendered his MLA seat from Maninagar on 21 May 2014 after a speech described as emotional. Anandiben Patel was selected as his replacement.
To attract foreign investment to Gujarat when he was chief minister Modi visited China, Singapore and Japan, travelling to China in November 2006 (to study the country's special economic zones, about to be implemented in Gujarat), September 2007 and November 2011. A month after his 2011 visit the Chinese government released 13 Indian diamond traders charged with smuggling in Shenzhen, with Modi attributing their release to his diplomacy and statesmanship.
His relationship with many Western nations was troubled during his tenure as chief minister, with questions about his role in the 2002 riots resulting in travel bans to the UK, the US and the EU. Modi was barred from entering the United States under a provision of the Immigration and Nationality Act banning violators of religious freedom, the only person denied a US visa under this provision. The UK and the European Union refused to admit him because of what they saw as his role in the riots. As Modi rose to prominence in India, the UK and the EU lifted their bans in October 2012 and March 2013, respectively, and after his election as prime minister he was invited to Washington.
In 2011 the Karachi Chamber of Commerce & Industry, impressed with development in Gujarat, invited Modi to visit Pakistan and address business leaders who asked him to consider a flight between Ahmedabad and Karachi because of the cultural and economic relationships between Gujarat and Sindh. Modi wanted to ease Pakistan's power crisis, (particularly in Sindh), and suggested that the country could follow the examples of the "Gujarat model" set by Gujarat Solar Park and the Kalpasar Project. In an April 2014 statement described as "unexpected", senior Pakistani diplomats told The Daily Telegraph that Modi was their choice for prime Minister "as he could provide the strong leadership necessary for peace talks".
Modi visited Japan in 2012. According to Ryohei Kasai, research fellow at the Center for South Asian Studies at Gifu Women's University, "There is a growing interest in Modi in Japan with much anticipation that he will reshape India by revitalising its economy and better governance. I believe Japan has an excellent relationship with him. Not only have successive Japanese ambassadors to India been regular guests in 'Vibrant Gujarat' investors' summit (organised biennially) but Japanese private companies also made a big amount of investment in the state."
2014 Indian general election campaign
On 31 March 2013 Modi was appointed to the BJP parliamentary board, the highest decision-making body in the party, and at the party's 9 June national executive meeting he was appointed chair of the BJP's central election campaign committee for the 2014 general election. Senior leader and founding member Lal Krishna Advani resigned his party posts after the appointment in protest of leaders who were "concerned with their personal agendas". His resignation, which was described by The Times of India as "a protest against Narendra Modi's elevation as the chairman of the party's election committee", was withdrawn the following day at the urging of RSS chief Mohan Bhagwat. In September 2013, the BJP announced that the chief minister would be their candidate for prime minister in the 2014 Lok Sabha election.
Modi was a candidate in two constituencies: Varanasi and Vadodara. During the campaign, he pledged to speed up government decision-making and remove bureaucratic hurdles which slowed development. He won in both constituencies, defeating Aam Aadmi Party leader Arvind Kejriwal in Varanasi and Madhusudan Mistry of the INC in Vadodara by 570,128 votes. The BJP-led NDA won the general election overall and the INC experienced its worst-ever defeat. Modi, who was unanimously elected leader of the BJP after his party's victory, was appointed prime minister by India's president. To comply with the law that an MP cannot represent more than one constituency, he vacated the Vadodara seat. In what CNN described as "India's first social media election", Modi used Twitter, Facebook, Google Hangouts and holographic projections for campaign appearances. His victory tweet was the most re-tweeted tweet in India.
Prime Minister (2014–present)
Modi was sworn in as Prime Minister of India on 26 May 2014 at the Rashtrapati Bhavan. He was the first to invite all South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation leaders to attend his swearing-in ceremony. His first cabinet consisted of 45 ministers, 25 fewer than the previous UPA government.
As Prime Minister, Modi began working to speed up the efficiency of India's economy and make it more business-friendly. His government began reforming the red tape that had traditionally hindered Indian business, streamlining the bureaucratic requirements on companies such as a complex permit and inspection system and numerous regulations, so as to ease the burden on companies. Modi also ordered reform among the bureaucrats of the Indian Administrative Service, who were infamous for their inefficiency and lethargic work schedule, to ensure a more efficient government bureaucracy. The Planning Commission, which Modi accused of stifling economic growth with Soviet-style bureaucracy, was abolished and replaced with a think tank called NITI Aayog.
Modi's government also liberalised India's foreign direct investment policies, allowing more foreign investment in numerous industries. In May 2015, it was reported that foreign direct investment in India had risen 61% since the previous year. In November 2015, his government eased foreign investment regulations in 15 major sectors of the economy.
Modi's government has increased infrastructure spending to massively expand the country's transportation infrastructure. Projects to improve and expand the country's road and railway networks were undertaken, with railway reform being among the government's top priorities. In November 2015, the Indian government signed major deals with General Electric and Alstom to supply India with 1,000 new diesel locomotives, which would be built in India as part of the "Make in India" scheme. The Indian government began a massive expansion of India's highway network, and is also intent on building transport links to remote areas. In addition, an expansion of the country's water transport network was put forward, with a plan on converting 101 rivers into national waterways for the transport of goods and passengers. Construction was started for new sea and river ports, and plans were drawn up for waterbus and hovercraft services.
"For the first time in India, a challenge was being floated, in which the citizens of urban India could contribute in the formulation of development visions of their cities."
In addition to the smart cities initiative, Modi unveiled the "smart villages" initiative, under which rural villages will be given Internet access, clean water, sanitation, and low-carbon energy, with Members of Parliament overseeing the program's implementation in select villages in their constituencies, other than their own or those of their relatives, with the goal of at least 2,500 smart villages by 2019.
Modi also launched the Digital India program, which aims to ensure that government services are available to Indians electronically so as to reduce the amount of paperwork, build infrastructure to ensure rural areas get high-speed Internet access, and promote digital literacy, including among the poor.
In June 2015, Modi launched the flagship "Housing for All By 2022" project, which intends to eliminate slums in India by building about 20 million affordable homes for India's urban poor. The plan involves the participation of the private sector, and Modi carried out a series of reforms to make it easier to build low-cost housing.
Health and sanitation policies
Modi's government is working on a plan to introduce a universal health care system, known as the National Health Assurance Mission. Under this plan, the government would provide free drugs, diagnostic treatment, and insurance coverage for serious ailments, although budgetary concerns have delayed its implementation.
In October 2014, Modi launched the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan ("Clean India") campaign, a national cleanliness drive to eliminate widespread open defecation prevalent in rural areas, as well as reduce widespread littering throughout the country, so as to improve India's poor sanitary conditions. As part of the program, a public awareness campaign against littering was launched, and the Indian government stepped up construction of toilets in rural areas, as well as efforts to encourage people to use them. The Indian government also announced a series of projects to build new sewage treatment plants.
Modi's government has increased defence spending to modernise and expand the Indian Armed Forces. In September 2015, Modi government announced the introduction of One Rank, One Pension, a 40-year-old demand of military veterans and their widows for equal pension for the same designation.
Modi invited leaders of the SAARC countries to his swearing-in as prime minister to strengthen ties among its member states. Continuing his efforts to promote close relationships with neighbouring countries, his first foreign visit as prime minister was to Bhutan. Modi visited Nepal on 8 August 2014, and began a five-day trip to Japan on 30 August. On 17 September, Chinese President Xi Jinping arrived in India; financial memoranda of understanding and cooperation agreements between the countries were signed, which Modi called a new chapter in their economic relationship. The prime minister had a successful visit to the United States in the last week of September, which led to an improvement in relations between India and the US. In a 27 September address to the United Nations General Assembly Modi asked for the adoption of 21 June as International Yoga Day, and a resolution doing so was approved by the 193-member body.
In accordance with Ghanchi tradition, Modi's marriage was arranged by his parents when he was a child. He was engaged at age 13 to Jashodaben Narendrabhai Modi, marrying her when he was 18. They spent little time together and grew apart when Modi began two years of travel, including visits to Hindu ashrams. Reportedly, their marriage was never consummated and he kept it a secret because otherwise he could not have become a 'pracharak' in the puritan Rashtriya Swayamsewak Sangh (RSS). Although Modi kept his marriage secret for most of his career, he acknowledged his wife when he filed his nomination for a parliamentary seat in the 2014 general elections.
A vegetarian, Modi has a frugal lifestyle and is a workaholic and introvert. Adept at using social media, since September 2014 he has been the second-most-followed leader in the world (with over twelve million followers on Twitter as of May 2015). Modi's 31 August 2012 post on Google Hangouts made him the first Indian politician to interact with netizens on live chat.
Modi has also been called a fashion-icon with his signature, crisply ironed, half-sleeved tunic-shirt (dubbed the "Modi kurta"), brand-name accessories, and a suit with his name embroidered repeatedly in the pinstripes that he wore during a state visit by US President Barack Obama, drawing particular public and media attention, and sometimes criticism.
Although he is considered a controversial, polarising and divisive figure, British economist Jim O'Neill blogged that Modi is "good on economics" – one of the things "India desperately needs in a leader". In August 2013, financial analyst Chris Wood of CLSA wrote in his weekly "Greed & fear" report: "The Indian stock market's greatest hope is the emergence of Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi as the BJP's prime ministerial candidate".
In 2001, Modi co-authored Setubandh, a biography of the RSS leader Lakshmanrao Inamdar. In 2007, a book comprising a collection of Modi's poems titled Aankh Aa Dhanya Chhe (Our Eyes Are So Blessed) was published. His Gujarati book titled Jyotipunj was published in 2008 and contains biographical profiles of various RSS leaders by whom he was inspired. The longest profile is of M. S. Golwalkar, under whose leadership the RSS expanded and whom Modi refers to as Pujniya Shri Guruji (meaning "Guru worthy of worship"). According to The Economic Times, his intention was to explain the workings of the RSS to his readers and to reassure RSS members that he remained ideologically sound. Modi has authored eight other books, mostly comprising short stories for children.
Awards and recognition
Modi was named Best Chief Minister in a 2007 nationwide survey by India Today. In March 2012 he appeared on the cover of the Asian edition of Time, one of the few Indian politicians to have done so, and made the 2014 Time 100 list of the world's most influential people. Forbes Magazine ranked him the 15th-most-powerful person in the world in 2014 and the 9th-most-powerful person in the world in 2015. In 2015, Modi was one of Time 's "30 most influential people on the internet" as the second-most-followed politician on Twitter and Facebook.
In 2015, Modi was ranked fifth on Fortune magazine's second annual list of 'World's Greatest Leaders', which showed numerous changes from its first publication in 2014 because of its requirement that people who had been previously named had to "requalify with new achievements in the past 12 months". He received an overall approval rating of 87% at the end of his first year in office, with 68% of people rating him "very favourably" and 93% approving of his government.
- The exact number of people killed in the train burning is variously reported. For example, the BBC says it was 59 while The Guardian put the figure at 60.
- Afzal Guru was executed on 9 February 2013. There had been BJP allegations that the government's delaying of the execution for so long was an attempt to ensure that the Muslim vote was not lost.
- "Narendra Modi is sworn in as the 15th Prime Minister of India". The Times of India. 26 May 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- Lakshmi, Rama (15 August 2014). "India's Modi takes on rape issue in his first Independence Day speech". Washington Post. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
- "Modi wave conquers all: What exit polls show in Haryana, Maharashtra". Retrieved 7 November 2014.
- "13 achievements of Narendra Modi-led government’s first year in power, as listed by him". The Indian Express. 30 May 2015.
- "25 key achievements of Narendra Modi govt in past one year". businesstoday.in.
- TNN (30 September 2015). "India pips US, China as No. 1 foreign direct investment destination - The Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
- "Pay-off time for Modi: India displaces US, China as the top FDI destination in 2015". Firstpost. 29 July 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
- Joseph, Manu (15 February 2012). "Shaking Off the Horror of the Past in India". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Buncombe, Andrew (19 September 2011). "A rebirth dogged by controversy". The Independent (London). Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- David, Ruth (24 December 2007). "Controversial Gujarati Premier Confirmed in Office". Forbes. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Jaffrelot, Christophe (June 2013). "Gujarat Elections: The Sub-Text of Modi's 'Hattrick' — High Tech Populism and the 'Neo-middle Class". Studies in Indian Politics 1.
- Menon, Kalyani Devaki (2012). Everyday Nationalism: Women of the Hindu Right in India. The University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-8122-2234-0.
Yet, months after this violent pogrom against Muslims, the Hindu nationalist chief minister of Gujarat, Narendra Modi, went to the polls and won a resounding victory
- Mishra, Pankaj (April 2011). Visweswaran, Kamala, ed. Perspectives on Modern South Asia: A Reader in Culture, History, and Representation. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 188. ISBN 978-1-4051-0062-5.
The chief minister of Gujarat, a young up-and-coming leader of the Hindu nationalists called Narendra Modi, quoted Isaac Newton to explain the killings of Muslims. "Every action", he said, "has an equal and opposite reaction."
- "Indian PM Narendra Modi still mired in controversy, says expert". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 16 April 2015.
- Nair, Rupam Jain (12 December 2007). "Edgy Indian state election going down to the wire". Reuters. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Robinson, Simon (11 December 2007). "India's Voters Torn Over Politician". Time. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Burke, Jason (28 March 2010). "Gujarat leader Narendra Modi grilled for 10 hours at massacre inquiry". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- "Modi has successfully used social media to shape his public image: Study : India, News - India Today". Indiatoday.intoday.in. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- "Narendra Modi second-most popular leader after Obama on Facebook". Firstpost. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- Mandhana, Niharika (6 May 2015). "How India's Narendra Modi Became a Social Media #Superstar". WSJ. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- Press Trust of India (19 May 2015). "'Modi among most tech-savvy leaders' | Business Line". Thehindubusinessline.com. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- By FE Bureau on 24 September 2015 (24 September 2015). "With 15 million followers, PM Narendra Modi is 2nd most followed politician worldwide | Express Computer". Computer.financialexpress.com. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- "PM Narendra Modi has successfully used social media: Study | Zee News". Zeenews.india.com. 2015-05-19. Retrieved 2015-11-03.
- Pandey, Vikas (26 May 2015). "Narendra Modi: India's 'social media' PM - BBC News". Bbc.com. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- "BJP plays Modi caste card to run down Nitish". Hindustan Times. 18 June 2013.
- "OBC વડાપ્રધાન હોવા જોઈએ ભાજપ હવે જ્ઞાાતિનું કાર્ડ ઉતરશે". Gujarat Samachar (in Gujarati). 6 May 2014.
- "Everything you need to know about Narendra Modi".
- "Narendra Modi belongs to Modh-Ghanchi caste, which was added to OBCs categories in 1994, says Gujarat government".
- "Caste politics: Why is Narendra Modi not seen as an OBC leader, unlike Nitish and Lalu?".
- "'Modi is a Teli-Ghanchi OBC': BJP". The Times of India. 23 April 2014.
- "The office of Prime Minister: A largely north Indian upper-caste, Hindu affair". Business Standard. 7 May 2014.
- Illaih, Kancha (27 October 2002). "The Rise Of Modi". Outlook.
- Marino 2014, p. 15.
- Marino 2014, p. 4.
- Marino 2014, p. 74.
- Jose, Vinod K. (1 March 2012). "The Emperor Uncrowned". The Caravan. pp. 2–4. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Mehta, Harit (18 September 2011). "On Race Course road?". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 30 January 2014.
- "Affidavit of Narendra Modi for 2014 Indian General Elections (Varanasi)". Election Commission of India. Retrieved 22 May 2014.[dead link]
- Marino 2014, p. 16.
- Mukhopadhyay 2013, p. 82.
- "Modi's life dominates publishing space (Election Special)". New Kerala. 14 March 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
- Marino 2014, p. 24.
- Unnithan, Sandeep (2014). "The man behind Modi: Lakshmanrao Inamdar". India Today. Ahmedabad. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
- Mukhopadhyay, Nilanjan (2014). "Narendra Modi: The making of the political leader". Retrieved 22 May 2014.
- Pathak, Anil (2 October 2001). "Modi's meteoric rise". The Times of India. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Debasree (2014). "Will former tea vendor be India's next PM?". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
- Marino 2014, p. 21.
- Marino 2014, pp. 22-23.
- Marino 2014, p. 25.
- Marino 2014, pp. 30–33.
- Mukhopadhyay 2013, pp. 128–129.
- "Narendra Modi invited to Ramakrishna Mission's headquarter in Belurmath". The Economic Times (The Times Group). 26 May 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- Marino 2014, p. 26.
- Marino 2014, p. 27.
- Marino 2014, pp. 28-29.
- Mukhopadhyay 2013, p. 131.
- Mukhopadhyay 2013, p. 138.
- Marino 2014, p. 35.
- "Narendra Modi: From tea vendor to PM candidate". India Today. 13 September 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- Marino 2014, p. 48.
- "Modi proves to be an astute strategist". Hindustan Times. 23 December 2007. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- Guha 2008, p. 493–494.
- Kochanek & Hardgrave 2007, p. 205.
- Marino 2014, p. 43.
- Mukhopadhyay 2013, p. 150.
- "From Vadnagar to 7 RCR: Modi's meteoric rise". Rediff News. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- Patel, Aakar. "The poetic side of Narendra Modi". Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- "Gujarat not enamoured by poet Narendra Modi". The Times of India (The Times Group). 28 June 2004. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- Mishra, Mayank (20 July 2013). "Did Narendra Modi make Gujarat Vibrant?". Business Standard. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
- Mukhopadhyay 2013, pp. 68–69.
- Venkatesan, V. (13 October 2001). "A pracharak as Chief Minister". Frontline (New Delhi). Archived from the original on 5 April 2013. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- "Gujarat Assembly Elections 2012: Narendra Modi profile". Zee News. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
- Mehta, Harit (1 April 2014). "Six-year banishment led to Narendra Modi's metamorphosis". The Times of India. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
- Marino 2014, p. 78.
- Marino 2014, p. 79.
- Phadnis, Aditi (2009). Business Standard Political Profiles of Cabals and Kings. Business Standard Books. pp. 116–21. ISBN 978-81-905735-4-2.
- Bunsha, Dionne (13 October 2001). "A new oarsman". Frontline. Archived from the original on 28 August 2006. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- "Narendra Modi – Leading the race to 7 RCR". Zee News. 8 April 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- "Setting a record: A look at 12 years of Narendra Modi's rule in Gujarat". Firstpost. 7 October 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- Dasgupta, Manas (7 October 2001). "Modi sworn in Gujarat CM amidst fanfare". The Hindu. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- Venkatesan, V. "A victory and many pointers". Frontline. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- "Eleven sentenced to death for India Godhra train blaze". BBC News. 1 March 2011.
- "Gujarat riot death toll revealed". BBC News. 11 May 2005.
- "Eleven sentenced to death for India Godhra train blaze". BBC News. 1 March 2011. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Burke, Jason (22 February 2011). "Godhra train fire verdict prompts tight security measures". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Hampton, Janie (2002). Internally Displaced People: A Global Survey. Routledge. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-85383-952-8.
- "Gujarat Riot Death Toll revealed". BBC News. 11 May 2005. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
- Campbell, John; Seiple, Chris; Hoover, Dennis R.; et al., eds. (2012). The Routledge Handbook of Religion and Security. Routledge. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-415-66744-9.
- "Army too helpless as violence mounts". The Economic Times. 1 March 2002. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "Curfew imposed in 26 cities". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 1 March 2002. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- Sengupta, Somini (28 April 2009). "Shadows of Violence Cling to Indian Politician". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 30 August 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
- "Modi wanted Godhra bodies to come to A'bad". The Times of India. 22 August 2004. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Decision to bring Godhra victims' bodies taken at top level". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 10 February 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Timeline: Zakia Jafri vs Modi in 2002 Gujarat riots case". Hindustan Times. 26 December 2013. Archived from the original on 19 March 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- "National Human Rights Commission vs. State of Gujarat & Ors. – Writ Petition (Crl.) No. 109/2003". Supreme Court of India. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- "Jakia Nasim Ahesan & Anr. vs. State of Gujarat & Ors. – SLP (Crl) No. 1088 of 2008". Supreme Court of India. Archived from the original on 23 May 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- Mahapatra, Dhananjay (3 December 2010). "SIT clears Narendra Modi of willfully allowing post-Godhra riots". The Times of India. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "Proceed against Modi for Gujarat riots: amicus". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 9 May 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- Dasgupta, Manas (10 May 2012). "SIT rejects amicus curiae's observations against Modi". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- Khan, Saeed; Kaushik, Humanshu (26 December 2013). "2002 Gujarat riots: Clean chit to Modi, court rejects Zakia Jafri's plea". The Times of India. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
- Chris Ogden. 2012. A Lasting Legacy: The BJP-led National Democratic Alliance and India's Politics Journal of Contemporary Asia Vol. 42, Iss. 1, 2012
- Pandey, Gyanendra (November 2005). Routine violence: nations, fragments, histories. Stanford University Press. pp. 187–188. ISBN 978-0-8047-5264-0.
- Baruah, Bipasha (2012). Women and Property in Urban India. University of British Columbia Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7748-1928-2.
- Nussbaum, Martha Craven. The Clash Within: Democracy, Religious Violence, and India's Future. Harvard University Press. pp. 50–51. ISBN 978-0-674-03059-6.
- "Let truth be known about Modi". Sunday Guardian. 26 December 2013. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
- Soni, Nikunj (21 February 2012). "For Maya Kodnani, riots memories turn her smile into gloom". DNA India. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
- "Maya Kodnani led mob to carry out Naroda riot: Gujarat govt to HC". The Economic Times. 21 February 2009. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
- "Naroda Patiya riots: Former minister Maya Kodnani gets 28 years in jail". NDTV. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- "Narendra Modi government now rethinks death penalty for ex-aide Maya Kodnani". NDTV. 14 May 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- "Modi government does U-turn on death penalty for Kodnani, Bajrangi". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 14 May 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- "Modi gets cold feet on death for Kodnani". Hindustan Times. 14 May 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- Barry, Ellen (7 April 2014). "Wish for Change Animates Voters in India Election". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- Kishwar, Madhu Purnima (8 April 2014). "Narendra Modi on the Role of NDTV during the 2002 Riots". Manushi. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- "Congress demands Modi's resignation over Bannerjee report". Rediff.com. 3 March 2006. Retrieved 17 November 2007.
- "BJP national exec rejects Modi's resignation". Rediff.com. 12 April 2002. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- "Gujarat Assembly dissolved, early poll sought". The Economic Times. 19 July 2002. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "Modi resigns; seeks Assembly dissolution". The Hindu. 19 July 2002. Retrieved 9 May 2006.
- "Statistical Report on General Election, 2002 to the Legislative Assembly of Gujarat" (PDF). New Delhi: Election Commission of India. p. 228. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Gujarat IB officers transferred for putting Modi's controversial speech on record". Rediff. 19 July 2002. Retrieved 17 September 2002.
- Brasted, Howard V. (2005). Lahoud, Nelly; Johns, A. H., eds. Islam in World Politics. Routledge. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-415-32411-3.
the successful anti-Muslim campaign run in Gujarat in December 2002 by its provincial chief minister Narendra Modi – a hardline Hindu nationalist preacher turned politician – has ominous implications.
- Corbridge, Stuart; John Harriss, Craig Jeffrey (2012). India Today: Economy, Politics and Society. Polity Press. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-7456-6112-4.
December 2002, the BJP – led by Narendra Modi, who conducted a vicious campaign, making many stridently anti-Muslim statements
- Hardgrave, Jr., Robert L. (2005). "Hindu Nationalism and the BJP: Transforming Religion and Politics in India". In Dossani, Rafiq; Rowen, Henry S. Prospects For Peace in South Asia. Stanford University Press. pp. 210–211. ISBN 978-0-8047-5085-1.
In the campaign, Modi fused religion and politics and, as a spur to anti-Muslim sentiment, made Islamic terrorism and its ties to Pakistan a central plank in the BJP platform" etc
- "Modi wins Maninagar seat by 75,333 votes". Times of India. TNN. 15 December 2002. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
- "Narendra Modi sworn in as Gujarat CM". Rediff. 22 December 2002. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
- Umat, Ajay (9 February 2013). "Once Hindutva twins, Narendra Modi and PravinTogadia no longer conjoined". The Times of India. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- "Religious leaders demand rebuilding of temples". DNA India. Press Trust of India. 25 November 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- Dasgupta, Manas (4 April 2002). "Vajpayee's advice to Modi". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- "Vajpayee, Advani differed over Modi's resignation". India Today. 20 March 2008. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- Tellis, Ashley J.; Wills, Michael (September 2007). Domestic political change and grand strategy. National Bureau of Asian Research. pp. 193–4. ISBN 978-0-9713938-8-2.
- Yogendra, Kanwar (13 June 2004). "Not removing Modi was a mistake, says Vajpayee". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- Naqvi, Saba (22 December 2008). "When fear didn't enter the booth". Outlook India. pp. 26–28. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- "Mahatma on lips, Modi fights Centre". The Telegraph (Kolkata, India). 19 July 2006. Retrieved 9 May 2008.
- "Now, Amar Singh says Afzal Guru must be hanged". The Indian Express. 4 November 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- Mohan, Vishwa (10 February 2013). "Afzal Guru hanged, remains in Tihar; no last wish, refused to eat". The Times of India. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Modi wants 3-layer ring to secure coast". The Times of India. 28 November 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- "Narendra Modi wins Maninagar by 70,000 votes". Hindustan Times. 20 December 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2014.[dead link]
- "BJP adds 5 seats in Gujarat Assembly by-polls". Deccan Herald. 14 September 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- Shah, Tushaar (2011). Business Standard India 2011. Business Standard Books. pp. 195–199. ISBN 978-93-80740-04-1.
- Mahurkar, Uday (4 June 2010). "A green rising". India Today. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Gujarat, Maharashtra record highest growth in farm sector". The Hindu. 12 July 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- Shah, Tushaar; Gulati, Ashok; Hemant, P.; Shreedhar, Ganga; Jain, R. C. (December 2009). "Secret of Gujarat's Agrarian Miracle after 2000". Economic and Political Weekly 44 (52): 45–55. JSTOR 25663939. (subscription required)
- Mishra, Mayank (20 July 2013). "Did Narendra Modi make Gujarat Vibrant?". Business Standard. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
- Shah, Tushar; Verma, Shilp (22 February 2008). "Co-Management of Electricity and Groundwater: An Assessment of Gujarat's Jyotirgram Scheme". Economic and Political weekly 43: 59–66. JSTOR 40277613.
- "Good interest for developing SEZ, non-SEZ areas in GIFT city". The Economic Times. 11 January 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- GIFT Project Update July 2012 – Building and Construction Authority, Government of Singapore
- Bobbio, Tommaso (2012). "Making Gujarat Vibrant: Hindutva, development and the rise of subnationalism in India". Third World Quarterly 33 (4): 657–672. doi:10.1080/01436597.2012.657423. (subscription required)
- Ibrahim, Farhana (25 August 2007). "Capitalism, Multiculturalism and Tolerance: A Perspective on'Vibrant Gujarat". Economic and Political Weekly 42: 3446–3449. JSTOR 4419936. (subscription required)
- Mehta, Nalin (15 October 2010). "Ashis Nandy vs. the state of Gujarat: authoritarian developmentalism, democracy and the politics of Narendra Modi". South Asian History and Culture 1 (4): 577–596. doi:10.1080/19472498.2010.507028. (subscription required)
- Limited, Times Internet. "Gujarat tops ease of doing business ranking among states - The Economic Times on Mobile". Retrieved 16 September 2015.
- Mishra, Asit Ranjan. "Ease of doing business ranking out on 31 August". http://www.livemint.com/. Retrieved 16 September 2015.
- "Gujarat tops list of economically-free states". http://www.hindustantimes.com/. Retrieved 16 September 2015.
- Shah, Ghanshyam (June 2013). "Politics of Governance: A Study of Gujarat". Studies in Indian Politics 1 (1): 65–77. doi:10.1177/2321023013482788. (subscription required)
- Pathak, Vikas (11 August 2013). "Gujarat looks at marketing human development now". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- "Land Acquisition act is a fraud, ought to be scrapped: Supreme Court". The Economic Times. Press Trust of India. 4 August 2011. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- Jaffrelot, Christophe (June 2013). "Gujarat Elections: The Sub-Text of Modi's 'Hattrick'—High Tech Populism and the 'Neo-middle Class'". Studies in Indian Politics 1 (1): 79–95. doi:10.1177/2321023013482789.
- Sen, Amartya (22 July 2013). "I don't want Narendra Modi as my PM: Amartya Sen". The Indian Express. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- Bhagwati, Jagdish; Panagariya, Arvind (2013). "Reforms and Their Impact on Health and Education". Why Growth Matters:How Economic Growth in India Reduced Poverty and the Lessons for Other Developing Countries. New York City: PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-61039-272-3. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
- "Big win for Narendra Modi, defeats Shweta Bhatt by huge margin". NDTV. Press Trust of India. 20 December 2012.
- Ghassem-fachandi, Parvis (2012). Pogrom in Gujarat: Hindu Nationalism and Anti-Muslim Violence in India. Princeton University Press. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-691-15177-9.
- 1. "Action continues: Narendra Modi makes lotus bloom again in Gujarat". DNA India. 20 December 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
2. "Gujarat results 2012 Live :Modi's claim for PM's post gets stronger". Samay Live. 20 December 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
- Gupta, Smita (6 June 2013). "BJP sweeps Gujarat bypolls, RJD trumps JD(U) in Bihar". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- Bhowmick, Nilanjana (5 March 2013). "Why Wharton Canceled Narendra Modi's Speech". Time. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- "LIVE: Anandiben Patel named new Gujarat chief minister – IndiaToday – May 21 2014l". Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- "Japanese vendors keen on Gujarat: Suzuki tells Modi". Business Standard. 25 August 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
- "Gujarat now India's SEZ: Modi". The Indian Express. 6 September 2007. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- "Modi visits Dalian port in China, meets city Mayor". One India. 8 September 2007. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- "Modi shines like a diamond; frees jailed traders in China". One India. 8 December 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
- "China frees 13 diamond traders, Narendra Modi pats his own back". Mumbai Mirror. 8 December 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "No entry for Modi into US: visa denied". The Times of India. 18 March 2005. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- Mann, James (2 May 2014). "Why Narendra Modi Was Banned From the U.S.". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- Burke, Jason (22 October 2012). "UK government ends boycott of Narendra Modi". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
- "Germany delinks Narendra Modi's image from human rights issues". NDTV. 6 March 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- "Readout of the President's Call with Prime Ministerial Candidate Narendra Modi of India". Whitehouse.gov. 16 May 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
- Cassidy, John (16 May 2014). "What Does Modi's Victory Mean for the World?". The New Yorker. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- "Narendra Modi invites Pak investment, offers energy solutions". The News International. 20 September 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- Nelson, Dean (21 April 2014). "Pakistan 'backs Narendra Modi' as India's next prime minister". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- Roche, Elizabeth (20 May 2014). "Narendra Modi and the art of Twiplomacy". Live Mint. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
- "BJP banking on Modi effect". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 27 April 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- Srivastava, Ritesh (30 August 2011). "Election 2009 dissected: How parties cut the vote pie". Zee News. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
- "Narendra Modi inducted into BJP Parliamentary Board, Rajnath rejigs team". The Economic Times. 31 March 2013. Retrieved 18 May 2014.
- "Parliamentary Board". Bharatiya Janata Party. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- "Narendra Modi set appointed as Chairman of BJP's Central Election Campaign Committee". The Economic Times. 9 June 2013. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
- "Advani grabs lifeline, meekly withdraws resignation". The Times of India. 12 June 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- Reddy, B. Muralidhar (14 September 2013). "BJP announces Modi as prime ministerial candidate". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "Narendra Modi files nomination in Vadodara after grand roadshow". NDTV. 9 April 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- Dutta, Saptarishi (26 May 2014). "Modi Sticks to His 'Minimum Government, Maximum Governance' Mantra". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- "Modi's Vadodara victory margin not highest-ever". Business Standard. 16 May 2014.
- "Lok Sabha polls: Narendra Modi wins big from Varanasi, Vadodara". Zee News. 16 May 2014.
- "Election Results 2014: Narendra Modi Wins By Huge Margin in Vadodara". NDTV. 16 May 2014.
- "Election Results 2014: Ab Ki Baar, Modi Sarkaar. BJP+ set for more than 300 seats.". NDTV. 16 May 2014.
- "President appoints Narendra Modi as Prime Minister, Oath taking ceremony on May 26". Office of President of India. 20 May 2014. Archived from the original on 21 May 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- "Narendra Modi appointed PM, swearing-in on May 26". The Indian Express. Press Trust of India. 20 May 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- "Modi thanks Vadodara, looks forward to serve Ganga". Hindustan Times. Press Trust of India. 29 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- Sharma, Swati (25 June 2014). "White House losing Twitter war to India's Narendra Modi". Washington Post. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
- "Narendra Modi appointed Prime Minister, swearing in on May 26". The Times of India. 20 May 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- Swami, Praveen (22 May 2014). "In a first, Modi invites SAARC leaders for his swearing-in". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- "Narendra Modi saves Rs 125 crore by keeping Cabinet small". dna.
- "Modi tackles India’s ‘Licence Raj’ with a thousand cuts". Financial Times.
- Niharika Mandhana (16 October 2014). "India Takes On Bureaucratic Red Tape With Series of Changes". WSJ.
- "It's all work, no holiday for babus in Modi govt | india". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- Gowen, Annie (11 July 2014). "No golf, long days are new norm for India's bureaucrats". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- "Modi replaces Planning Commission, aiming to boost growth". Reuters. 1 January 2015.
- "Cabinet approves raising FDI cap in defence to 49 per cent, opens up railways". The Times Of India. 7 August 2014.
- Zhong, Raymond (20 November 2014). "Modi Presses Reform for India—But Is it Enough?". The Wall Street Journal.
- Ashworth, David (28 May 2015). "Foreign Direct Investment in India Up 61% since Last Year". Market Realist. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- "India frees up foreign investment in 15 major sectors". Reuters India.
- "Look East, Link West, says PM Modi at Make in India launch". http://www.hindustantimes.com/.
- Charles Riley (10 November 2015). "GE to build 1,000 trains for India in massive deal". CNNMoney.
- Adi Narayan (9 November 2015). "India's $5.6 Billion GE, Alstom Deals Step Up Rail Overhaul". Bloomberg.com.
- "Centre to develop waterways, build 30 km highways daily: Nitin Gadkari - The Times of India". The Times Of India.
- "Cabinet nod to plan to convert 101 rivers into national waterways". Firstpost. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- "Infrastructure push: Modi government steps up to improve roads, increase connectivity". The Times Of India. 25 May 2015.
- "PM Modi speeds up capital spending on roads, rural infrastructure, railways in April to boost growth | business". Hindustan Times. 29 May 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- "Border Infrastructure: Modi government driving strategic projects with radical changes". The Times Of India. 16 May 2015.
- "Cities should get chance to plan their growth, says Modi". New Delhi. The Hindu. 25 June 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
- Preetam Kaushik (25 November 2014). "Smart Villages: Lending A Rural Flavour To Modi's Growth Agenda | Business Insider India". Businessinsider.in. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- "GST to take care of many of e-commerce firms' tax issues: IT minister". Livemint. 21 November 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- "What is Digital India Campaign? Impact of Digital India by 2019 | Digital India Project Campaign". Digitalindiainsight.com. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- Shrivastava, Bhuma (26 July 2015). "Mumbai Is Overflowing with Garbage". Bloomberg.
- "Cabinet Passes PM Modi's Ambitious "Housing For All By 2022" Scheme For The Urban Poor. No More Slums? - Youth Connect". Youthconnect.in. 19 June 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- "Severe Cut-Backs Expected in PM's Ambitious Health Care Plan for India". Medindia.net. 31 March 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- "Exclusive: Modi govt puts brakes on India's universal health plan". Reuters. 27 March 2015.
- "Modi government's healthcare schemes have brought smiles on some faces and disappointed a few : One year of Modi, News - India Today". Indiatoday.intoday.in. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- Lakshmi, Rama (14 December 2012). "India is building millions of toilets, but that's the easy part". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- Gahlot, Mandakini (3 April 2015). "India steps up efforts to encourage use of toilets". USA Today.
- "The_Final_Frontier". The Economist. 19 July 2014.
- Chaudhary, Archana (18 May 2015). "India Plans .3-Billion Sewage Plants in Towns Along the Ganges". Bloomberg.
- Choudhury, Santanu (28 February 2015). "India Increases Military Budget By 11% to Nearly $40 Billion". The Wall Street Journal.
- "One Rank One Pension: Forty years of wait is finally over".
- "Towards the Govt-Naga peace accord: Everything you need to know". The Indian Express. 4 August 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- "'Modi's invitation to SAARC leaders was a masterstroke'". Rediff.com. 26 May 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- "Narendra Modi has a 'Full' Diplomatic Calender Ahead: Bhutan, Japan, US". The Times of India. 8 June 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- "Modi thanks guardian deities, Kings for Bhutan visit success". Zee News. 17 June 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- "Prime Minister on a 5 day visit to Japan". Firstpost. 30 August 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
- "List of Documents signed during the State Visit of Chinese President Xi Jinping to India". Press Bureau of India. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
- "English rendering of the Remarks by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi at the Press Briefing with President Xi Jinping of China". Press Bureau of India. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
- "US describes Modi visit as extraordinarily successful". Economic times. 4 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "Narendra Modi calls for International Yoga Day". The Times of India. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
- "In Silicon Valley, PM Modi Meets Tech Leaders Satya Nadella and Sundar Pichai". 27 Sep 2015. Retrieved 27 Sep 2015.
- "PM begins Britain tour". www.narendramodi.in. 12 November 2015.
- "Narendra Modi's 'wife' Jashodaben finally speaks, 'I like to read about him (Modi)... I know he will become PM'". The Financial Express. 1 February 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- Mukhopadhyay 2013, A time of difference.
- Bodh, Anand (17 February 2014). "I am single, so best man to fight graft: Narendra Modi". The Times of India. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- "Jashodaben is my wife, Narendra Modi admits under oath". The Times of India. 10 April 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Harding, Luke (18 August 2013). "Profile: Narendra Modi". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "The Hawk in Flight". Outlook India. 24 December 2007. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "Narendra Modi (@narendramodi) | Twitter". twitter.com. Retrieved 2015-05-20.
- "Modi's world second most followed politician on Twitter, Facebook". Times of India. 5 September 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- "Narendra Modi on Google Hangout, Ajay Devgn to host event". The Times of India. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- "People ask, Narendra Modi answers on Google Plus Hangout". CNN-IBN. 1 September 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Sharma, Swati (6 June 2014). "Here's what Narendra Modi's fashion says about his politics – The Washington Post". The Washington Post (Washington DC: WPC). ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- Friedman, Vanessa (3 June 2014). "Narendra Modi, the Prime Minister of India: A Leader Who Is What He Wears". runway.blogs.nytimes.com. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- Price, Lance. The Modi Effect: Inside Narendra Modi's campaign to transform India. Quercus. pp. 179–180. ISBN 978-1623659387.
- Ramaseshan, Radhika (2 July 2013). "Boomerang warning in article on 'polarising' Modi". The Telegraph (Kolkata). Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- Malik, Ashok (8 November 2012). "Popular but polarising: can Narendra Modi be PM?". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 15 August 2013.[dead link]
- Bajaj, Vikas (22 December 2012). "In India, a Dangerous and Divisive Technocrat". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- "NaMo, Ram the new mantra on Dalal Street!". The Economic Times. 15 September 2013. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
- Goyal, Prateek (18 May 2014). "Mentoring Modi". Pune Mirror. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- "What Narendra Modi's poems reveal about him". Mint. 11 Jan 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- "Narendra Modi, smart politician and average poet". Hindustan Times. 9 June 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- "Narendra Modi on MS Golwalkar, translated by Aakar Patel - Part 1". Caravan. 31 May 2014. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- "Jyotipunj: Narendra Modi writes on 'my organisation, my leaders'". Economic Times. 9 April 2008. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- "Making Up For Lost Time". India Today. 12 February 2007. Retrieved 12 February 2007.
- "Why Narendra Modi is India's Most Loved and Loathed Politician". Time. 16 March 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- Zakaria, Fareed (23 April 2014). "The 100 Most Influential People: Narendra Modi". Time (US). Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- "PM Narendra Modi world's 9th most powerful person in Forbes list". timesofindia-economictimes.
- "The World's Most Powerful People". Forbes. November 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
- PM Narendra Modi is ninth most powerful figure in Forbes list, 4 November 2015
- "The 30 Most Influential People on the Internet". Time. 5 March 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
- "Narendra Modi and Kailash Satyarthi are world's greatest leaders, says Fortune Magazine". Business Insider. 27 March 2015. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
- Colvin, Geoff (26 March 2015). "World's Greatest Leaders". Fortune. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- "Indians adore Modi". Retrieved 17 September 2015.
- Guha, Ramachandra (2008). India After Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy. Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0060958589.
- Kochanek, Stanley; Hardgrave, Robert (2007). India: Government and Politics in a Developing Nation. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-0495007494.
- Marino, Andy (2014). Narendra Modi: A Political Biography. HarperCollins Publishers India. ISBN 978-93-5136-217-3.
- Mukhopadhyay, Nilanjan (2013). Narendra Modi: The Man, The Times. Westkabd. ASIN B00C4PGOF4.
- Sardesai, Rajdeep. 2014: The Election That Changed India (2014) excerpt
- Sridharan, Eswaran. "Behind Modi's Victory." Journal of Democracy (2014) 24#4 pp: 20-33. Online
- Fernandes, Vivian (2014). Modi: Leadership, governance and Performance. Orient Publishing. ASIN B00JUIMUBA.
- Kamath, M.V.; Randeri, Kalindi (2013). The Man of the Moment: Narendra Modi. Vikas. ISBN 978-9325968387.
- Kishwar, Madhu Purnima (2014). Modi, Muslims and Media: Voices from Narendra Modi's Gujarat. Manushi Publications. ISBN 978-81-929352-0-1.
- Mahurkar, Uday (2014). Centrestage: Inside the Narendra Modi Model of Governanace. Random House India. ASIN B00JR3PQ64.
- Mitta, Manoj (2014). The Fiction of Fact-Finding: Modi & Godhra. HarperCollins Publishers India. ISBN 978-93-5029-187-0.
- Nag, Kingshuk (2013). The NaMo Story – A Political Life. Roli Books. ISBN 978-8174369383.
- Nussbaum, Martha Craven (2008). The Clash Within: Democracy, Religious Violence, and India's Future. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-03059-6.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Narendra Modi.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Narendra Modi|
- Official website (Prime Minister's office)
- Official website (personal)
- Official page on Bharatiya Janata Party's website
|Chief Minister of Gujarat
|Prime Minister of India
Murli Manohar Joshi
|Member of the Lok Sabha