27 October [O.S. 15 October] 1899|
Zaporizhia Oblast, Russian Empire, Present-day Ukraine
20 November 2000 (aged 101)|
|Alma mater||Bauman Moscow State Technical University|
Soviet atomic bomb project|
Founder of the RBMK type nuclear reactor
nuclear marine propulsion
Order of Merit for the Fatherland|
Hero of Socialist Labour
Institute of Chemical Physics|
Moscow State University
Sternberg Astronomical Institute
Nikolay Antonovich Dollezhal (Russian: Николай Антонович Доллежа́ль; 27 October [O.S. 15 October] 1899 – 20 November 2000) was a Soviet mechanical engineer, a key figure in Soviet atomic bomb project and chief designer of nuclear reactors from the first plutonium production reactor to the RBMK.
Born in Omelnik, Zaporizhia Oblast, Dollezhal graduated MVTU in 1923. Until 1930, he worked in various design bureaus, but after a tour of Europe in 1929 he was arrested and spent a year and a half in prison, before being acquitted in January 1932. In 1932-1943 he headed important manufacturing plants in Kiev, Leningrad and Sverdlovsk.
In 1943, Dollezhal was appointed to lead the new Institute of Chemical Machinery in Moscow. In 1946, the Institute was assigned to the Soviet atomic project; his first reactors, graphite moderated types A and AI, produced Soviet plutonium used in Joe 1 nuclear test of 1949 and subsequent nuclear weapons deployment. After 1950, Dollezhal focused on nuclear marine propulsion. His first proposal, Type AM, was not practical for marine uses but became the core of the first nuclear power plant in Obninsk, commissioned in 1954. In the same year, he produced a viable draft of a light water submarine reactor.
Dollezhal pioneered the concept of the pressurized water reactor, which led to numerous military and VVER-type civilian designs. In 1957 Dollezhal Institute launched their first dual-use (civilian energy and weapons-grade plutonium) powerplant, Type EI, and seven years later, the first truly industrial Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Station. All subsequent Soviet reactors (VVER, RBMK) also originated from his firm.
Honours and awards
- Lenin Prize (1957)
- Three Stalin Prizes (1949, 1952 and 1953)
- Two USSR State Prizes (1970 and 1976)
- Hero of Socialist Labour, twice (1949 and 1984)
- Six Orders of Lenin (incl 1949 and 1984)
- Order of the October Revolution
- Order of the Red Banner of Labour
- Order of the Red Star
- Order of Merit for the Fatherland, 2nd class (1999)
- Kurchatov Gold Medal (Russian Academy of Sciences, 2000)
- Могила Н. А. Доллежаля на кладбище села Козино
- "Nikolay A. Dollezhal". Brief History. N.A. Dollezhal Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering. Archived from the original on 10 August 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-11.
- МГТУ им. Н. Э. Баумана «Выпускники и выдающиеся деятели Университета»