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VVER reactor class
View of the Balakovo Nuclear Power Plant site, with four operational VVER-1000 reactors.
GenerationGeneration I reactor
Generation II reactor
Generation III reactor
Generation III+ reactor
Reactor conceptPressurized water reactor
Reactor lineVVER (Voda Voda Energo Reactor)
Reactor typesVVER-210
Main parameters of the reactor core
Fuel (fissile material)235U (LEU)
Fuel stateSolid
Neutron energy spectrumThermal
Primary control methodControl rods
Primary moderatorWater
Primary coolantLiquid (light water)
Reactor usage
Primary useGeneration of electricity
Power (thermal)VVER-210: 760 MWth
VVER-365: 1,325 MWth
VVER-440: 1,375 MWth
VVER-1000: 3,000 MWth
VVER-1200: 3,212 MWth
VVER-TOI: 3,300 MWth
Power (electric)VVER-210: 210 MWel
VVER-365: 365 MWel
VVER-440: 440 MWel
VVER-1000: 1,000 MWel
VVER-1200: 1,200 MWel
VVER-TOI: 1,300 MWel

The water-water energetic reactor (WWER),[1] or VVER (from Russian: водо-водяной энергетический реактор; transliterates as vodo-vodyanoi enyergeticheskiy reaktor; water-water power reactor) is a series of pressurized water reactor designs originally developed in the Soviet Union, and now Russia, by OKB Gidropress.[2] The idea of such a reactor was proposed at the Kurchatov Institute by Savely Moiseevich Feinberg. VVER were originally developed before the 1970s, and have been continually updated. As a result, the name VVER is associated with a wide variety of reactor designs spanning from generation I reactors to modern generation III+ reactor designs. Power output ranges from 70 to 1300 MWe, with designs of up to 1700 MWe in development.[3][4] The first prototype VVER-210 was built at the Novovoronezh Nuclear Power Plant.

VVER power stations have mostly been installed in Russia, but also in Ukraine, Belarus, Armenia, China, the Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Slovakia, Bulgaria, India and Iran. Countries that are planning to introduce VVER reactors include Bangladesh, Egypt, Jordan, and Turkey. Germany shut down its VVER reactors in 1989-90,[5] and cancelled those under construction.


The earliest VVERs were built before 1970. The VVER-440 Model V230 was the most common design, delivering 440 MW of electrical power. The V230 employs six primary coolant loops each with a horizontal steam generator. A modified version of VVER-440, Model V213, was a product of the first nuclear safety standards adopted by Soviet designers. This model includes added emergency core cooling and auxiliary feedwater systems as well as upgraded accident localization systems.[6]

The larger VVER-1000 was developed after 1975 and is a four-loop system housed in a containment-type structure with a spray steam suppression system (Emergency Core Cooling System). VVER reactor designs have been elaborated to incorporate automatic control, passive safety and containment systems associated with Western generation III reactors.

The VVER-1200 is the version currently offered for construction, being an evolution of the VVER-1000 with increased power output to about 1200 MWe (gross) and providing additional passive safety features.[7]

In 2012, Rosatom stated that in the future it intended to certify the VVER with the British and U.S. regulatory authorities, though was unlikely to apply for a British licence before 2015.[8][9]

The construction of the first VVER-1300 (VVER-TOI) 1300 MWE unit was started in 2018.[4]


A WWER-1000 (or VVER-1000 as a direct transliteration of Russian ВВЭР-1000), a 1000 MWe Russian nuclear power reactor of PWR type.
1: control rod drives
2: reactor cover[10] or vessel head[11]
3: Reactor pressure vessel
4: inlet and outlet nozzles
5: reactor core barrel or core shroud
6: reactor core
7: fuel rods
The arrangement of hexagonal fuel assemblies compared to a Westinghouse PWR design. Note that there are 163 assemblies on this hexagonal arrangement and 193 on the Westinghouse arrangement.

The Russian abbreviation VVER stands for 'water-water energy reactor' (i.e. water-cooled water-moderated energy reactor). The design is a type of pressurised water reactor (PWR). The main distinguishing features of the VVER[3] compared to other PWRs are:

  • Horizontal steam generators
  • Hexagonal fuel assemblies
  • No bottom penetrations in the pressure vessel
  • High-capacity pressurizers providing a large reactor coolant inventory
VVER-440 reactor hall at Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant

Reactor fuel rods are fully immersed in water kept at (12,5 / 15,7 / 16,2 ) MPa (1812/2277/2349 psi) pressure respectively so that it does not boil at the normal (220 to over 320 °C [428 to >608°F]) operating temperatures. Water in the reactor serves both as a coolant and a moderator which is an important safety feature. Should coolant circulation fail, the neutron moderation effect of the water diminishes due to increased heat which creates steam bubbles which do not moderate neutrons, thus reducing reaction intensity and compensating for loss of cooling, a condition known as negative void coefficient. Later versions of the reactors are encased in massive steel reactor pressure vessels. Fuel is low enriched (ca. 2.4–4.4% 235U) uranium dioxide (UO2) or equivalent pressed into pellets and assembled into fuel rods.

Reactivity is controlled by control rods that can be inserted into the reactor from above. These rods are made from a neutron absorbing material and, depending on depth of insertion, hinder the chain reaction. If there is an emergency, a reactor shutdown can be performed by full insertion of the control rods into the core.

Primary cooling circuits[edit]

Layout of the four primary cooling circuits and the pressurizer of a VVER-1000
Construction of a VVER-1000 reactor vessel at Atommash.

As stated above, the water in the primary circuits is kept under a constant elevated pressure to avoid its boiling. Since the water transfers all the heat from the core and is irradiated, the integrity of this circuit is crucial. Four main components can be distinguished:

  1. Reactor vessel: water flows through the fuel assemblies which are heated by the nuclear chain reaction.
  2. Volume compensator (pressurizer): to keep the water under constant but controlled pressure, the volume compensator regulates the pressure by controlling the equilibrium between saturated steam and water using electrical heating and relief valves.
  3. Steam generator: in the steam generator, the heat from the primary coolant water is used to boil the water in the secondary circuit.
  4. Pump: the pump ensures the proper circulation of the water through the circuit.

To provide for the continued cooling of the reactor core in emergency situations the primary cooling is designed with redundancy.

Secondary circuit and electrical output[edit]

The secondary circuit also consists of different subsystems:

  1. Steam generator: secondary water is boiled taking heat from the primary circuit. Before entering the turbine remaining water is separated from the steam so that the steam is dry.
  2. Turbine: the expanding steam drives a turbine, which connects to an electrical generator. The turbine is split into high and low pressure sections. To boost efficiency, steam is reheated between these sections. Reactors of the VVER-1000 type deliver 1 GW of electrical power.
  3. Condenser: the steam is cooled and allowed to condense, shedding waste heat into a cooling circuit.
  4. Deaerator: removes gases from the coolant.
  5. Pump: the circulation pumps are each driven by their own small steam turbine.

To increase efficiency of the process, steam from the turbine is taken to reheat coolant in the secondary circuit before the deaerator and the steam generator. Water in this circuit is not supposed to be radioactive.

Tertiary cooling circuit and district heating[edit]

The tertiary cooling circuit is an open circuit diverting water from an outside reservoir such as a lake or river. Evaporative cooling towers, cooling basins or ponds transfer the waste heat from the generation circuit into the environment.

In most VVERs this heat can also be further used for residential and industrial heating. Operational examples of such systems are Bohunice NPP (Slovakia) supplying heat to the towns of Trnava[12] (12 kilometres [7.5 mi] away), Leopoldov (9.5 kilometres [5.9 mi] away), and Hlohovec (13 kilometres [8.1 mi] away), and Temelín NPP (Czech Republic) supplying heat to Týn nad Vltavou 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) away. Plans are made to supply heat from the Dukovany NPP to Brno (the second-largest city in the Czech Republic), covering two-thirds of its heat needs.[13]

Safety barriers[edit]

The two VVER-440 units in Loviisa, Finland have containment buildings that fulfil Western safety standards.

A typical design feature of nuclear reactors is layered safety barriers preventing escape of radioactive material. VVER reactors have three layers:

  1. Fuel rods: the hermetic Zirconium alloy (Zircaloy) cladding around the uranium oxide sintered ceramic fuel pellets provides a barrier resistant to heat and high pressure.
  2. Reactor pressure vessel wall: a massive steel shell encases the whole fuel assembly and primary coolant hermetically.
  3. Reactor building: a concrete containment building that encases the whole first circuit is strong enough to resist the pressure surge a breach in the first circuit would cause.

Compared to the RBMK reactors – the type involved in the Chernobyl disaster – the VVER uses an inherently safer design because the coolant is also the moderator, and by nature of its design has a negative void coefficient like all PWRs. It does not have the graphite-moderated RBMK's risk of increased reactivity and large power transients in the event of a loss of coolant accident. The RBMK reactors were also constructed without containment structures on grounds of cost due to their size; the VVER core is considerably smaller.[14]



One of the earliest versions of the VVER-type, the VVER-440 manifested certain problems with its containment building design. As it was at the beginning with the models V-230 and older not constructed to resist the design basis large pipe break, the manufacturer added with the newer model V-213 a so called Bubble condenser tower, that – with its additional volume and a number of water layers – has the aim to suppress the forces of the rapidly escaping steam without the onset of a containment-leak. As a consequence, all member-countries with plants of design VVER-440 V-230 and older were forced by the politicians of the European Union to shut them down permanently. Because of this, Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant had to close two reactors and Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant had to close four. Whereas in the case of the Greifswald Nuclear Power Plant, the German regulatory body had already taken the same decision in the wake of the fall of the Berlin Wall.


Control room of a VVER-1000 in 2009, Kozloduy Unit 5

When first built the VVER design was intended to be operational for 35 years. A mid-life major overhaul including a complete replacement of critical parts such as fuel and control rod channels was thought necessary after that.[15] Since RBMK reactors specified a major replacement programme at 35 years designers originally decided this needed to happen in the VVER type as well, although they are of more robust design than the RBMK type. Most of Russia's VVER plants are now reaching and passing the 35 year mark. More recent design studies have allowed for an extension of lifetime up to 50 years with replacement of equipment. New VVERs will be nameplated with the extended lifetime.

In 2010 the oldest VVER-1000, at Novovoronezh, was shut down for modernization to extend its operating life for an additional 20 years; the first to undergo such an operating life extension. The work includes the modernization of management, protection and emergency systems, and improvement of security and radiation safety systems.[16]

In 2018 Rosatom announced it had developed a thermal annealing technique for reactor pressure vessels which ameliorates radiation damage and extends service life by between 15 and 30 years. This had been demonstrated on unit 1 of the Balakovo Nuclear Power Plant.[17]


The VVER-1200 (or NPP-2006 or AES-2006)[7] is an evolution of the VVER-1000 being offered for domestic and export use.[18][19] The reactor design has been refined to optimize fuel efficiency. Specifications include a $1,200 per kW overnight construction cost, 54 month planned construction time, a 60 year design lifetime at 90% capacity factor, and requiring about 35% fewer operational personnel than the VVER-1000. The VVER-1200 has a gross and net thermal efficiency of 37.5% and 34.8%. The VVER 1200 will produce 1,198 MWe of power.[20][21]

The first two units have been built at Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant II and Novovoronezh Nuclear Power Plant II. More reactors with a VVER-1200/491[22] like the Leningrad-II-design are planned (Kaliningrad and Nizhny Novgorod NPP) and under construction. The type VVER-1200/392M[23] as installed at the Novovoronezh NPP-II has also been selected for the Seversk, Zentral and South-Urals NPP. A standard version was developed as VVER-1200/513 and based on the VVER-TOI (VVER-1300/510) design.

In July 2012 a contract was agreed to build two AES-2006 in Belarus at Ostrovets and for Russia to provide a $10 billion loan to cover the project costs.[24] An AES-2006 is being bid for the Hanhikivi Nuclear Power Plant in Finland.[25] The plant supply contract was signed in 2013, but terminated in 2022 mainly due to Russian invasion of Ukraine.[26]

From 2015 to 2017 Egypt and Russia came to an agreement for the construction of four VVER-1200 units at El Dabaa Nuclear Power Plant.[27]

On 30 November 2017, concrete was poured for the nuclear island basemat for first of two VVER-1200/523 units at the Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant in Bangladesh. The power plant will be a 2.4 GWe nuclear power plant in Bangladesh. The two units generating 2.4 GWe are planned to be operational in 2023 and 2024.[28]

On 7 March 2019 China National Nuclear Corporation and Atomstroyexport signed the detailed contract for the construction of four VVER-1200s, two each at the Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant and the Xudabao Nuclear Power Plant. Construction will start in May 2021 and commercial operation of all the units is expected between 2026 and 2028.[29]

From 2020 an 18-month refuelling cycle will be piloted, resulting in an improved capacity utilisation factor compared to the previous 12-month cycle.[30]

Safety features[edit]

The nuclear part of the plant is housed in a single building acting as containment and missile shield. Besides the reactor and steam generators this includes an improved refueling machine, and the computerized reactor control systems. Likewise protected in the same building are the emergency systems, including an emergency core cooling system, emergency backup diesel power supply, and backup feed water supply,

A passive heat removal system had been added to the existing active systems in the AES-92 version of the VVER-1000 used for the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant in India. This has been retained for the newer VVER-1200 and future designs. The system is based on a cooling system and water tanks built on top of the containment dome.[31] The passive systems handle all safety functions for 24 hours, and core safety for 72 hours.[7]

Other new safety systems include aircraft crash protection, hydrogen recombiners, and a core catcher to contain the molten reactor core in the event of a severe accident.[19][24][32] The core catcher will be deployed in the Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant and El Dabaa Nuclear Power Plant.[33] [34]


The VVER-TOI is developed from the VVER-1200. It is aimed at development of typical optimized informative-advanced project of a new generation III+ Power Unit based on VVER technology, which meets a number of target-oriented parameters using modern information and management technologies.[35]

The main improvements from the VVER-1200 are:[4]

  • power increased to 1300 MWe gross
  • upgraded pressure vessel
  • improved core design to improve cooling
  • further developments of passive safety systems
  • lower construction and operating costs with a 40-month construction time
  • use of low-speed turbines

The construction of the first two VVER-TOI units was started in 2018 and 2019 at the Kursk II Nuclear Power Plant.[36][4]

In June 2019 the VVER-TOI was certified as compliant with European Utility Requirements (with certain reservations) for nuclear power plants.[4]

An upgraded version of AES-2006 with TOI standards, the VVER-1200/513, is being built in Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant in Turkey.[37]

Future versions[edit]

A number of designs for future versions of the VVER have been made:[38]

  • MIR-1200 (Modernised International Reactor) – designed in conjunction with Czech company ŠKODA JS[39] to satisfy European requirements[40]
  • VVER-1500 – VVER-1000 with dimensions increased to produce 1500 MWe gross power output, but design shelved in favour of the evolutionary VVER-1200[41]
  • VVER-1700 Supercritical water reactor version.
  • VVER-600 two cooling circuit version of the VVER-1200 designed for smaller markets, authorised to be built by 2030 at the Kola Nuclear Power Plant.[42][43]

Power plants[edit]

List of operational, planned and VVER installations under construction
Power plant Country Coordinates Reactors Notes
Akkuyu Turkey 36°08′40″N 33°32′28″E / 36.14444°N 33.54111°E / 36.14444; 33.54111 (Akkuyu NPP) (4 × VVER-1200/513)
(AES-2006 with TOI-Standard)
Under construction.[44]
Astravets Belarus 54°45′40″N 26°5′21″E / 54.76111°N 26.08917°E / 54.76111; 26.08917 (Astravets NPP) (2 × VVER-1200/491) Unit 1 operational since 2020.[45] Unit 2 started operating in May 2023.[46]
Balakovo Russia 52°5′28″N 47°57′19″E / 52.09111°N 47.95528°E / 52.09111; 47.95528 (Balakovo NPP) 4 × VVER-1000/320
(2 × VVER-1000/320)
Units 5 and 6 construction cancelled. To be dismantled.[47]
Belene Bulgaria 43°37′46″N 25°11′12″E / 43.62944°N 25.18667°E / 43.62944; 25.18667 (Belene NPP) (2 × VVER-1000/466B) Suspended in 2012.[48]
Bohunice Slovakia 48°29′40″N 17°40′55″E / 48.49444°N 17.68194°E / 48.49444; 17.68194 (Bouhunice NPP) 2 × VVER-440/230
2 × VVER-440/213
Split in two plants, V-1 and V-2 with two reactors each. VVER-440/230 units at V-1 plant closed in 2006 and 2008.[citation needed]
Bushehr Iran 28°49′46.64″N 50°53′09.46″E / 28.8296222°N 50.8859611°E / 28.8296222; 50.8859611 (Bushehr NPP) 1 × VVER-1000/446

(1 × VVER-1000/446)
(2 × VVER-1000/528)

A version of the V-392 adapted to the Bushehr site.[49] Unit 2 cancelled by Rosatom in 2007, units 3 and 4 planned.
Dukovany Czech Republic 4 × VVER 440/213 Upgraded to 510 MW in 2009-2012. Upgrade to 522 MW planned.[50]
El Dabaa Egypt 31°2′39″N 28°29′52″E / 31.04417°N 28.49778°E / 31.04417; 28.49778 (El Dabaa NPP) (4 × VVER 1200/529) Under construction.[51][52][53]
Greifswald Germany 4 × VVER-440/230
1 × VVER-440/213
(3 × VVER-440/213)
Decommissioned. Unit 6 finished, but never operated. Unit 7 and 8 construction cancelled.[citation needed]
Kalinin Russia 2 × VVER-1000/338
2 × VVER-1000/320
Construction of unit 4 suspended in 1991 and unit 3 slowed down in 1990. In early 1990s construction of unit 3 restarted and commissioned in 2004. Unit 4 in 2012.[54]
Hanhikivi Finland 1 × VVER-1200/491 Postponed indefinitely as of March 2022.[55] Contract terminated in May 2022.[26]
Khmelnytskyi Ukraine 2 × VVER-1000/320
(2 × VVER-1000/392B)
Unit 4 construction cancelled in 2021. Unit 3 planned to be completed with Czech company Škoda JS as VVER-1000 and units 5 and 6 contract signed - Westinghouse AP1000.[56]
Kola Russia 2 × VVER-440/230
2 × VVER-440/213
All units prolonged to 60-year operation lifespan.[57]
Kudankulam India 8°10′08″N 77°42′45″E / 8.16889°N 77.71250°E / 8.16889; 77.71250 (Kudankulam NPP) 2 × VVER-1000/412 (AES-92)
(4 × VVER-1000/412) (AES-92)
Unit 1 operational since 13 July 2013; Unit 2 operational since 10 July 2016.[58] Units 3,4,5 and 6 under construction.
Kozloduy Bulgaria 4 × VVER-440/230
2 × VVER-1000
Older VVER-440/230 units closed 2004-2007.[citation needed]
Kursk II Russia 51°41′18″N 35°34′24″E / 51.68833°N 35.57333°E / 51.68833; 35.57333 (Kursk II NPP) 2 × VVER-TOI

(2 × VVER-TOI)

First VVER-TOI.[36]
Leningrad II Russia 59°49′52″N 29°03′35″E / 59.83111°N 29.05972°E / 59.83111; 29.05972 (Leningrad II NPP) 2 × VVER-1200/491 (AES-2006)

(2 × VVER-1200/491 (AES-2006))

The units are the prototypes of the VVER-1200/491 (AES-2006), unit 1 in commercial operation since october 2018, unit 2 since march 2021.
Loviisa Finland 2 × VVER-440/213 Western control systems, clearly different containment structures. Later modified for a 530 MW output.
Metsamor Armenia 2 × VVER-440/270 One reactor was shut down in 1989, unit 2 decommissioning planned in 2026.
Mochovce Slovakia 3 × VVER-440/213
(1 × VVER-440/213)
Units 3 and 4 under construction since 1985, unit 3 commissioned in 2023 and unit 4 is to be commissioned in 2025.[59]
Novovoronezh Russia 1 x VVER-210 (V-1)
1 x VVER-365 (V-3M)
2 × VVER-440/179
1 × VVER-1000/187
All units are prototypes. Unit 1 and 2 shutdown. Unit 3 modernised in 2002.[60]
Novovoronezh II Russia 51°15′53.964″N 39°12′41.22″E / 51.26499000°N 39.2114500°E / 51.26499000; 39.2114500 (Novovoronezh II NPP) 2 × VVER-1200/392M (AES-2006) Unit 1 is the prototype of the VVER-1200/392M (AES-2006), commissioned in 2017, followed by unit 2 in 2019.
Paks Hungary 4 × VVER-440/213
(2 × VVER-1200/517)
Two VVER-1200 units under construction.[61]
Rheinsberg Germany 1 × VVER-70 (V-2) Unit decommissioned in 1990
Rivne Ukraine 2 × VVER-440/213
2 × VVER-1000/320
(2 × VVER-1000/320)
Units 5 and 6 planning suspended in 1990.
Rooppur Bangladesh 24°6′47″N 89°4′07″E / 24.11306°N 89.06861°E / 24.11306; 89.06861 (Rooppur NPP) 2 × VVER- 1200/523 Units 1 and 2 under construction; planned operational in 2023 and 2024.[62]
Rostov Russia 47°35′57.63″N 42°22′18.76″E / 47.5993417°N 42.3718778°E / 47.5993417; 42.3718778 (Zaporizhzhia NPP) 4 × VVER-1000/320 Plant construction suspended in 1990 - unit 1 was nearly 100% completed. Construction restarted in 1999-2000 and unit 1 commissioned in 2001 and unit 4 in 2018.[63]
South Ukraine Ukraine 1 × VVER-1000/302
1 × VVER-1000/338
1 × VVER-1000/320
(1 × VVER-1000/320)
Unit 4 construction suspended in 1989 and cancelled in 1991.[64]
Stendal Germany (4 × VVER-1000/320) All 4 units construction cancelled in 1991 after Germany reunification.[65]
Temelin Czech Republic 2 × VVER-1000/320

(2 × VVER-1000/320)

Western control systems. Both units upgraded to 1086 MWe and commissioned in 2000 and 2002 respectively, units 3 and 4 (same type) cancelled in 1990 due to change of political regime, only foundation was completed. Units 3 and 4 now planned with a different design.
Tianwan China 34°41′13″N 119°27′35″E / 34.68694°N 119.45972°E / 34.68694; 119.45972 (Tianwan NPP) 2 × VVER-1000/428 (AES-91)
2 × VVER-1000/428M (AES-91)
(2 × VVER-1200)
VVER-1200 construction started in May 2021 and February 2022.
Xudabao China 40°21′5″N 120°32′45″E / 40.35139°N 120.54583°E / 40.35139; 120.54583 (Xudabao NPP) (2 × VVER-1200) Construction on the first reactor commenced in 28 July 2021, with construction starting on the second reactor in 19 May 2022.
Zaporizhzhia Ukraine 47°30′30″N 34°35′04″E / 47.50833°N 34.58444°E / 47.50833; 34.58444 (Zaporizhzhia NPP) 6 × VVER-1000/320 Largest nuclear power plant in Europe.

Technical specifications[edit]

Specifications VVER-210[66] VVER-365 VVER-440 VVER-1000 VVER-1200
Thermal output, MW 760 1325 1375 3000 3212 3300
Efficiency, net % 25.5 25.7 29.7 31.7 35.7[nb 1] 37.9
Vapor pressure, in 100 kPa
     in front of the turbine 29.0 29.0 44.0 60.0 70.0
     in the first circuit 100 105 125 160.0 165.1 165.2
Water temperature, °C:  
     core coolant inlet 250 250 269 289 298.2[73] 297.2
     core coolant outlet 269 275 300 319 328.6 328.8
Equivalent core diameter, m 2.88 2.88 2.88 3.12
Active core height, m 2.50 2.50 2.50 3.50 3.73[74]
Outer diameter of fuel rods, mm 10.2 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.1
Number of fuel rods in assembly 90 126 126 312 312 313
Number of fuel assemblies[66][75] 349

(312+ARK (SUZ) 37)


(276+ARK 73)

349 (276+ARK 73),
(312+ARK 37) Kola
151 (109+SUZ 42),


163 163
Uranium loading, tons 38 40 42 66 76-85.5 87.3
Average uranium enrichment, % 2.0 3.0 3.5 4.26 4.69
Average fuel burnup, MW · day / kg 13.0 27.0 28.6 48.4 55.5


VVER models and installations[76]
Generation Name Model Country Power plants
I VVER V-210 (V-1)[77] Russia Novovoronezh 1 (decommissioned)
V-70 (V-2)[78] East Germany Rheinsberg (KKR) (decommissioned)[citation needed]
V-365 (V-3M) Russia Novovoronezh 2 (decommissioned)
II VVER-440 V-179 Russia Novovoronezh 3 (decommissioned) - 4
V-230 Russia Kola 1-2
East Germany Greifswald 1-4 (decommissioned)
Bulgaria Kozloduy 1-4 (decommissioned)
Slovakia Bohunice I 1-2 (decommissioned)
V-213 Russia Kola 3-4
East Germany Greifswald 5 (decommissioned)
Ukraine Rivne 1-2
Hungary Paks 1-4
Czech Republic Dukovany 1-4
Finland Loviisa 1-2
Slovakia Bohunice II 1-2
Mochovce 1-2
V-213+ Slovakia Mochovce 3
Mochovce 4 (under construction)
V-270 Armenia Armenian-1 (decommissioned)
III VVER-1000 V-187 Russia Novovoronezh 5
V-302 Ukraine South Ukraine 1
V-338 Ukraine South Ukraine 2
Russia Kalinin 1-2
V-320 Russia Balakovo 1-4
Kalinin 3-4
Rostov 1-4
Ukraine Rivne 3-4
Zaporizhzhia 1-6
Khmelnytskyi 1-2
South Ukraine 3
Bulgaria Kozloduy 5-6
Czech Republic Temelin 1-2
V-428 China Tianwan 1-2
V-428M China Tianwan 3-4
V-412 India Kudankulam 1-2
Kudankulam 3-6 (under construction)
V-446 Iran Bushehr 1
III+ VVER-1000 V-528 Iran Bushehr 2 (under construction)
VVER-1200 V-392M Russia Novovoronezh II 1-2
V-491 Russia Baltic 1-2 (construction frozen)
Leningrad II 1-2
Belarus Belarus 1-2
China Tianwan 7-8 (under construction)
Xudabao 3-4 (under construction)
V-509 Turkey Akkuyu 1-4 (under construction)
V-523 Bangladesh Ruppur 1-2 (under construction)
V-529 Egypt El Dabaa 1-4 (under construction)
VVER-1300 V-510K Russia Kursk II 1-2 (under construction)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Other sources - 34,8.


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