Non-human electoral candidates
Non-human electoral candidates have been found in a number of countries. Often, the candidacies are a means of casting a protest vote or satirizing the political system. Other times, it is simply done for the entertainment value.
Electoral regulations may explicitly require candidates to be human (or equivalent wording), or may require candidates to do things which animals cannot reasonably do (such as sign their name legibly on a legal form). On some occasions, however, animals have been accepted as candidates, and have even won office.
- Boston Curtis, a brown mule, was offered as a candidate for a Republican precinct seat in Milton, Washington in 1938, winning 51 to zero.
- Cacareco, a rhinoceros at the São Paulo zoo, was a candidate for the 1958 city council elections with the intention of protesting against political corruption. Electoral officials did not accept Cacareco's candidacy, but he eventually won 100,000 votes, more than any other party in that same election (which was also marked by rampant absenteeism). Today, the term "Voto Cacareco" (Cacareco vote) is commonly used to describe protest votes in Brazil. Cacareco's candidacy inspired the Rhinoceros Party of Canada, nominally led by the rhinoceros Cornelius the First.
- In 1967, an Ecuadorian foot powder company advertised its product, Pulvapies, as a mayoral candidate in the town of Picoazá. Surprisingly, the foot powder won by a clear majority.
- Pigasus the Immortal was a boar hog that the Yippies nominated as a candidate in the U.S. presidential election, 1968.
- Colossus the Gorilla, the main attraction at Benson's Wild Animal Farm in Hudson, New Hampshire, failed to be put on the ballot in the 1980 New Hampshire Republican Presidential primary. The simian's candidacy was promoted by Benson's, but the zoo's argument that the U.S. Constitution does not specify that a native-born candidate for the presidency had to be human was rejected.
- Bosco the dog, a black Labrador-Rottweiler mix, was elected mayor of Sunol, California (1981–1994).
- A cat named Morris was a candidate for mayor of Xalapa, Mexico in 2013.
- In 1989, regional council boundaries were redrawn, with an emphasis on catchments being connected. These revised maps made Whangamomona, NZ part of the Manawatu-Wanganui Region. Residents wanted to continue to be part of the Taranaki Region, and on 1 November 1989, they responded by declaring themselves the "Republic of Whangamomona" at the first Republic Day. At every Republic Day, they vote to either keep the seating President or to vote in a new one. Since 1999, they have had Billy Gumboot the Goat (1999–2001) and Tai the Poodle (2003–2004), the current incumbent being Murt "Murtle the Turtle" Kennard (2005–Present).
- Tião, a bad-tempered chimpanzee, was put forward by the fictional Brazilian Banana Party (Partido Bananista Brasileiro, actually the satirical group Casseta & Planeta) as a candidate for the Rio de Janeiro mayoralty in 1988. The campaign's slogan was "Vote monkey – get monkey" (because people were tired of voting for one platform and then seeing the elected officials implementing another one). There is no official counting (because all votes were recorded as "null"), but it's estimated that Tião received over 400,000 votes, coming third.
- New Zealand's McGillicuddy Serious Party entered a goat in a local Waiheke Island election, but their attempt to have a hedgehog stand for Parliament was unsuccessful.
- Dustin the Turkey, a popular Irish television puppet received thousands of votes in the Republic of Ireland's 1997 presidential election. Although not being an official candidate there are rumours that he came in fifth, ahead of official candidate Derek Nally.
- In 1997, a cat named Stubbs was elected mayor of Talkeetna, Alaska.
- United States film maker Michael Moore attempted to get a potted ficus tree onto the ballot as a candidate for United States Representative in 2000.
- Catmando, a political cat, served as joint leader of Britain's Official Monster Raving Loony Party (OMRLP) from 1999 to 2002, along with his owner, Howling Laud Hope.
- In 2001, a Dachshund called Saucisse (Sausage) was a candidate for Marseille (France) municipal elections. He won 4% of votes. Eight years later, in 2009, he participated the third season of Secret Story, the French version of Big Brother. He entered the house on Day 36. His secret is that he was a candidate at the election of Marseille Mayor. To protect his secret, he entered the house with the nickname "Secret".
- In 2006, a famous prankster and street artist from Szeged, Hungary, proclaimed himself the founder of the Hungarian Double-tailed Dog Party, going as far as to place propaganda ads out on the walls of Szeged's houses, promoting the candidate "István Nagy", a two-tailed dog.
- Molly the Dog, a dachshund from Oklahoma, named as a candidate in the U.S. presidential election, 2008.
- United States TV host and California councilmember Charlotte Laws had a chicken who ran for Vice President on the Bully ticket in the 2012 election.
- Ed the Sock, a sock puppet, attempted to run for the Fed-Up Party during the Canadian federal election, 2011.
- The Inanimate Objects Party at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute encourages write-in votes for inanimate objects, such as an inflatable whale named Arthur Galpin or a dead albino squirrel.
- Hank the Cat, a Maine Coon from Northern Virginia, ran against Tim Kaine and George Allen for Virginia's Senate seat in 2012. He earned third place in the state, with nearly 7,000 votes.
- Tuxedo Stan, a cat from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, was a mayoral candidate in the 2012 municipal elections representing the Tuxedo Party, a political movement aimed to improve the welfare of felines in HRM (Halifax Regional Municipality) "because neglect isn't working". He has been endorsed by celebrities including Anderson Cooper.
- Fire Hydrant ran for election multiple times 2004–2008 at the University of British Columbia, including a position on the Board of Governors, coming within 6 votes of being elected. This was done to raise awareness of election irregularities.
- In August 2014, seven-year-old Duke The Dog won an election and became the new mayor of Cormorant, Minnesota.
- Giggles the Pig was set to run for mayor of Flint, Michigan in 2015. Lawyer Michael Ewing started "Giggles the Pig for Flint Mayor" as a write-in campaign after a city clerk's office error threatened to keep all candidates' names off the August, 2015 mayoral primary election. Ewing said the candidacy "sought to draw more attention to the mayoral race, better educate voters about their choices and encourage residents to demand more of elected officials." Giggles attracted many online fans, while the "other candidates for mayor were less amused." The write-in campaign was cancelled after state officials fixed the mistake and allowed four candidates' names to appear on the ballot, and the race had become "No longer an even playing field" for Giggles. Giggles' Facebook page was then to be used to share good news stories about Flint.
- Crawfish B. Crawfish is a crawfish from Louisiana. Crawfish's campaign for the United States presidency began on Facebook on a page titled "Can This Crawfish Get More Supporters Than Bobby Jindal?", created on May 31, 2015. The campaign began to receive media attention after Louisiana governor Bobby Jindal announced his bid for the 2016 Presidential race. Since Jindal's announcement, Crawfish has received media attention from outlets such as The Huffington Post, Salon magazine, Bustle, and popular Louisiana-based publications NOLA Defender and Gambit. Crawfish officially registered with the Federal Election Commission, running for a non-listed party, on July 2, 2015. Crawfish has stated his support of education, gender equality, same-sex marriage, and Game of Thrones, while criticizing the strict bi-partisan system.
- Limberbutt McCubbins is a male cat from Kentucky who is officially registered with the Federal Election Commission as a Democratic candidate for the 2016 United States presidential election. The idea to run Limberbutt as a candidate came from a high school senior named Isaac Weiss, and the cat belongs to his friend Emilee McCubbins. Limberbutt's campaign slogan is "Meow Is The Time". The cat may have stayed a local issue, had The Rachel Maddow Show not brought it widespread attention. Limberbutt's candidacy has been endorsed by Jezebel. Since the cat has been filed as a candidate, he has received coverage from major media outlets including NPR, The Huffington Post, Today, and ABC News. Politifact rated the legitimacy of Limberbutt McCubbins' candidacy as "half true". Weiss and McCubbins credit their involvement with the YMCA's Youth in Government programs for helping to encourage them to be politically active. Limberbutt's first television interview had him showing his platforms in greater detail, through the interpreters, Weiss and McCubbins. Weiss says that they want to work to reform the Federal Election Commission (FEC), stating that it only took "20 minutes" to fill out the forms, and that they did not even require a social security number. The campaign has also rallied behind voter registration for all voters, with a focus on younger voters. Limberbutt 2016 signs and buttons are showing up all over the country as citizens rally behind this campaign for a variety of reasons. Cosmopolitan also cites the desire of Weiss to reform the FEC, but doubts that Hillary Clinton will engage with Limberbutt in the presidential debates.
Folklore and pop culture
The notion of animals being elected to office have often been the subject of parody and folklore. In 1972, American singer Tom T. Hall had a hit with a recording entitled "The Monkey That Became President" which considered a scenario in which said animal was elected to office. Thomas Love Peacock's 1817 novel Melincourt featured an orangutan as a parliamentary candidate.
- List of animals with fraudulent diplomas
- List of frivolous political parties
- List of practical joke topics
- Jedi census phenomenon
- "Boston Curtis." Time Magazine. Published 26 Sept. 1938. Accessed 11 January 2008.
- Boston Curtis museumofhoaxes.com
- "Memória Viva apresenta: O Cruzeiro – 24 de outubro de 1959 – Cacareco agora é Excelência". memoriaviva.com.br. Retrieved 7 November 2015.
- snopes (7 November 2015). "Foot Powder Ecuador Election Result : snopes.com". Snopes. Retrieved 7 November 2015.
- Garnick, Darren. "Hillary Cried Here: An Unconventional Tourist Guide to the N.H. Primary". Tourist Guide to the N.H. Primary. The Atlantic. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- Vanderbilt Television News Archive
- "Bay Area's First Canine Mayor Memorialized". NBC Bay Area (San Jose, California: NBCUniversal). 17 December 2008. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Tuckman, Jo (19 June 2013). "Cat stands for election in Mexican city". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 January 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- Strapagiel, Lauren (20 June 2013). "Morris the cat joins long legacy of cuddly politicians". Canada.com. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Tião's home page
- Tião's 31st birthday, O Estado de S. Paulo, 1994-01-16
- Rio Zoo completes 60 years, O Estado de S. Paulo, 2005-03-18
- Yan, Holly (July 17, 2012). "Mayor of Alaska village walks on four paws". CNN. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
- Plant candidate
- Molly the dog
- "A hen in the White House? Just the ticket – LA Daily News". Dailynews.com. Retrieved 2013-06-21.
- Benjamin R. Freed (2012-11-09). "Hank the Cat Claws His Way to Third Place in Virginia Senate Race". DCist. Retrieved 2013-06-21.
- "Tuxedo Stan, cat, running for mayor of Halifax (video)". Vancouver Sun. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
- "Anderson Cooper endorses Tuxedo Stan for mayor". CTV News. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
- "Fire Hydrant the Politician". Retrieved 2014-01-31.
- "Last Words: In which we nitpick the AMS elections". The Ubyssey. 2013-01-16. Retrieved 2014-01-31.
- "Duke The Dog Elected Mayor In Cormorant, Minn.".
- "Dog becomes mayor of Minnesota town".
- Duke the dog. Mayor of Cormorant MN. YouTube. 16 August 2014. Retrieved 7 November 2015.
- "Duke the Dog Mayor of Cormorant, Minnesota". facebook.com. Retrieved 7 November 2015.
- ABC News. "Would-Be Mayor Gracious After Losing to Dog". ABC News. Retrieved 7 November 2015.
- Sutton, Scott (7 May 2015). "No laughing matter: Giggles the pig is running for mayor in Michigan". Archived from the original on 7 May 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
- Steve Carmody (June 10, 2015). "Giggles the Pig no longer running for Flint mayor". Associated Press.
- "Can This Crawfish Get More Supporters Than Bobby Jindal?". Can This Crawfish Get More Supporters Than Bobby Jindal?. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "Louisiana Would Rather Vote for a (Mud)Bug Than Bobby Jindal". 7/1/2015. Retrieved 8 August 2015. Check date values in:
- White Jr., Lamar (7/1/2015). "Bobby Jindal has no shame: This charlatan belongs nowhere near the White House". Salon. Retrieved 8 August 2015. Check date values in:
- Siese, April. "The Crawfish Aiming For More Supporters Than Bobby Jindal Is My New Best Friend". Bustle. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- Leonard, Lucy. "CRAWFISH '16". NOLA Defender. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- Woodward, Alex (July 8, 2015). "Get to know the crawfish running for president". Gambit. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "Committee/Candidate Details". fec.gov. Retrieved 7 November 2015.
- "About Crawfish". Crawfish 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "Committee/Candidate Details". fec.gov. Retrieved 7 November 2015.
- Maddow, Rachel (May 8, 2015). "Transcript". The Rachel Maddow Show (NBC News). Retrieved 24 July 2015.
- Merlan, Anna (July 9, 2015). "Jezebel Endorses Limberbutt McCubbins, Cat, for President". Jezebel (website). Retrieved 10 July 2015.
- Lopez, Ashley (July 8, 2015). "For Limberbutt McCubbins, 'The Time Is Meow' To Run For President". NPR.
- Greenwood, Arin (July 9, 2015). "A Cat Named Limberbutt McCubbins Is Running For President! He's A Demo-Cat". Huffington Post.
- Stump, Scott (July 24, 2015). "Next Washington Fat Cat Limberbutt McCubbins Running for President". Today.
- Qiu, Linda (July 14, 2015). "Can a cat run for president?". Politifact.com.
- Loosemore, Bailey (July 20, 2015). "Limberbutt 2016: Ky. cat running for president". The Courier-Journal.
- "Joe Arnold Asks Presidential Candidate Limberbutt McCubbins the Hard Hitting Questions". WHAS-TV. July 20, 2015.
- Arnold, Joe (July 20, 2015). "Demo-Cat Campaign for President Meows The Time". WHAS-TV.
- Kobola, Frank (July 9, 2015). "This Cat is Running for President". Cosmopolitan.