Ski jumping

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"Ski jump" redirects here. For an aircraft carrier's ski-jump, see Aircraft ski-jump.
This article is about current season series. For World Cup, see 2016–17 FIS Ski Jumping World Cup. For Continental Cup, see 2016–17 FIS Ski Jumping Continental Cup.
Ski jumping
Holmenkollen ski jump.jpg
Highest governing body International Ski Federation (FIS)
First played 22 November 1808
Olaf Rye,
Eidsberg church, Eidsberg, Norway
Characteristics
Team members M Individual (50)
L Individual (40)
Team event (4)
Type Nordic skiing
Equipment skis
Venue Asia
Europe
North America
Presence
Olympic 1924 (men)
2014 (ladies)
World Championships 1925 (men's nordic)
1972 (ski flying)
2009 (ladies' nordic)
Planica Nordic Centre;
first ever jumps over 100 metres (1936) and 200 metres (1994) happened here
Letalnica bratov Gorišek (Planica);
hill with 28 world records, the most of all
Peter Prevc; he is the first man in history who over jumped the distance of 250 metres (820 ft); he also holds the World Cup single season records for most wins (15), most podiums (22) and most overall points (2303)
Anders Fannemel; he holds the current world record at 251.5 metres (825 ft)

Ski jumping is a form of Nordic skiing in which athletes descend a specially constructed takeoff ramp (known as the inrun), jump from the end of it (the table) with as much power as they can generate, and "fly" as far as possible down a steeply sloped hill.[1] Points are awarded for distance and style by five judges, with competition sanctioned by the International Ski Federation (FIS). To enable the athletes (who are known as ski jumpers) to effectively glide such long distances and land safely, the skis they use are considerably wider and longer than their cross-country and alpine skiing counterparts. Ski jumping is predominantly a winter sport and has been part of the Winter Olympic Games since its inception in 1924 for men and since 2014 for women.[2] Since 1954 it is possible to ski jump in summer on artificial surfaces made from plastic. Along with cross-country skiing, ski jumping is one of two sports which form the Nordic combined discipline. Holmenkollbakken in Oslo is the holy place of this sport, which is most popular in Austria, Germany, Finland, Japan, Norway, Poland and Slovenia.

Contents

History[edit]

Olaf Rye (first jumper ever)
first ever ski jump of 9.5 metres was set by lieutenant Olaf Rye in 1808 at Eidsberg church, Norway
Matti Nykänen. Finnish ski jumper, known as greatest ever
Janez Gorišek (1969).
Slovenian engineer is a world's greatest ski jumping constructor, specialized in ski flying hills. He built over 100 hills around the world
Pull-up style (Oslo, 1908)
Upright style (Sweden, 1917)
Torbjørn Falkanger.
arms forward style (1949)
Kongsberger technique (1952)
Miro Oman;
Windisch technique (1958)
Hans-Georg Aschenbach. Däscher/parallel style (1973)
Sigmund Ruud (1930s); co-creator of Kongsberger style
Birger Ruud (1936)
Dimitry Vassiliev; he holds the longest ever but invalid jump with fall at 254 metres (833 ft); he also holds the summer world record on plastic at 147.5 metres (484 ft)

1796: First experiments[edit]

According to the sources of Dutch naval officer Cornelius de Jong from his book Reizen naar de kap, first ski jumping experiments dates back to 1796. In this book it's described, how that year soldiers of some Norwegian ski company used house and barn roofs as ski jumping hills and discovered that the hard landing could be reduced by jumping on a steep slope.

1808: Rye's first jump ever[edit]

The recorded origins of the first ever real ski jump can be traced directly to 22 November 1808 in which Danish-Norwegian lieutenant Olaf Rye launched himself 9.5 metres (31 ft) in the air as a show of courage to his fellow soldiers near Eidsberg church in Eidsberg, Norway.[3][4]

1862: First competition/style points[edit]

The very first organized and recorded public competition was held at Trysil, Norway, on 22 January 1862. At this first competition, judges already awarded points for style ("elegance and smoothness"), participants had to complete three jumps without falling and rules were agreed upon in advance.[5] It is clear from the news report published in Morgenbladet that the ski jumping in Trysild was entertainment, but also a national, competitive sports event.

1866: First event in Christiania[edit]

In 1866, the first skiing event was held in Oslo/Christiania near Old Aker Church was a combined cross-country, slalom and jumping competition, and attracted an audience of some 2,000 people.[6]

1868: Norheim invented telemark[edit]

Norwegian skier and pioneer of modern skiing Sondre Norheim won his first competition in Christiania in 1868 and set the second ever world record in ski jumping at 19.5 metres (64 ft).[6] Norheim is known as the father of Telemark skiing who practised downhill skiing as a recreational activity, rising to local fame for his skills. He made important innovations in skiing technology by designing new equipment, such as different bindings and shorter skis with curved sides to facilitate turns. He also designed the Telemark ski, which is the prototype of all those now produced. Sondre Norheim was regarded by his contemporaries as a master of the art of skiing. He combined ordinary skiing with jumping and slalom.

1879: Husebyrennene[edit]

The first widely known ski jumping competition was the Husebyrennene, held in Oslo in 1879, with Olaf Haugann of Norway setting the first world record for the longest ski jump at 20 meters.[7] Explorer Fridtjof Nansen was a skilled skier and was number 7 in the 1881 competition at Huseby.[6] Until 1884–1886 jumping and cross-country was a single integrated competition: In 1886 at Huseby cross-country and jumping were held on separate days, and final results were calculated from the combined achievements (similar to present nordic combined).[6]

1892: Holmenkollen[edit]

The annual event was moved from Husebyrennene to Holmenkollen in 1892, and Holmenkollen has remained the pinnacle of ski jumping venues. To distinguish ski jumping competition only from Nordic combined, it is still referred to as spesielt hopprenn in Norwegian (ski jumping only). Until 1933 there were no "jumping only" national championships in Norway, only Nordic combined. International championships in ski jumping only were introduced in the 1920s.[8]

1918: Kongsberger technique[edit]

The Kongsberger technique (Norwegian: Kongsbergknekk) was created by Norwegian ski jumpers Jacob Tullin Thams and Sigmund Ruud in Kongsberg, Norway and developed after World War I. The technique was characterised by the athlete's upper body being bent at the hip, with arms extended at the front and skis held parallel to each other. Sometimes the arms would be waved or 'flapped' around vigorously in a bird-like manner. This technique extended jumping lengths from 45 metres (148 ft) to over 100 metres (330 ft), and was used in ski jumping until being superseded by the Windisch and Däscher techniques in the 1950s.[9]

1924: Olympic premiere[edit]

Men's ski jumping has been on the Winter Olympics Games program since the first edition in 1924 being held only on normal hill. Norwegian ski jumper Jacob Tullin Thams was the first ever Olympic ski jumping gold medalist.

1925: World Championships premiere[edit]

FIS Nordic World Ski Championships was for the first time organized in 1925 in Janské Lázně, Czechoslovakia only on large hill. Czechoslovakian ski jumper Willen Dick became the first ever Nordic world champion.

1929: Japan joined the family[edit]

In 1929, Norwegian instructors arrived in Sapporo to train the Japanese in ski jumping.[5] Two years later large hill was opened in Sapporo which to thid day still remains the national ski jumping center. Japan became and is for decades now one of the world's leading ski jumping nations who produced many legends and champions until this day.

1934: Planica opening event[edit]

On 4 February 1934 the hill, unfairly named the Bloudkova velikanka (Velika Rožman/Bloudkova skakalnica), was opened with the Kingdom of Yugoslavia National championships. The winner was Franc Palme from Kingdom of Yugoslavia (now Slovenia). With 55 and 60 meters he set the first two hill records and the national record at the same time. In March they organized the first international competition when Birger Ruud set the first world record in Planica with 92 meters.[10] Later his brother Sigmund Ruud touched the snow at 94 meters, a world record distance. This hill dominated as the world's largest hill for sixteen years in a row with total of thirteen world records.

1936: Bradl first over 100 metres[edit]

On 15 March 1936 Austrian Sepp Bradl was the first man in history to have officially jumped over one hundred meters at Bloudkova velikanka in Planica. He actually jumped 101.5 meters and not 101 metres, which had to be displayed on the scoreboard due to not enough space and wrongly spread into newspapers for many years. That day a new discipline called ski flying was born.

1938: Congress in Helsinki[edit]

This year Joso Gorec, Slovenian visionar who founded Planica Nordic Centre, went to the regular International Ski Federation congress in Helsinki where he was defending bold plans of Stanko Bloudek and fighting for recognition of the Ski flying discipline, which FIS was against. He was supported by Sir Arnold Lunn, who said FIS simply couldn't prevent sky flying competitions. Lunn also had big problems with FIS not recognizing slalom and downhill disciplines. Reinhard Straumann also joined Joso Gorec and support him in this initiative. FIS finally allowed ski flying competitions but only for study purposes.

1949: Windisch technique[edit]

Windisch was created by German ski jumper Erich Windisch in 1949, which was a modification of the Kongsberger technique. The athlete's arms are instead placed backwards toward the hips for a closer, more aerodynamic lean.

1953: Four Hills Tournament[edit]

Prestigious Austrian/German Four Hills Tournament (original: Vierschanzentournee) was for the first time organized on 1 January 1953. Legendary Austrian ski jumper Sepp Bradl won the first tournament title.

1954: Summer debut on plastic[edit]

Plastic cover for ski jumping was invented by East German ski jumper Hans Renner. First ski jumping tests on plastic without any audience were already made on 31 October 1954 at »Regenbergschanze« in Zella-Mehlis, East Germany. But the »Wadeberg Jugendschanze K40« in Oberhof, which was built just next to the old »Thüringenschanze«, officially became the world's first plastic covered ski jumping hill. On 21 November 1954 they organized here the first ever summer competition on plastic infront of 15,000 spectators and Werner Lesser set first two ever plastic/summer world records of 41 and 42 metres (135 & 138 ft).

The Däscher technique or parallel style[11] was created by Andreas Däscher somewhere in the 1950s, as a modification of the Kongsberger and Windisch techniques. No longer was the upper body bent as much at the hip, enabling a flatter, more aerodynamic position in the air. This style became the standard for ski jumping as a whole until the development of the V-style. In the 1980s, the parallel style saw a variation in which the skis were pointed diagonally off to the side in order to increase surface area, essentially forming a half "V".[12]

A new Heini-Klopfer-Skiflugschanze in Oberstdorf, West Germany was opened in early 1950s and this whole decade dominated as the biggest hill in the world, firmly holding the world record.

1956: First ever live broadcast[edit]

German television ARD produced first ever ski jumping live broadcast signal on a New Year's day in 1956 from Garmisch-Partenkirchen event at Four Hills Tournament.

1962: K.O.P., computer measuring[edit]

K.O.P. (Kulm-Oberstdorf-Planica), an association of ski flying hills was originally founded on initiative of Danilo Dougan and other organizers in Ljubljana in 1962.[13] Vikersund, Copper Peak and Harrachov joined later.

Technical development also reached this sport. In 1962 they first time measured the distances with the help of computers, before that using only hand measurements.

1966: Vikersund became flying hill[edit]

In 1936 Vikersundbakken in Norway was originally built as a large hill. Since 1966 when it was renovated, it was converted and categorized into the ski flying hill. Two new world records were set this year.

1969: V-style by Mirosław Graf[edit]

Mirosław Graf, a Polish ski jumper from Szklarska Poręba originated V-style. As early as 1969 Graf discovered the technique as a child, but it was not taken seriously by his contemporaries. He was nonetheless aware that the V-style was highly effective, as his jumps became considerably longer.

In 1969 also famous Letalnica bratov Gorišek, a ski flying hill with the most world records, was opened in Planica. An opening event gathered total of 90,000 people who saw five world records.

1972: First Ski Fly World Champs[edit]

First ever FIS Ski Flying World Championships was organized at Planica in 1972, which was decided a previous year at International Ski Federation congress in Opatija. A new format of total four rounds in two days for final standings was introduced because of the strong wind risk. And that's what exactly what happened already on the first championships: two of four scheduled round were canceled because of the weather conditions.

1979: World Cup was founded[edit]

The FIS Ski Jumping World Cup was founded by ex Norwegian ski jumper Torbjørn Yggeseth, with the men's premiere 1979/80 season. First event was held on 27 December 1979 at normal hill in Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy. Austrian ski jumper Toni Innauer won this premiere event and became the first ever World Cup winner.

1982: Men's team event debut[edit]

First official men's team event was organized at FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 1982 in Oslo, Norway. Team of Norway (Johan Sætre, Per Bergerud, Ole Bremseth, Olav Hansson) won this event. Although first ever men's team event was held already at FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 1978 in Lahti, it was just an unofficial demonstration event that didn't count for medals.

1986: Rule of 191 m established[edit]

In 1986 current World Cup director and founder Torbjørn Yggeseth decided to establish the rule where no jumps exceeding 191 metres (627 ft) will be additionally scored, after Matti Nykänen jumped this unbelievable distance previous year in Planica. With excuse that flying that far is dangerous, International Ski Federation wanted to stop the unbelievable fast progress of ski flying. But it was obvius, that especially strong Norwegian officials were very mad and jealous at Planica, who was dominating in their sport and they didn't allow that. After eight years in use this unreasonable rule was finally canceled.

1990: Qualifications introduced[edit]

Qualifications were for the first time introduced in the 1990/91 FIS Ski Jumping World Cup season to limit the number of competitors, sometimes over hundred. And to give the event and television broadcast reasonable time.

1993: New scoring system[edit]

After the original scoring system was in use for the first fourteen season, the new World Cup scoring system was introduced for the first time on 11 December 1993 at World Cup event in Planica and is still in use today.

1994: Nieminen first over 200 metres[edit]

On 17 March 1994 first official training round of the 13th FIS Ski Flying World Championships at Letalnica bratov Gorišek flying hill in Planica, Slovenia was on the schedule. Austrian Andreas Goldberger was actually the one, who became the first man in history who over jumped two hundred metres. Unfortunately he glided and touched the snow with his hands at 202 metres (663 ft) and it didn't count as valid jump. Just a few minutes later Finnish Toni Nieminen stood on his feet at 203 metres (666 ft) and became the first man in history to have officially over jumped two hundred metres mark.

Unreasonable and crazy rule of not scoring the jumps over 191 metres (627 ft), with purpose of limitating ski flying progress, was finally canceled after eight years in use at the International Ski Federation at Rio de Janeiro in 1994.

The first edition of top level summer competition FIS Ski Jumping Grand Prix, premiered on 28 August 1994 in Hinterzarten, Germany. First ever Grand Prix winner became Japanese Takanobu Okabe.

1996: Four Hills K.O system[edit]

K.O. (Knock Out) system was first time used at the 1996/97 Four Hills Tournament. It means that top 50 jumpers in qualifications are divided into 25 pairs, who are competing against each other in the first round of competition. A total of 30 competitors advance to final round: all 25 pair winners and 5 lucky losers by best results. The are competing by the system best versus worst results in qualifications: 25th vs 26th, 24th vs 27th...2nd vs 49th and 1st vs 50th. In the final round they compete by the old classic backward system from 30th to 1st place. This system is still and only used at this tournament, all other competitions use classic system.

2002: Hannawald achieved poker[edit]

German ski jumper Sven Hannawald won the 50th edition of the prestigious Four Hills Tournament (Vierschanzentournee) in 2001/02, as first and still the only one in history to win all four hills in a single tournament or achieving poker.

2010: Gate/wind factor introduced[edit]

Gate and wind factor compensation was first time introduced at Ski Flying World Cup men's team event in Oberstdorf, Germany on 30 January 2010 and winner was team of Austria.[14][15]

A revolutionary new bindings were designed by Slovenian innovator Peter Slatnar, which were for the first time used by Simon Ammann at the 2010 Winter Olympics where he won two gold medals.

2012: Mixed team premiere[edit]

The first ever ski jumping mixed team event, actually pairs of one man and one woman, was held on 15 June 2012 on plastic, at ski jumping complex located in Šiška District at Mostec, Ljubljana, Slovenia.[16][17] Mixed team pairs competed on four different hills HS14, HS23, HS38 and HS62 with each other by rules of elimination system. Slovenian pair Maja Vtič and Tomaž Naglič won the first ever mixed team (pairs) competition.[18]

First ever mixed team with four members event, two men and two ladies, was held in 2012 FIS Grand Prix Ski Jumping season, was held on plastic at Olympic HS96 normal hill in Courchevel, France. First ever mixed four members team event was Japan.

The first World Cup mixed team event took in place at Lysgårdsbakken HS100 hill in Lillehammer, Norway in 2012. Competition was held on normal. The first World Cup mixed team winner was Norway.

2016: Tandem, Kasai, Prevc[edit]

On 18 February 2016 Slovenian ski jumpers Rok Urbanc and Jaka Rus made a historic first ever 35 metres (115 ft) world record tandem ski jump both on one pair of longer skis at HS45 hill in Planica, Slovenia.[19]

Japanese Noriaki Kasai made the 500th World Cup individual performance. Slovenian Peter Prevc broke all the records in a single World Cup season: most wins, most podiums and most points in overall ranking.

In 2016 the two new ski manufactures premiered in the circuit and replaced the two brands that stopped the production: German company Verivox replaced Fluege.de and Slovenian company Slatnar replaced Elan.[20]

Invention by Slovenian manufacturer, with LED lights illuminated inrun track, was first time presented to the public at International Ski Federation fall meeting 2016 in Zürich. First time they will use it in December 2016 at men's World Cup event in Engelberg, since they completely renovated the hill and equipped their new inrun track with it.[21]

2017: Raw Air premiere[edit]

The 1st edition of Raw Air tournament in Norway will be held between 10–19 March 2017. It will take place on four different hills in: Oslo, Lillehammer, Trondheim and Vikersund. It will last with no break for 10 days in a row with total of 16 rounds to be calculated in overall standings: 8 rounds from four individual events, 4 rounds from two team events and all 4 qualifications rounds. Qualification round is called prologue and individual two rounds results from each team event will count in overall standings. The competition will have prize money of €100,000 in total for top three competitors in overall standings: €60,000 for the title, for second place €30,000 and for third place in overall €10,000.

Summer jumps on plastic[edit]

Ski jumping can also be performed in the summer on an inrun where the tracks are made from porcelain and the grass on the slope is coated with plastic, combined with water. However, not all hills are equipped with these facilities. There are also many competitions during the summer, including the highest level FIS Ski Jumping Grand Prix series since 1994.

Russian ski jumper Dimitry Vassiliev holds the summer world record on plastic with 147.5 metres (484 ft) which he set at at the Russian National Championships on 15 October 2016 in Sochi, Russia.

Techniques[edit]

For details, see Ski jumping techniques.

Each jump is divided into four parts: in-run, take-off (jump), flight and landing. To each part the athlete has to pay attention to and practice a particular technique in order to maximize the outcome of ultimate length and style marks.

Using the V-style, popularised in late 1980s by Jan Boklöv from Sweden and Jiří Malec from Czechoslovakia, skiers are able to exceed the distance of the take-off hill by about 10% compared to the previous technique with parallel skis. Previous techniques first included the Kongsberger technique, the Däescher technique and the Windisch technique.[22] Until the mid-1960s, the ski jumper came down the in-run of the hill with both arms pointing forwards. This changed when the Däscher technique or parallel style[2] was created by Andreas Däscher in the 1950s, as a modification of the Kongsberger and Windisch techniques.

The landing requires the skiers to touch the ground in the Telemark landing style (Norwegian: telemarksnedslag). This involves the jumper landing with one foot in front of the other, mimicking the style of Telemark skiing. Failure to comply with this regulation leads to the deduction of style marks (points).[8]

Competition[edit]

Run by International Ski Federation by level: Winter Olympics, Nordic World Championships, Ski Flying World Championships, World Cup, Grand Prix, Continental Cup, FIS Cup, FIS Race and Alpen Cup.

Normal hill[edit]

There are rare competitions on normal hills in the men's World Cup, but most of them in the ladies' World Cup. There are both Nordic World Championship and Olympics organized. Distances over 110 metres (360 ft) can be reached.

Large hill[edit]

There are most competitions on large hills in the men's World Cup, but very few in the ladies' World Cup. There are both Nordic World Championship and Olympics organized. Distances over 150 metres (490 ft) can be reached.

Ski flying hill[edit]

There are only World Cup and Ski Flying World Championships are organized on ski flying hills. Trainings are impossible. Only few ladies had privilege to fly. Distances over 240 metres (790 ft) can be reached easily.

Hill classification[edit]

Classified Code Calculation line (K-point) Hill size (HS)
Metres Feet Metres Feet
Small hill SH <45 <148 <50 <164
Medium hill MH 45–74 148–243 50–84 164–276
Normal hill NH 75–99 246–325 85–109 279–358
Large hill LH 100–169 328–554 110–184 361–604
Ski flying hill FH ≥170 ≥558 ≥185 ≥607

Scoring and rules[edit]

The winner is decided on a scoring system based on distance, style, inrun length, gate factor and wind conditions. In the individual event, the scores from each skier's two competition jumps are combined to determine the winner.

Equipment[edit]

Skis must be between 9 to 10 cm (3.5 to 4 inches) wide and between 240 do 270 cm (94 to 106 inches) long. All ski jumpers are now using Slatnar's revolutionary carbon fibre bindings invention with curved sticks in the back.

Suits regulations[edit]

Aerodynamics has become a factor of increasing importance in modern ski jumping, with recent rules addressing the regulation of ski jumping suits. This follows a period when loopholes in the rules seemed to favour skinny jumpers in stiff, air foil-like suits.

Body mass index[edit]

Ski jumpers below the minimum safe body mass index are penalized with a shorter maximum ski length, reducing the aerodynamic lift they can achieve. These rules have been credited with stopping the most severe cases of underweight athletes, but some competitors still lose weight to maximize the distance they can jump.[23]

Gate factor[edit]

Gate factor is a scoring compensation for variable outdoor conditions. Aerodynamics and take-off speed are important variables that determine the value of a jump, and if weather conditions change during a competition, the conditions will not be equal for everyone, which is unfair. The jumper will now receive or lose points if the inrun (or start gate) length is adjusted to provide optimal takeoff speed. Points are added when gate is up or withdrawn when gate is lowered from the original scores itself.

Wind factor[edit]

An advanced calculation also determines plus/minus compensation points for the actual unequal wind conditions at the time of the jump. These points are added when there is back wind or withdrawn when front wind is blowing from the original scores of the individual jump itself. Wind speed and direction are measured at five different points based on average value, which is determined before every competition. It's a little hard to follow for the audience, that's why they always project to beat distance before every jump to take the lead.

Distances[edit]

Each hill has a target called the calculation point (K-point or critical point) which is a par distance to aim for. It is also the place where many jumpers land, in the middle of the landing area. This point is marked by the K line on the landing strip. For K90 and K120 competitions, the K line is at 90 metres (300 ft) and 120 metres (390 ft) respectively. Skiers are awarded 60 points (normal and large hills) and 120 points (flying hills) if they land on the K Line. Skiers earn extra points for flying beyond the K Line, or lose points for every meter(~3 ft) they land short of the mark. The typical meter value is 2 points in small hills, 1.8 points in large hills and 1.2 points in ski flying hills. Thus, it is possible for a jumper to get a negative score if the jump is way short of the K line with poor style marks (typically a fall hill where the slope begins to flatten as measured from the take off. Examples for distance scores at normal hill (100 metres), large hill (140 metres) and flying hill (238 metres) with calculation points at K90, K120 and K200:

Judges[edit]

In addition, five judges are based in a tower to the side of the expected landing point. They can award up to 20 points each for style based on keeping the skis steady during flight, balance, good body position, and landing. The highest and lowest style scores (yellow) are disregarded, with the remaining three scores added to the distance score. Thus, a perfectly scored K120 jump – with at least four of the judges awarding 20 points each – and the jumper landing on the K-point, is awarded a total of 120 points. Examples:

Ladies[edit]

1863: First ever performance[edit]

At that time sixteen years old Norwegian Ingrid Olsdatter Vestby, is the first ever known female ski jumper, who participated at the competition in Trysil, Norway in January 1863. Distance is not known.[6]

2004: Continental Cup[edit]

Ladies seriously compete since 2004/05 Continental Cup season. They organized three ladies' team events in this competition and so far the only team events in history of ladies' ski jumping.

Sara Takanashi;
greatest female ski jumper ever

2009: World Championships[edit]

They made a premiere FIS Nordic World Ski Championships performance in 2009 at Liberec. First world champion became American ski jumper Lindsey Van.

2011: World Cup[edit]

Ladies' 2011/12 FIS Ski Jumping World Cup premiere season organized first event on 3 December 2011 at Lysgårdsbakken normal hill in Lillehammer, Norway. First ever female World Cup winner was Sarah Hendrickson. Previously, women had only competed in Continental Cup seasons. The inaugural women's World Cup overall champion was Sarah Hendrickson.[24]

2014: Olympic Games[edit]

In 2006 the FIS proposed that women could compete at the 2010 Winter Olympics,[25] but this was rejected by the IOC because of the low number of athletes and participating countries at the time.[26]

A group of fifteen competitive female ski jumpers later filed a suit against the Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games on the grounds that it violated the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms since men were competing.[27][28] The suit failed, with the judge ruling that the situation was not governed by the charter. Virginia Madsen told the story in the film called Fighting Gravity (2009).

A further milestone was reached when women's ski jumping was included as part of the 2014 Winter Olympics at normal hill event and the first Olympic champion became Carina Vogt.

Injuries[edit]

Because they are lighter than men, female ski jumpers need a longer inrun and reach a higher landing speed. Injuries have affected a number of the sport's female athletes including Anja Tepeš, Sarah Hendrickson, Jacqueline Seifriedsberger, Svenja Würth, Ema Klinec, Daniela Iraschko-Stolz, Bigna Windmüller, Lindsey Van, Carina Vogt and Elena Runggaldier.

All-time records[edit]

As of 12 November 2016

The greatest ever[edit]

Individual results considered only are based on ski-database.com super ranking system (updated: 26 November 2016):[29]

Historic jumps[edit]

Sepp Bradl, officially first jump over 100 metres in 1936
Andreas Goldberger, first ever who jumped over 200 metres in 1994, but unfortunately touched the ground with his hands

Men[edit]

First jump Date Country Hill Place Meters Yards Feet
in the history 22/11/1808 Olaf Rye  Norway
 Denmark
Eidsberg church Eidsberg, Norway 9.5 10.4 31
over 50 metres ever 16/02/1913 Ragnar Omtvedt  United States Wolverine Hill Ironwood, Michigan, United States 51.5 56.3 169
over 100 metres ever (invalid) 17/03/1935 Olav Ulland  Norway Trampolino Gigante Corno d'Aola Ponte di Legno, Kingdom of Italy 103.5 113.2 333
over 100 metres officially (stand) 15/03/1936 Sepp Bradl  Austria Bloudkova velikanka Planica, Kingdom of Yugoslavia 101.5 111.0 340
over 150 metres ever 11/02/1967 Lars Grini  Norway Heini-Klopfer-Skiflugschanze Oberstdorf, West Germany 150.0 164.0 492
over 200 metres ever (invalid) 17/03/1994 Andreas Goldberger  Austria Velikanka bratov Gorišek Planica, Slovenia 202.0 220.9 663
over 200 metres officially (stand) 17/03/1994 Toni Nieminen  Finland Velikanka bratov Gorišek Planica, Slovenia 203.0 222.0 666
over 250 metres ever 14/02/2015 Peter Prevc  Slovenia Vikersundbakken Vikersund, Norway 250.0 273.4 820

Ladies[edit]

First jump Date Country Hill Place Meters Yards Feet
in the history __/01/1863 Ingrid Olsdatter Vestby  Norway Nordbybakken Trysil, Norway unknown
over 50 meters ever __/__/1932 Johanne Kolstad  Norway Gråkallbakken Trondheim, Norway 62.0 67.8 203
over 100 meters ever 29/03/1981 Tiina Lehtola  Finland Rukatunturi Kuusamo, Finland 110.0 120.3 361
over 150 meters ever 05/02/1994 Eva Ganster  Austria Kulm Tauplitz/Bad Mitterndorf, Austria 161.0 176.1 528
over 200 meters ever 29/01/2003 Daniela Iraschko  Austria Kulm Tauplitz/Bad Mitterndorf, Austria 200.0 218.7 656

Tandem[edit]

First jump Date Country Hill Place Meters Yards Feet
in the history 18/02/2016 Rok Urbanc
Jaka Rus
 Slovenia
 Slovenia
Planica Nordic Center HS45 Planica, Slovenia 35.0 38.3 115

Perfect score jumps: 5 x 20[edit]

Those who have managed to show a perfect jump, which means that all five judges attributed the maximum style score of 20 points for their jumps. Kazuyoshi Funaki, Sven Hannawald and Wolfgang Loitzl were attributed 4x20 (plus another 19.5) style score points for their second jump, thus receiving nine times the maximum score of 20 points within one competition. Kazuyoshi Funaki is the only one in history who achieved this more than once. So far only seven jumpers are recorded to have achieved this score in total of ten times:

No. Date Rank Hill Location Competition Metres Yards Feet
1 07/03/1976 Austria Anton Innauer 1st Heini-Klopfer-Skiflugschanze K175 Oberstdorf KOP International Ski Flying Week 176.0 192.5 577
2 24/01/1998 Japan Kazuyoshi Funaki 2nd Heini-Klopfer-Skiflugschanze K185 Oberstdorf World Cup / Ski Flying World Championships 187.5 205.0 615
3 25/01/1998 Japan Kazuyoshi Funaki 1st Heini-Klopfer-Skiflugschanze K185 Oberstdorf World Cup / Ski Flying World Championships 205.5 224.7 674
4 15/02/1998 Japan Kazuyoshi Funaki 1st Hakuba K120 Nagano Olympic Games 132.5 149.9 438
5 17/01/1999 Japan Kazuyoshi Funaki 2nd Wielka Krokiew K116 Zakopane World Cup 119.0 130.1 390
6 08/02/2003 Germany Sven Hannawald 1st Mühlenkopfschanze K130 Willingen World Cup 142.0 155.3 466
7 08/02/2003 Japan Hideharu Miyahira 6th Mühlenkopfschanze K130 Willingen World Cup 135.5 148.2 445
8 06/01/2009 Austria Wolfgang Loitzl 1st Paul-Ausserleitner-Schanze HS140 (night) Bischofshofen Four Hills Tournament 142.5 155.8 468
9 20/03/2015 Slovenia Peter Prevc 1st Letalnica bratov Gorišek HS225 Planica World Cup 233.0 254.8 764
10 22/03/2015 Slovenia Jurij Tepeš 1st Letalnica bratov Gorišek HS225 Planica World Cup 244.0 266.8 801

Highest attendance[edit]

Single daily events with more than 50,000 people. List is not complete:

Holmenkollbakken, Oslo at 1952 Winter Olympics; biggest ever crowd at any ski jumping competition has gathered a total of 143,000 people
Rank Attendance Location Date Hill Competition
1 143,000 Norway Holmenkollen 14 February 1952 Holmenkollbakken 1952 Winter Olympics
2 130,000 Germany Garmisch-Partenkirchen 16 February 1936 Große Olympiaschanze 1936 Winter Olympics
3 120,000 Poland Zakopane 18 February 1962 Wielka Krokiew 1962 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships
4 106,000 Norway Holmenkollen March 1946 Holmenkollbakken The Peace Competition
5 100,000 Slovenia Planica 16 March 1985 Velikanka bratov Gorišek FIS Ski Flying World Championships 1985
6 70,000 Slovenia Planica 22 March 1997 Velikanka bratov Gorišek 1996/97 FIS Ski Jumping World Cup
7 70,000 Norway Holmenkollen 3 March 2011 Holmenkollbakken 2011 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships
8 55,000 Slovenia Planica 20 March 2010 Letalnica bratov Gorišek FIS Ski Flying World Championships 2010
9 50,000 Slovenia Planica 14 March 1987 Velikanka bratov Gorišek 1986/87 FIS Ski Jumping World Cup
10 50,000 Japan Nagano 17 February 1998 Hakuba Ski Jumping Stadium 1998 Winter Olympics

List of national records[edit]

For the world records, see List of the longest ski jumps.
Holmenkollen (progress)
Holmenkollen (1892)
Holmenkollen (1938)
Holmenkollen (modern)

Men[edit]

Rank Nation Metres Feet Place Year Source
1 Anders Fannemel (WR)  Norway 251.5 825 Vikersund 2015 [30]
2 Peter Prevc  Slovenia 250.0 820 Vikersund 2015 [31]
3 Stefan Kraft  Austria 246.5 809 Vikersund 2016 [32]
4 Severin Freund  Germany 245.0 803 Vikersund 2015 [33]
5 Noriaki Kasai  Japan 240.5 790 Vikersund 2015 [34]
240.5 790 Kulm 2016 [35]
6 Janne Happonen  Finland 240.0 787 Vikersund 2011 [36]
7 Simon Ammann   Switzerland 238.5 782 Vikersund 2011 [37]
238.5 782 Planica 2016 [38]
8 Kamil Stoch  Poland 238.0 781 Planica 2015 [39]
9 Antonín Hájek  Czech Republic 236.0 774 Planica 2010 [40]
10 Dimitry Vassiliev  Russia 233.5 766 Vikersund 2015 [41]
11 Vincent Descombes Sevoie  France 230.5 756 Vikersund 2016 [42]
12 Mackenzie Boyd-Clowes  Canada 224.0 735 Planica 2016 [43]
13 Alan Alborn  United States 221.5 727 Planica 2002 [44]
14 Andrea Morassi  Italy 216.5 710 Planica 2012 [41]
15 Vladimir Zografski  Bulgaria 213.5 700 Planica 2013 [45]
16 Isak Grimholm  Sweden 207.5 681 Planica 2007 [41]
Choi Heung-Chul  South Korea 207.5 681 Planica 2008 [41]
18 Kaarel Nurmsalu  Estonia 204.0 669 Vikersund 2012 [41]
19 Petr Chaadaev  Belarus 197.5 648 Kulm 2006 [41]
20 Radik Zhaparov  Kazakhstan 196.5 645 Planica 2007 [41]
21 Martin Mesik  Slovakia 195.5 641 Kulm 2006 [41]
22 Vitaliy Shumbarets  Ukraine 189.5 622 Planica 2009 [46]
23 Nico Polychronidis  Greece 186.0 610 Oberstdorf 2013 [41]
24 Christoph Kreuzer  Netherlands 162.0 531 Planica 2002 [41]
25 Faik Yüksel  Turkey 150.0 492 Oberstdorf 2000s [47]
26 Koba Tsakadze  Georgia 142.0 466 Vikersund 1967 [48]
27 Bernat Sola  Spain 141.0 463 Tauplitz 1986 [41]
28 Gábor Gellér  Hungary 139.0 456 Harrachov 1980 [41]
29 Andreas Bjelke Nygaard  Denmark 137.0 449 Lillehammer 2000s [41]
30 Robert Lock  United Kingdom 130.0 427 Park City 2015 [49]
31 Eduard Torok  Romania 128.0 420 Engelberg 2013 [41]
32 Dmitry Chvykov  Kyrgyzstan 124.0 407 Innsbruck 2002 [50]
33 Tian Zhandong  China 121.5 399 Bischofshofen 2004 [51]
34 Josip Šporer  Croatia 102.0 335 Planica 1940s [52]
Kristaps Nežborts  Latvia 102.0 335 Liberec 2012 [53]
36 Zbigniew Kiwert  Lithuania 86.0 282 Nizhny Novgorod 1960 [54]
37 Skarphéðinn Guðmundsson  Iceland 80.0 262 Squaw Valley 1960 [55]
38 Goga Popov junior  Macedonia 62.0 203 Planica 1952 [56]
39 Hal Nerdal  Australia 53.0 174 Squaw Valley 1960 [41]
Chris Hellerud 53.0 174 Falun 1974 [57]
40 Dunstan Odeke  Uganda 50.0 164 Oslo 1990s [57]
41 Božo Čvorović  Montenegro 46.0 151 Žabljak 1960s [58]
42 Vid Černe  Serbia 40.0 131 Jahorina 1949 [59]
43 Džemo Zahirović  Bosnia and Herzegovina 36.0 118 Jahorina 1949 [60]
44 Rembert Notten  Belgium 35.0 115 Rückershausen 2012 [61][62][63]
45 Richard Brown  Ireland 35.0 115 Gothenburg 2002 [41]
46 Hans Holm  Greenland 23.3 76 Nuuk 1949 [64]
47 Brian MacMillan  New Zealand 18.6 61 Mount Cook 1937 [65]

Ladies[edit]

Rank Nation Metres Feet Place Year Source
1 Daniela Iraschko-Stolz (WR)  Austria 200.0 656 Kulm 2003 [66]
2 Anette Sagen  Norway 174.5 484 Vikersund 2004 [66]
Helena Olsson  Sweden 174.5 484 Vikersund 2004 [66]
4 Lindsey Van  United States 171.0 561 Vikersund 2004 [66]
5 Ulrike Gräßler  Germany 146.0 479 Willingen 2010 [66]
6 Sara Takanashi  Japan 141.0 463 Sapporo 2011 [66]
7 Špela Rogelj  Slovenia 140.0 459 Klingenthal 2012 [66]
7 Irina Taktayeva  Russia 137.0 449 [66]
8 Bigna Windmüller   Switzerland 133.0 436 Oberstdorf 2008 [66]
9 Julia Clair  France 131.5 431 Planica 2014 [66]
10 Atsuko Tanaka  Canada 130.0 426 Courchevel 2013 [66]
 Italy 130.0 426 Oslo 2016 [66]
12 Julia Kykkänen  Finland 125.0 410 Oslo 2016 [66]
13 Michaela Doleželová  Czech Republic 116.5 382 Courchevel 2013 [66]
14 Daniela Haralambie  Romania 115.0 377 Oslo 2016 [66]
15 Kinga Raida  Poland 111.0 364 Planica 2016 [66]
16 Wendy Vuik  Netherlands 107.0 351 Oslo 2013 [66]
17 Virág Vörös  Hungary 101.0 331 Predazzo 2016 [66]
18 Tong Ma  China 99.0 325 Erzurum 2012 [66]
19 Šarlote Šķēle  Latvia 85.0 279 Predazzo 2013 [66]
20 Anemarii Bendi  Estonia 83.0 272 Otepää 2014 [66]
21 Valentina Sderzhikova  Kazakhstan 80.0 262 Szczyrk 2015 [66]
22 Guy-Lim Park  South Korea 79.5 261 Notodden 2015 [66]
23 Khrystyna Droniak  Ukraine 77.0 253 Szczyrk 2016 [66]

Currently active[edit]

Copper Peak, Michigan; only ski flying hill outside of Europe
The Lake Placid Olympic hills

Currently active and most notable ski jumpers can be found in the following lists:

Male[edit]

Female[edit]

Unsuccessful[edit]

They got famous for spectacular fall and rookie approach:

Ski flying[edit]

Main article: Ski flying

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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