Ordnance Factory Board Mine Protected Vehicle
|Ordnance Factory Board Mine Protected Vehicle|
An Aditya-type MPV leads an Indian Army convoy
|Place of origin||India|
|Used by||See Operators|
Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir
Nepalese Civil War
|Manufacturer||Ordnance Factory Board|
|Produced||2001 – present|
|Crew||2 (Crew) + 10 (Passengers)|
|Turret for light/medium machine gun or a Remote weapon station mounted on top.|
|Power/weight||11 Tons at 1400 kg|
305 mm (ground)|
1000 mm (fording)
|1,000 km (621 mi)|
The Ordnance Factory Board Mine Protected Vehicle (OFB MPV) is a Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected-type vehicle used by the Indian Army and the Central Reserve Police Force as an armored personnel carrier to transport personnel with protections from explosives and small arms fire. The MPV’s construction was based on the Casspir Mk II, which India used in the 1990s.
The Mine Protected Vehicle has been improved by Ordnance Factory Board, thanks to criticism and later, feedback from the CRPF based on their experience in encountering powerful improvised explosive devices that were able to destroy them and kill the occupants inside during ambushes.
The Mine Protected Vehicle was developed in 2001 at a cost of USD$14 million. In 2004, exports were made to Nepal. Sainik Samachar reported in the July 2005 issue that OFB had made a version of the MPV with a remote control weapon system.
The MPV was presented publicly in 2007, with the name of Aditya, under the production of Ordnance Factory Medak. The Indian Army made a contract to secure 1,400 MPVs, but an order of 250 MPVs was secured in November 2007.
For a short time, there were discreet inquiries made by the US military on the option of purchasing OFB-made MPVs.
Following a series of ambushes conducted with improvised explosive devices (IEDs) that were able to destroy the MPVs as early as 2005, they were described by CRPF director general K. Vijay Kumar as merely “coffins on wheels”.
This has forced the CRPF to look for alternative means to successfully counter IED ambushes. The CRPF has discontinued most of its MPVs in service in 2012. In the meantime, their MPVs were sent to Kashmir for use in providing security to CRPF convoys there, since the insurgents operating in the region and in Naxal-influenced areas have different operational methods. CRPF MPVs in Naxalite areas are limited to evacuating casualties.
In 2012, the CRPF approached OFB specialists from Vehicle Factory Jabalpur and requested for future MPVs to be enhanced for better protection against IEDs.
In response, OFB made an upgraded version of the first MPV, known as the Modern Mine Protected Vehicle or the Yuktirath, which was ordered by the Indian Army with an initial order of 14 MPVs in 2009. The Yukitirath was officially presented for the first time in public in 2012 at the Defexpo 2012 exhibition. The Indian Army made an order for 250 MPVs in late September 2016, which is expected to be produced by Vehicle Factory Jabalpur with first deliveries made in 2018. They will be deployed in the Northeastern parts of India and in Kashmir for anti-insurgency operations.
Ordnance Factory Board Medak won the Golden Peacock Innovative Product Award during a ceremony in Dubai in 2016 for excellence in their technology in creating and improving the MPV.
Being based on the Casspir, the MPV has the same V-monoque hull with a provision for a Remote weapon station or a mounted turret for a light or medium machine gun for protection and self-defense purposes. The RWS can be armed with machine guns or grenade launchers.
Its use was criticized by the CRPF due to bad armor protection, which means that stronger IEDs can be used to destroy them when they are out on patrols. Naxalite-made IEDs are composed of fertilisers, gelatins, emulsions and slurries. Their successes in destroying them serves as mainly propaganda for the Naxalites.
The creation of the Yuktirath has better protection than its predecessor, surviving 14 kg of explosives and 1 kg of shrapnel from 5 metres with a height of 1.5 metres, which also includes better axles to be easily replaced in case it gets damaged in an IED ambush. It can also withstand TNT and other types of explosives for up to 42 kg under the wheel and 35 kg under the hull with a 6x6 drivetrain.
In tests against the Wer’wolf MKII, the Indian Army said that the MPV failed in most of the tests conducted, such as driving on steep terrain with occasional breakdowns, leaks and broken parts. During simulated IED bomb tests, the MPV failed since it destroyed the windows and the floor plates with the rear axles and hull having major damage. At one point, the MPV crew refused to participate in driving the vehicle in the snow as part of the snow test, not trusting its worthiness.
- Aditya – First version of the MPV. It was made in 2001, but was publicly announced in 2007. It's built to withstand TNT and other types of explosives for up to 14 kg under the wheel and 10 kg under the hull.
- Yuktirath – Second version of the MPV. It's built to withstand bomb attacks from TNT and other types of explosives for up to 42 kg under the wheel and 35 kg, alongside 14 kg of explosives and 1 kg of shrapnel from 5 metres with a height of 1.5 metres under the hull with a 6×6 drivetrain. The other known variant aside from the MRAP version is a light armored recovery vehicle, which has a 4x4 drivetrain.
- India: Sold to the Indian Army and various paramilitary forces. 266 Aditya-type MPVs sold to the Indian Army and 120 for paramilitary forces in 2006. 250 MPVs sold in 2007. 14 Yuktirath-type MPVs sold with 329 ordered in 2009 with 250 MPVs purchased in 2016.
- Nepal: Sold to the Nepalese Army, being used in anti-insurgency operations against Maoist guerrillas during the civil war. 65 MPVs, followed by 30 MPVs were sold in 2004. 25 were subsequently sold. 124 MPVs used, most of them purchased due to Indian military grants.
- Iraq: Won a contract to produce 300 MPVs for the Iraqi Army with a cost of Rs 150 crore (Rs 1.5bn) at Rs 50 lakh (Rs 5m) per vehicle. Due to undisclosed reasons from the MEA and MOD, OFB was forced to call off the production.
- Jugal R Purohit (5 October 2016). "Army's 'biggest ever' weapons order includes 250 mine-proof vehicles, 36 fighter jets, 22 Apache helicopters and precision attack bombs as India steps up defences in face of terrorism threat". Daily Mail. Archived from the original on 6 October 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- Radul Bedi. "Indian Army orders 250 MPVs for use in counter-terrorism operations". Jane's. Archived from the original on 7 October 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- "Mine Protected Vehicle". Archived from the original on 31 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- Sandeep Unnithan (3 April 2006). "Fighting shy of a deal". India Today. Archived from the original on 31 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- "'Aditya' to be inducted into Indian Army". One India. Archived from the original on 31 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- "US expresses interest in Indian-made mine protected vehicle". Outlook. Archived from the original on 31 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- Sushant Singh (24 January 2012). "Mine Protected Vehicle or coffin on wheels?". Mid-Day. Archived from the original on 31 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- Vishwa Mohan (24 February 2012). "Centre looking into MPVs' vulnerability in anti-Naxal war". Archived from the original on 24 January 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- Ejaz Kaiser (15 April 2015). "Armoured carriers are no protection in heavily-mined Maoist areas". Archived from the original on 21 November 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- "CRPF shifts MPVs from Naxal grid to Kashmir for better convoy security". Economic Times. Archived from the original on 26 June 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- "CRPF asks OFB to enhance safety of mine protected vehicles". Zee News. 2012-11-18. Archived from the original on 19 November 2012. Retrieved 2017-02-20.
- Jugal R Purohit. "Weak wheeled". India Today. Archived from the original on 21 May 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2016.
- "MPVs handed over to Army". The Hindu. 5 March 2010. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- Sukhpreet Singh (4 April 2012). "Ordnance Factory Board showcases Yuktirath". Archived from the original on 31 January 2017.
- Gordon Arthur (17 October 2016). "Indian Army buys more MPVs". Shepard Media. Archived from the original on 18 October 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- "Ordinance Factory in Medak wins 'Golden Peacock Innovative Product Award in Dubai". MAA Hyderabad. 2016-05-06. Archived from the original on 20 February 2017. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
- "Mine Protected Vehicle". Ordnance Factory Board. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- "Mine Protected Vehicle with RCWS". Ordnance Factory Board. Archived from the original on 10 July 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- "Mine Protected Vehicle". Defense Update. 2004. Archived from the original on 7 April 2016. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
- Sujan Dutta (10 April 2010). "Attack exposes chink in mine vehicle – Rebels thwart machines with big bombs". Telegraph India. Archived from the original on 10 April 2010. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- PV Ramana (30 January 2012). "Maoists understand the limitations of Mine Proof Vehicles". Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- Baddelly, Adam (1 February 2013). "Protected Mobility: Many Threats, Many Options". Asian Military Review. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- "Army should be made self-reliant to meet security challenges". Brahmand. 31 October 2009. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Johan Dippenaar (2000). "WER'WOLF MKII Mine Protected Vehicle India Trial Report: January – June 2000" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- Verman, Bharat (April–June 2004). "Indian Defence Supplies for Nepal". Indian Defence Review. 19 (2): 110.
- "Trade Registers". Armstrade.sipri.org. Retrieved 2013-06-20.
- Media related to Aditya MRAP at Wikimedia Commons