Pashtun Tahafuz Movement

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Pashtun Tahafuz Movement
پښتون ژغورنې غورځنګ
Pashtun Protection Movement
Pashtun Tahafuz Movement Official logo.jpg
AbbreviationPTM[1]
Motto
  • Ye jo dehshatgardi hai, iske peeche wardi hai (The ones responsible for terrorism are the ones in uniform)[1]
  • Da sanga azadi da? (What kind of freedom is this?)[1]
TypeHuman rights movement
PurposeProtection and rights of Pashtuns
Chairman
Manzoor Pashteen
Formerly called
Mahsud Tahafuz Movement
(From May 2014 until January 2018)[1]

The Pashtun Tahafuz Movement (Pashto: پښتون ژغورنې غورځنګ‎, Urdu: پشتون تحفظ تحریک‎; abbreviated PTM), or the Pashtun Protection Movement, is a social movement for Pashtun human rights, based in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan, Pakistan. Formerly called the Mahsud Tahafuz Movement, it was started in May 2014 by eight students at Gomal University as an initiative for removing landmines from Waziristan (especially Mahsud land) and other parts of the former Federally Administered Tribal Areas, affected by the war in North-West Pakistan.[4][1]

The movement rose to prominence in January 2018 when it began a justice movement for Naqeebullah Mehsud, who was killed extrajudicially during a police encounter in Karachi that same month.[5] When it gained popularity among the Pashtuns in late January 2018, its name was changed from the "Mahsud Tahafuz Movement" to the "Pashtun Tahafuz Movement" (Pashtun Protection Movement). PTM again gained international press coverage when the Balochistan Police extrajudicially murdered the PTM leader and college teacher Arman Loni in Loralai in February 2019. Protests followed which led to the detention of several PTM members, including Gulalai Ismail and Abdullah Nangyal.[6][7][8] The movement is led by Manzoor Ahmad Pashteen, a human rights activist from South Waziristan.[9][10] Other prominent members include Ali Wazir and Mohsin Dawar.[6]

Pashtun Long March[edit]

Pashtun Long March
Part of the rights of Pashtuns
DateJanuary 26 - February 10, 2018 (march started from D.I. Khan, passed through Bannu, Kohat, Peshawar, Charsadda, Mardan, and Swabi, and then reached Islamabad for the sit-in)
March 11, 2018 (gathering in Quetta)
April 8, 2018 (gathering in Peshawar)
April 22, 2018 (gathering in Lahore)
April 29, 2018 (gathering in Kabal, Swat)
May 13, 2018 (gathering in Karachi)
July 15, 2018 (gathering in D.I. Khan)[11]
August 12, 2018 (gathering in Swabi)[12]
October 28, 2018 (gathering in Bannu)[13]
January 5, 2019 (gathering in Cologne, Germany)[14]
January 13, 2019 (gathering in Tank)[15]
Location
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan, with protest gatherings also elsewhere
Caused by
Goals
  • Equal rights for the people of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and northern Balochistan[18]
Resulted in
  • Promised to apprehend Rao Anwar and justice to Naqeebullah Mehsud murder
  • Assured the speedup cleaning of mines in South Waziristan and compensation to victims of mines died or injured
  • Establishment of intermediate college named after Naqeebullah Mehsud in Makeen
  • Action against all the complaints and concerns raised by Jirga and PTM
  • Ended in February, started again in March with a long march from Dera Ismail Khan to Quetta on March 9-11, and a grand gathering in Peshawar on April 8
Lead figures
Number
Estimated 10,000 in the February sit-in at Islamabad
Estimated 60,000 in the April 8th gathering at Peshawar[19]

Sit-in in Islamabad[edit]

On January 26, 2018, the Pashtun Tahafuz Movement organized a protest march starting from Dera Ismail Khan. The march started with only 22 people but many people joined it along the way,[20] as it passed through Lakki Marwat, Bannu, Domel, Karak, Kohat, and Darra Adam Khel, reaching Peshawar on January 28.[21] Then after passing through Charsadda, Mardan, Swabi, and Tarnol, the march reached Islamabad, where a sit-in called "All Pashtun National Jirga" was organized from February 1. The jirga condemned the murder of the Pashtun labourer and aspiring model, Naqeebullah Mehsud, who was shot dead by police force in Karachi during an alleged encounter, and the alleged state oppression against the Pashtuns.[22] It asked the government to set up a judicial inquiry for Naqeebullah Mehsud, as well as for all the other Pashtuns murdered extrajudicially in police encounters. The jirga demanded to stop racial profiling of the Pashtuns in Pakistan, and to bring the Pashtun missing persons before the court of law, so that those who are innocent but held could be freed.[23] The jirga also demanded Pakistan Army to guarantee that they will not abduct or open fire on innocents in the tribal areas, or use violence or collective punishment against entire villages and tribes, and that they will not impose the frequent curfews on the movement of locals even after minor incidents.[24] Another demand was to remove all landminess planted in the tribal areas, which have resulted in many civilian casualties. The protesters said that since 2009, more than 35 people including children had been killed due to landmines in South Waziristan alone.[25]

The sit-in in Islamabad ended on February 10, but the organizers of the Pashtun Tahafuz Movement announced that they would reconvene the protest if their demands were not fulfilled by the government.[26] Advisor to Prime Minister on political affairs, Engr. Amir Muqam appeared in front of the protesters with the hand-written agreement from the Prime Minister Shahid Khaqan Abbasi that included three clauses, agreeing to apprehend Rao Anwar, speed-up the clearing of Mines in South Waziristan, an intermediate college establishment in name of Naqeebullah Mehsud, and promised to addressed "genuine gravencies" raised by Jirga members.[27] Muqam also told the protestors, “the way you held the peaceful protest is really commendable and others should learn a lesson to record their protests this way. I’ll stand by you in trying times and you can come to discuss with me all of your legitimate issues anytime.”[27]

Five demands[edit]

The main demands of PTM during the Pashtun Long March were as follows:

  1. Rao Anwar and other police officers involved must be punished for the alleged murder of Naqeebullah Mehsud
  2. A truth and reconciliation commission must be established for all the people who are killed extrajudicially like Naqeebullah Mehsud in alleged fake encounters by the law enforcement agencies of Pakistan
  3. The missing persons who are imprisoned at unknown places must be tried in a court of law, and forced disappearances must be stopped
  4. Landmines must be removed from the Pashtun tribal areas
  5. Torture and collective punishment against entire villages and tribes in the Pashtun tribal areas, especially after a violent incident, must be stopped[28][3]

Public gatherings[edit]

Quetta[edit]

From March 9 to 11, 2018, PTM organized a protest march from Dera Ismail Khan to Quetta, passing through Drazinda, Zhob, Killa Saifullah, and Khanozai. After reaching Quetta, a grand public gathering was organized on March 11 at Sadiq Shaheed Stadium, Quetta. Representatives of various political parties addressed the gathering. The speakers said: “We demand constitutionally sanctioned rights in the country for Pashtuns.”[29] Manzoor Pashteen expressed his regret about the failure of Pakistan's law enforcement agencies despite the promise by the government to arrest Rao Anwar, who was involved in the alleged extrajudicial killing of Naqeebullah Mehsud. Pashteen said at the gathering: “We had set one month deadline to certain quarters to apprehend Rao Anwar which expired but no action has been taken by the government.”[29]

Peshawar[edit]

There was a grand gathering of PTM in Peshawar, the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, on April 8, 2018. About 60,000 people came to the gathering to participate in the protest.[19] Many of the protesters held photographs of their missing relatives, containing captions with names and the dates they disappeared.

Lahore[edit]

PTM held a public gathering in the Punjab province of Pakistan on 22 April at the historical Mochi Gate, Lahore.[30] Attended by over 8,000 people,[31] the gathering was hosted by Lahore Left Front (LLF).[32] In May 2018, LLF was formed by 17 left wing parties whose objective was to revive Left-wing politics in country and counter prevailing religious fundamentalism.[33] The objectives of this gathering was to inform Punjab people about Pushtuns ordeal in war-hit areas of country[34] and uniting exploited masses of Punjab and Pushtuns - as well highlighting woes of ordinary Pushtun workers in Lahore.[35] Just one day before gathering, Lahore district administration rejected permission to hold gathering[34] and arrested its leading activists including Ali Wazir, Bilawal Mandokhel, Muzammil and Ismat Shahjahan.[36] This act of administration was sharply criticized by public as well as notable politicians of country like Maryam Nawaz, Pervaiz Rasheed and Bilawal Bhutto Zardari.[30]

Despite of all hurdles, Lahore public gathering was held as per plan.[30] In this rally, PTM leaders asserted their demands and announced future rallies in Karachi & Swat.[37] Two days after this successful gathering, Corps Commander Peshawar Lt General Nazir Ahmed declared that PTM demands are genuine and military is ready for talks.[38] According to media reports, military had formed a committee to talk to PTM leaders and discuss their demands.[39]

Swat[edit]

There was a grand gathering of PTM in Swat District at Kabal ground near Mingora, on 29th April 2018, which was attended by more than 10,000 people.[40] The attendees were mostly relatives of alleged missing persons in recent times.[41] Speaking with gathering, Manzoor Pashteen said,

“We are demanding our legal rights within the domain of the Constitution but who will seek accountability from those who violated Article 6 of the Constitution of Pakistan.”[40]

Pashteen criticized Pervez Musharraf for his alleged terrorism, and demanded for Musharraf and the spokesperson of the Taliban Ehsanullah Ehsan to be punished.[40]

Karachi[edit]

The Karachi gathering was held on 13 May 2018 at the ground near Al-Asif Square in Sohrab Goth, Karachi. Bagh-e-Jinnah was the initially planned venue but the authorities didn't permit it.[42] Before the event, three separate criminal cases were registered against PTM at different police stations in Karachi for hate and anti-state speeches.[43] PTM activists accused authorities of sabotaging their event by initiating a wave of mass arrests and detentions.[44]

One day before the event, Manzoor Pashteen was barred from boarding his scheduled flight to Karachi from Islamabad International Airport. He was told that his ticket had been cancelled and was not allowed to board the plane. He and his friends then drove for five hours to Lahore, and bought another plane ticket to fly from Lahore Airport. However, their ticket was again cancelled and they were forced to take a road trip to reach Karachi.[45] During the road trip, he was stopped and searched 23 times by the authorities,[46] which made his journey over 40 hours.[47] He reached the gathering venue in Karachi hours after his scheduled arrival time, and addressed the awaiting crowd. At the gathering, he denounced extrajudicial killings and enforced disappearances in Karachi and all across Pakistan, and also reiterated the main demands of PTM.[48][46]

Dera Ismail Khan[edit]

On 15 July 2018, a grand public gathering was organized by PTM at Haq Nawaz Park, Dera Ismail Khan in which thousands of people participated. During the gathering, PTM reiterated their main demands, and condemned the release of Rao Anwar, the prime suspect in the extrajudicial killing of Naqeebullah Mehsud. Fazal Khan Advocate, whose son was martyred in the 2014 Peshawar school massacre, also spoke at the gathering. He condemned the 13 July 2018 bombings in Mastung and Bannu, which killed a total of about 154 people and wounded 223 others.[11]

Swabi[edit]

On 12 August 2018, PTM organized a public gathering in Swabi, in which the Babrra massacre was commemorated on its 70th anniversary. Manzoor Pashteen told the gathering that PTM's struggle for the rights of the Pashtuns would continue under the Constitution of Pakistan.[12] He alleged that 70 years after the Babrra massacure, the Pashtuns are still being killed. He said: "Our struggle is based on justice, peace, and brotherhood. We will not accept the victimization of the Pashtuns."[49] He added that despite producing surplus electricity through Tarbela Dam and Ghazi-Barotha Hydropower Project, the people of Swabi District and the adjacent areas still suffer from long hours of power outages. Pashteen demanded that the district should be given an uninterrupted power supply. He also spoke about the problems faced by tobacco growers in the district, and said: "Tobacco is produced in Swabi, but the federal government reaps its benefits." He demanded that the incentives for the Gadoon Amazai Industrial Estate in Swabi should be restored, because it was established to provide an alternative livelihood source to the farmers cultivating opium poppy.[49]

During the campaign to inform people about the gathering in Swabi, one day before the event, Manzoor Pashteen was denied entry into the mausoleum of Captain Karnal Sher Khan by Karnal Sher Khan's brother Anwar Sher Khan. Anwar said he denied Pashteen entry into the mausoleum out of respect for the Pakistan Army.[50][51]

Bannu[edit]

There was a grand gathering of PTM in Bannu, southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, on 28 October 2018, which was attended by more than 60,000 people.[52] It was one of the largest public gatherings in the history of Bannu.[53] The attendees included relatives of alleged missing persons in recent times.[54]→≤ Speaking with the gathering, Manzoor Pashteen said: “We are demanding our legal rights within the domain of the Constitution but who will seek accountability from those who violated Article 6 of the Constitution of Pakistan?”[52]

Germany[edit]

On January 5, 2019, more than a thousand supporters of PTM gathered in Cologne, the largest city of Germany's most populous state North Rhine-Westphalia.[55][14] People from various countries of Europe came to participate in the public gathering. They reiterated the first demand of PTM, justice for Naqeebullah Mehsud, who had been killed extrajudicially in Karachi, Pakistan by SSP Rao Anwar almost a year before. The protesters demanded the government of Pakistan to not ban PTM leaders from traveling to various parts of Pakistan or other countries. The participants also protested against forced disappearances and target killings in Pakistan.[56]

Tank[edit]

On January 13, 2019, PTM held a public gathering in Tank, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to observe the first anniversary of the murder of Naqeebullah Mehsud.[15][57] Many landmine victims and family members of missing persons also attended the gathering. Manzoor Pashteen said at the gathering that PTM had been protesting for a year to seek justice for Naqeebullah and will keep protesting even if a hundred years passed to demand strict punishment for Rao Anwar and other criminals. Pashteen blamed the Pakistani state for ruining the Pashtun homeland and looting their resources under the pretext of war on terror. He expressed his resolve that the Pashtuns will continue to seek justice for themselves through peaceful means "even if it takes hundred years".[15][58][59]

Media blackout in Pakistan[edit]

Pakistan's mainstream television channels and media outlets are not reporting and covering the activities of the PTM. Their only medium to interact with the rest of Pakistan and to keep them updated is through social media. This further strengthens their narrative of being sidelined and ignored by the system.[60]

On March 23, the PTM meeting was scheduled to be held in Peshawar University, but Deputy Commissioner Peshawar Islam Zeb, issued an order under section 144 CrPC, imposing ban on political meetings in University and satted any violation against the order shall be preceded against u/s 188 PPC and order will be exercised "for 30 days unless modified or withdrawn."[61] Later the meeting was held in Baghi-e-Naran, Hayatabad with 200 person attending the gathering.[61]

The movement's anthem is “Da Sanga Azadi Da?”, which means “What kind of freedom is this?”. Many Pashtun's have discovered their voice with this anthem and it encloses the various grievances they have from being caught between the militants and the military.[62][63]

Pashteen hat[edit]

The Pashteen hat (also known as the Mazari hat) has become the most iconic symbol of PTM, as Manzoor Pashteen regularly wears it at public rallies and events.[64]

Controversy[edit]

PTM openly criticizes the Pakistan Army and accuses the Pakistani state of violating the basic human rights of the Pashtuns,[65] while the Pakistan Army has claimed that PTM is backed by foreign powers and their gatherings are "engineered".[66][67] PTM claims that as a result, news organizations in Pakistan have been pressured to ignore PTM, and university professors have been forced to identify the students attending PTM's protest gatherings.[66] Some Pakistani politicians and journalists also view PTM as working on a foreign or sub-nationalist agenda.[68] However, PTM's leadership has openly declared that they are protesting through peaceful means within the Constitution of Pakistan.[69]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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