Prophets in Judaism

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According to Rashi, there were 48 prophets and 7 prophetesses of Judaism.[1] The last Jewish prophet is believed to have been Malachi. In Jewish tradition it is believed that the period of prophecy, called Nevuah, ended with Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi at which time the "Shechinah departed from Israel".[2][3]

Jewish prophets[edit]

According to the Talmud, there were 48 prophets and seven prophetesses.[4][1]

The 48 Jewish prophets[edit]

  1. Abraham
  2. Isaac
  3. Jacob
  4. Moses
  5. Aaron
  6. Joshua
  7. Phineas
  8. Elkanah
  9. Eli
  10. Samuel (Shmu'el שמואל)
  11. Gad
  12. Nathan
  13. David
  14. Solomon
  15. Iddo
  16. Michaiah son of Imlah
  17. Obadiah or Ovadyah [עובדיה]
  18. Ahijah the Shilonite
  19. Jehu son of Hanani
  20. Azariah son of Oded
  21. Jahaziel the Levite
  22. Eliezer son of Dodavahu
  23. Hosea or Hoshea [הושע]
  24. Amos [עמוס]
  25. Micah the Morashtite or Mikhah [מיכה]
  26. Amoz
  27. Elijah
  28. Elisha
  29. Jonah son of Amittai or Yonah [יונה]
  30. Isaiah (Yeshayahu [ישעיהו])
  31. Joel or Yo'el [יואל]
  32. Nahum or Nachum [נחום]
  33. Habakkuk or Habaquq [חבקוק]
  34. Zephaniah or Tsefania [צפניה]
  35. Uriah
  36. Jeremiah
  37. Ezekiel
  38. Shemaiah
  39. Baruch
  40. Neriah
  41. Seraiah
  42. Mehseiah
  43. Haggai [חגי]
  44. Zechariah Zekharia [זכריה]
  45. Malachi or Malakhi [מלאכי]
  46. Mordecai Bilshan
  47. Oded
  48. Hanani

The seven prophetesses[edit]

  1. Sarah
  2. Miriam
  3. Deborah
  4. Hannah
  5. Abigail
  6. Huldah
  7. Esther

Many more prophets in the era of prophecy[edit]

Although the Talmud states that only “48 prophets and 7 prophetesses prophesied to Israel”,[5] it does not mean that there were only 55 prophets. The Talmud there challenges this with other examples, and concludes by citing a Baraita tradition that the number of prophets in the era of prophecy was double the number of Israelites who left Egypt (600,000 males). The 55 prophets are recorded, because they said prophecies that have eternal relevance for future generations and not just for their own generation, or own ecstatic encounter with God.[6][7] Hebrew scripture makes references to groups of such ecstatic prophets, for example concerning King Saul:

10 And when they came thither to the hill, behold, a band of prophets met him; and the spirit of God came mightily upon him, and he prophesied among them. 11 And it came to pass, when all that knew him beforetime saw that, behold, he prophesied with the prophets, then the people said one to another: ‘What is this that is come unto the son of Kish? Is Saul also among the prophets?’ 12 And one of the same place answered and said: ‘And who is their father?’ Therefore it became a proverb: ‘Is Saul also among the prophets?’ 13 And when he had made an end of prophesying, he came to the high place.[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Scherman, Nosson. The Stone Edition Tanach. Mesorah Publications, Limited. p. 2038.
  2. ^ A Dictionary of the Jewish-Christian Dialogue, Paulist Press (1995), p167.
  3. ^ Light of Prophecy Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America/National Conference of Synagogue Youth (1990), p6.
  4. ^ Megillah 14a and glosses ad loc.
  5. ^ Talmud, Tractate Megillah 14a
  6. ^ Why Isn’t the Book of Daniel Part of the Prophets? from Chabad.org, footnote 2
  7. ^ Talmud Megilla 14a
  8. ^ 1 Samuel 10-13

External links[edit]