Extended-protected article
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

100 years of Aliyah (immigration) to Mandatory Palestine and Israel, between 1919 and 2020

Aliyah (US: /ˌæliˈɑː/, UK: /ˌɑː-/; Hebrew: עֲלִיָּה ʿălīyyā, lit.'ascent') is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to, historically, the geographical Land of Israel or the Palestine region, which is today chiefly represented by the State of Israel. Traditionally described as "the act of going up" (towards the Jewish holy city of Jerusalem), moving to the Land of Israel or "making aliyah" is one of the most basic tenets of Zionism. The opposite action — emigration by Jews from the Land of Israel — is referred to in the Hebrew language as yerida (lit.'descent').[1] The Law of Return that was passed by the Israeli parliament in 1950 gives all diaspora Jews, as well as their children and grandchildren, the right to relocate to Israel and acquire Israeli citizenship on the basis of connecting to their Jewish identity.

For much of their history, most Jews have lived in the diaspora outside of the Land of Israel due to various historical conflicts that led to their persecution alongside multiple instances of expulsions and exoduses. In the late 19th century, 99.7% of the world's Jews lived outside the region, with Jews representing 2–5% of the population of the Palestine region.[2][3] Despite its historical value as a national aspiration for the Jewish people, aliyah was acted upon by few prior to the rise of a national awakening among Jews worldwide and the subsequent development of the Zionist movement in the late 19th century;[4] the large-scale immigration of Jews to Palestine had consequently begun by 1882.[5] Since the Israeli Declaration of Independence in 1948, more than 3 million Jews have made aliyah.[6] As of 2014, Israel and the Israeli-occupied territories contain approximately 42.9 percent of the world's Jewish population.[7]


The Hebrew word aliyah means "ascent" or "going up". Jewish tradition views traveling to the Land of Israel as an ascent, both geographically and metaphysically. In one opinion, the geographical sense preceded the metaphorical one, as most Jews going on pilgrimage to Jerusalem, which is situated at approximately 750 meters (2,500 feet) above sea level, had to climb to a higher geographic elevation. The reason is that many Jews in early rabbinic times used to live either in Egypt's Nile Delta and on the plains of Babylonia, which lay relatively low; or somewhere in the Mediterranean Basin, from where they arrived by ship.[8]

Widespread use of the term Aliyah to describe ideologically inspired Jewish immigration to Palestine / Israel is due to Arthur Ruppin's 1930 work Soziologie der Juden.[9] Aliyah has also been defined, by sociologists such as Aryeh Tartakower, as immigration for the good of the community, regardless of the destination.[10]

Aliyah is an important Jewish cultural concept and a fundamental component of Zionism. It is enshrined in Israel's Law of Return, which accords any Jew (deemed as such by halakha and/or Israeli secular law) and eligible non-Jews (a child and a grandchild of a Jew, the spouse of a Jew, the spouse of a child of a Jew and the spouse of a grandchild of a Jew), the legal right to assisted immigration and settlement in Israel, as well as Israeli citizenship. Someone who "makes aliyah" is called an oleh (m.; pl. olim) or olah (f.; pl. olot). Many religious Jews espouse aliyah as a return to the Promised land, and regard it as the fulfillment of God's biblical promise to the descendants of the Hebrew patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Nachmanides (the Ramban) includes making aliyah in his enumeration of the 613 commandments.[11]

Sifre says that the mitzvah (commandment) of living in Eretz Yisrael is as important as all the other mitzvot put together. There are many mitzvot such as shmita, the sabbatical year for farming, which can only be performed in Israel.[12]

For generations of religious Jews, aliyah was associated with the coming of the Jewish Messiah. Jews prayed for their Messiah to come, who was to redeem the "Land of Israel" (Eretz Yisrael, commonly known in English as the region of Palestine) from gentile rule and return world Jewry to the land under a Halachic theocracy.[13]

In Zionist discourse, the term aliyah (plural aliyot) includes both voluntary immigration for ideological, emotional, or practical reasons and, on the other hand, mass flight of persecuted populations of Jews. The vast majority of Israeli Jews today trace their family's recent roots to outside the country. While many have actively chosen to settle in Israel rather than some other country, many had little or no choice about leaving their previous home countries. While Israel is commonly recognized as "a country of immigrants", it is also, in large measure, a country of refugees, including internal refugees. Israeli citizens who marry individuals of Palestinian heritage, born within the Israeli-occupied territories and carrying Palestinian IDs, must renounce Israeli residency themselves in order to live and travel together with their spouses.[14]

Pre-modern aliyah


The Hebrew Bible relates that the patriarch Abraham came to the Land of Canaan with his family and followers in approximately 1800 BC. His grandson Jacob went down to Egypt with his family, and after several centuries there, the Israelites went back to Canaan under Moses and Joshua, entering it in about 1300 BC.


In Zionist historiography, post the Balfour Declaration and the start of the "Third Aliyah", the "First Aliyah" and "Second Aliyah" originally referred to the two Biblical "returns to Zion" described in Ezra–Nehemiah – the "First Aliya" led by Zerubbabel and the "Second Aliya" led by Ezra and Nehemiah approximately 80 years later.[15] A few decades after the fall of the Kingdom of Judah and the Babylonian exile of the Jewish people, approximately 50,000 Jews returned to Zion following the Cyrus Declaration from 538 BC. The Jewish priestly scribe Ezra led the Jewish exiles living in Babylon to their home city of Jerusalem in 459 BC. Even those Jews who did not end up returning gave their children names like Yashuv-Tzadik and Yaeliyahu which testified to their desire to return.[16]

Jews returned to the Land of Israel throughout the Second Temple period. Herod the Great also encouraged aliyah and often gave key posts, such as the position of High Priest to returnees.[17]

In late antiquity, the two hubs of rabbinic learning were Babylonia and the land of Israel. Throughout the Amoraic period, many Babylonian Jews immigrated to the land of Israel and left their mark on life there, as rabbis and leaders.[18]

Middle Ages

In the 10th century, leaders of the Karaite Jewish community, mostly living under Persian rule, urged their followers to settle in Eretz Yisrael. The Karaites established their own quarter in Jerusalem, on the western slope of the Kidron Valley. During this period, there is abundant evidence of pilgrimages to Jerusalem by Jews from various countries, mainly in the month of Tishrei, around the time of the Sukkot holiday.[19]

The number of Jews migrating to the land of Israel rose significantly between the 13th and 19th centuries, mainly due to a general decline in the status of Jews across Europe and an increase in religious persecution. The expulsion of Jews from England (1290), France (1391), Austria (1421), and Spain (the Alhambra decree of 1492) were seen by many as a sign of approaching redemption and contributed greatly to the messianic spirit of the time.[20]

Aliyah was also spurred during this period by the resurgence of messianic fervor among the Jews of France, Italy, the Germanic states, Poland, Russia, and North Africa.[citation needed] The belief in the imminent coming of the Jewish Messiah, the ingathering of the exiles and the re-establishment of the kingdom of Israel encouraged many who had few other options to make the perilous journey to the land of Israel.

Pre-Zionist resettlement in Palestine met with various degrees of success. For example, little is known of the fate of the 1210 "aliyah of the three hundred rabbis" and their descendants. It is thought that few survived the bloody upheavals caused by the Crusader invasion in 1229 and their subsequent expulsion by the Muslims in 1291. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453 and the expulsion of Jews from Spain (1492) and Portugal (1498), many Jews made their way to the Holy Land. Some Ukrainian Jewish refugees fleeing the pogroms of the Khmelnytsky Uprising of the mid-17th century also settled in the Holy Land. Then the immigration in the 18th and early 19th centuries of thousands of followers of various Kabbalist and Hassidic rabbis, as well as the disciples of the Vilna Gaon and the disciples of the Chattam Sofer, added considerably to the Jewish populations in Jerusalem, Tiberias, Hebron, and Safed.

19th century

The messianic dreams of the Gaon of Vilna inspired one of the largest pre-Zionist waves of immigration to Eretz Yisrael. In 1808 hundreds of the Gaon's disciples, known as Perushim, settled in Tiberias and Safed, and later formed the core of the Old Yishuv in Jerusalem.[21][22] This was part of a larger movement of thousands of Jews from countries as widely spaced as Persia and Morocco, Yemen and Russia, who moved to Palestine beginning in the first decade of the nineteenth century — and in even larger numbers after the conquest of the region by Muhammad Ali of Egypt in 1832 — all drawn by the expectation of the arrival of the Messiah in the Jewish year 5600, Christian year 1840, a movement documented in Arie Morgenstern's Hastening Redemption. There were also those who like the British mystic Laurence Oliphant tried to lease Northern Palestine to settle the Jews there (1879).

Jewish immigration to Palestine began in earnest following the 1839 Tanzimat reforms; between 1840 and 1880, the Jewish population of Palestine rose from 9,000 to 23,000.[a]

Zionist aliyah (1882 on)

Aliyah by numbers and by source

In Zionist history, the different waves of aliyah, beginning with the arrival of the Biluim from Russia in 1882, are categorized by date and the country of origin of the immigrants.

In the late 19th century, 99.7% of the world's Jews lived outside the region, with Jews representing 2–5% of the population of the Palestine region.[2][3]

Pre-19th century small-scale return migration of Diaspora Jews to the Land of Israel is characterized as the Pre-Modern Aliyah. Since the birth of Zionism in the late 19th century, the advocates of aliyah have striven to facilitate the settlement of Jewish refugees in Ottoman Palestine, Mandatory Palestine, and the sovereign State of Israel.

The periodization of historical waves of Aliyah was first published after the 1917 Balfour Declaration, which created expectations of the start of a huge wave of immigration dubbed the "Third Aliyah", in contrast to the Biblical "First Aliyah" and "Second Aliyah" "returns to Zion" described in Ezra–Nehemiah.[24] Over the next two years, discussion in Zionist literature transformed the two prior to refer to the contemporary immigration waves at the end of the 19th century and the early 20th. These periods as per the modern convention were first published in October 1919 by Yosef Haim Brenner.[25]

In the 1930s and 1940s, Zionist historians began to divide the next periods of immigration to Palestine into different phases, in a form which "created and presumed the unique traits of aliyah and the Zionist enterprise".[26] The currently accepted five-wave periodization was first published in Hebrew by sociologist David Gurevich in his 1944 work The Jewish Population of Palestine: Immigration, Demographic Structure and Natural Growth:[27] the First Aliyah and the Second Aliyah to Ottoman Palestine, followed by the Third, Fourth, and Fifth Aliyah to Mandatory Palestine.[27] Following Ruppin and Jacob Lestschinsky before him, Gurevich's use of the term Aliyah emphasized the ideological element of the immigration,[28] despite the fact that such a motivation was not representative of the immigrants as a whole.[27]

Subsequently, named periods include Aliyah Bet (immigration done in spite of restrictive Mandatory law) between 1934 and 1948 and the Bricha of the Holocaust survivors; the aliyah from elsewhere in the Middle East and North Africa as well as the aliyah from Western and Communist countries following the Six-Day War with the 1968 Polish political crisis, as well as the aliyah from post-Soviet states in the 1990s. Today, most aliyah consists of voluntary migration for ideological, economic, or family reunification purposes. Because Jewish lineage can provide a right to Israeli citizenship, aliyah (returning to Israel) has both a secular and a religious significance.

The first modern period of immigration to receive a number in common speech was the Third Aliyah, which in the World War I period was referred to as the successor to the First and Second Aliyot from Babylonia in the Biblical period. Reference to earlier modern periods as the First and Second Aliyot appeared first in 1919 and took a while to catch on.[29]

Ottoman Palestine (1881–1914)

The pronounced persecution of Russian Jews between 1881 and 1910 led to a large wave of emigration.[30] Since only a small portion of East European Jews had adopted Zionism by then, between 1881 and 1914 only 30–40,000 emigrants went to Ottoman Palestine, while over one and a half million Russian Jews and 300,000 from Austria-Hungary reached Northern America.[30]

First Aliyah (1882–1903)

Between 1882 and 1903, approximately 35,000 Jews immigrated to the Ottoman Palestine, joining the pre-existing Jewish population which in 1880 numbered 20,000-25,000. The Jews immigrating arrived in groups that had been assembled, or recruited. Most of these groups had been arranged in the areas of Romania and Russia in the 1880s. The migration of Jews from Russia correlates with the end of the Russian pogroms, with about 3 percent of Jews emigrating from Europe to Palestine. The groups who arrived in Palestine around this time were called Hibbat Tsiyon, which is a Hebrew word meaning "fondness for Zion." They were also called Hovevei Tsiyon or "enthusiasts for Zion" by the members of the groups themselves. While these groups expressed interest and "fondness" for Palestine, they were not strong enough in number to encompass an entire mass movement as would appear later on in other waves of migration.[31] The majority, belonging to the Hovevei Zion and Bilu movements, came from the Russian Empire with a smaller number arriving from Yemen. Many established agricultural communities. Among the towns that these individuals established are Petah Tikva (already in 1878), Rishon LeZion, Rosh Pinna, and Zikhron Ya'akov. In 1882 the Yemenite Jews settled in the Arab village of Silwan located south-east of the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem on the slopes of the Mount of Olives.[32] Kurdish Jews settled in Jerusalem starting around 1895.[33]

Second Aliyah (1904–1914)

Between 1904 and 1914, 35–40,000 Jews immigrated to Ottoman Palestine. The vast majority came from the Russian Empire, in particular from the Pale of Settlement in Eastern Europe. Jews from other countries in Eastern Europe such as Romania and Bulgaria also joined. Jewish emigration from Eastern Europe was largely due to pogroms and outbreaks of anti-Semitism there. However, Mountain Jews from the Caucasus and Jews from other countries including Yemen, Iran, and Argentina also arrived at this time. The Eastern European Jewish immigrants of this period, greatly influenced by socialist ideals, established the first kibbutz, Degania Alef, in 1909 and formed self-defense organizations, such as Hashomer, to counter increasing Arab hostility and to help Jews to protect their communities from Arab marauders.[34] Ahuzat Bayit, a new suburb of Jaffa established in 1909, eventually grew to become the city of Tel Aviv. During this period, some of the underpinnings of an independent nation-state arose: Hebrew, the ancient national language, was revived as a spoken language; newspapers and literature written in Hebrew were published; political parties and workers organizations were established. The First World War effectively ended the period of the Second Aliyah. It is estimated that over half of those who arrived during this period ended up leaving; Ben Gurion stated that nine out of ten left.[35]

British Palestine (1919–1948)

Third Aliyah (1919–1923)

Abba Hushi during his Hachshara, circa 1920

Between 1919 and 1923, 40,000 Jews, mainly from Eastern Europe arrived in the wake of World War I. The British occupation of Palestine and the establishment of the British Mandate created the conditions for the implementation of the promises contained in the Balfour Declaration. Many of the Jewish immigrants were ideologically driven pioneers, known as halutzim, trained in agriculture and capable of establishing self-sustaining economies. In spite of immigration quotas established by the British administration, the Jewish population reached 90,000 by the end of this period. The Jezreel Valley and the Hefer Plain marshes were drained and converted to agricultural use. Additional national institutions arose such as the Histadrut (General Labor Federation); an elected assembly; national council; and the Haganah, the forerunner of the Israel Defense Forces.[citation needed]

Fourth Aliyah (1924–1929)

Between 1924 and 1929, 82,000 Jews arrived, many as a result of increasing anti-Semitism in Poland and throughout Europe. The vast majority of Jewish immigrants arrived from Europe mostly from Poland, the Soviet Union, Romania, and Lithuania, but about 12% came from Asia, mostly Yemen and Iraq. The immigration quotas of the United States kept Jews out. This group contained many middle-class families that moved to the growing towns, establishing small businesses, and light industry. Of these approximately 23,000 left the country.[36]

Fifth Aliyah (1929–1939)

Survey of Palestine, showing place of origin of immigrants between 1922 and 1944
Certificate issued by the Jewish Agency in Warsaw, Poland, for immigrant to Mandatory Palestine, September 1935.

Between 1929 and 1939, with the rise of Nazism in Germany, a new wave of 250,000 immigrants arrived; the majority of these, 174,000, arrived between 1933 and 1936, after which increasing restrictions on immigration by the British made immigration clandestine and illegal, called Aliyah Bet. The Fifth Aliyah was again driven almost entirely from Europe, mostly from Central Europe (particularly from Poland, Germany, Austria, and Czechoslovakia), but also from Greece. Some Jewish immigrants also came from other countries such as Turkey, Iran, and Yemen. The Fifth Aliyah contained large numbers of professionals, doctors, lawyers, and professors, from Germany. Refugee architects and musicians introduced the Bauhaus style (the White City of Tel Aviv has the highest concentration of International Style architecture in the world with a strong element of Bauhaus) and founded the Palestine Philharmonic Orchestra. With the completion of the port at Haifa and its oil refineries, significant industry was added to the predominantly agricultural economy. The Jewish population reached 450,000 by 1940.[citation needed]

At the same time, tensions between Arabs and Jews grew during this period, leading to a series of Arab riots against the Jews in 1929 that left many dead and resulted in the depopulation of the Jewish community in Hebron. This was followed by more violence during the "Great Uprising" of 1936–1939. In response to the ever-increasing tension between the Arabic and Jewish communities married with the various commitments the British faced at the dawn of World War II, the British issued the White Paper of 1939, which severely restricted Jewish immigration to 75,000 people for five years. This served to create a relatively peaceful eight years in Palestine while the Holocaust unfolded in Europe.[citation needed]

Shortly after their rise to power, the Nazis negotiated the Ha'avara or "Transfer" Agreement with the Jewish Agency under which 50,000 German Jews and $100 million worth of their assets would be moved to Palestine.[37]

Aliyah Bet: Illegal immigration (1933–1948)

Buchenwald survivors arrive in Haifa to be arrested by the British, July 15, 1945

The British government limited Jewish immigration to Mandatory Palestine with quotas, and following the rise of Nazism to power in Germany, illegal immigration to Mandatory Palestine commenced.[38] The illegal immigration was known as Aliyah Bet ("secondary immigration"), or Ha'apalah, and was organized by the Mossad Le'aliyah Bet, as well as by the Irgun. Immigration was done mainly by sea, and to a lesser extent overland through Iraq and Syria. During World War II and the years that followed until independence, Aliyah Bet became the main form of Jewish immigration to Mandatory Palestine.[citation needed]

Following the war, Bricha ("escape"), an organization of former partisans and ghetto fighters was primarily responsible for smuggling Jews from Eastern Europe through Poland. In 1946 Poland was the only Eastern Bloc country to allow free Jewish aliyah to Mandate Palestine without visas or exit permits.[39] By contrast, Stalin forcibly brought Soviet Jews back to USSR, as agreed by the Allies during the Yalta Conference.[40] The refugees were sent to the Italian ports from which they traveled to Mandatory Palestine. More than 4,500 survivors left the French port of Sète aboard President Warfield (renamed Exodus). The British turned them back to France from Haifa, and forced them ashore in Hamburg. Despite British efforts to curb the illegal immigration, during the 14 years of its operation, 110,000 Jews immigrated to Palestine. In 1945 reports of the Holocaust with its 6 million Jewish killed, caused many Jews in Palestine to turn openly against the British Mandate, and illegal immigration escalated rapidly as many Holocaust survivors joined the aliyah.[citation needed]

Early statehood (1948–1960)

Immigration to Israel in the years following the May 1948
Israeli Declaration of Independence.[41]
1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1948-53
Eastern Europe
Romania 17678 13595 47041 40625 3712 61 122712
Poland 28788 47331 25071 2529 264 225 104208
Bulgaria 15091 20008 1000 1142 461 359 38061
Czechoslovakia 2115 15685 263 150 24 10 18247
Hungary 3463 6842 2302 1022 133 224 13986
Soviet Union 1175 3230 2618 689 198 216 8126
Yugoslavia 4126 2470 427 572 88 14 7697
Total 72436 109161 78722 46729 4880 1109 313037
Other Europe
Germany 1422 5329 1439 662 142 100 9094
France 640 1653 1165 548 227 117 4350
Austria 395 1618 746 233 76 45 3113
United Kingdom 501 756 581 302 233 140 2513
Greece 175 1364 343 122 46 71 2121
Italy 530 501 242 142 95 37 1547
Netherlands 188 367 265 282 112 95 1309
Belgium - 615 297 196 51 44 1203
Total 3851 12203 5078 2487 982 649 25250
Iraq 15 1708 31627 88161 868 375 122754
Yemen 270 35422 9203 588 89 26 45598
Turkey 4362 26295 2323 1228 271 220 34699
Iran 43 1778 11935 11048 4856 1096 30756
Aden - 2636 190 328 35 58 3247
India 12 856 1105 364 49 650 3036
China - 644 1207 316 85 160 2412
Other - 1966 931 634 230 197 3958
Total 4702 71305 58521 102667 6483 2782 246460
Tunisia 6821 17353 3725 3414 2548 606 34467
Libya 1064 14352 8818 6534 1146 224 32138
Morocco - - 4980 7770 5031 2990 20771
Egypt - 7268 7154 2086 1251 1041 18800
Algeria - - 506 272 92 84 954
South Africa 178 217 154 35 11 33 628
Other - 382 5 6 3 9 405
Total 8063 39572 25342 20117 10082 4987 108163
Unknown 13827 10942 1742 1901 948 820 30180
All countries 102879 243183 169405 173901 23375 10347 723090

After Aliyah Bet, the process of numbering or naming individual aliyot ceased, but immigration did not. A major wave of Jewish immigration, mainly from post-Holocaust Europe and the Arab and Muslim world took place from 1948 to 1951. In three and a half years, the Jewish population of Israel, which was 650,000 at the state's founding, was more than doubled by an influx of about 688,000 immigrants.[42] In 1949, the largest-ever number of Jewish immigrants in a single year - 249,954 - arrived in Israel.[6] This period of immigration is often termed kibbutz galuyot (literally, ingathering of exiles), due to the large number of Jewish diaspora communities that made aliyah. However, kibbutz galuyot can also refer to aliyah in general.[citation needed]

At the beginning of the immigration wave, most of the immigrants to reach Israel were Holocaust survivors from Europe, including many from displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy, and from British detention camps on Cyprus. Large sections of shattered Jewish communities throughout Europe, such as those from Poland and Romania also immigrated to Israel, with some communities, such as those from Bulgaria and Yugoslavia, being almost entirely transferred. At the same time, the number of Jewish immigrants from Arab countries greatly increased. Special operations were undertaken to evacuate Jewish communities perceived to be in serious danger to Israel, such as Operation Magic Carpet, which evacuated almost the entire Jewish population of Yemen, and Operation Ezra and Nehemiah, which airlifted most of the Jews of Iraq to Israel.[42] Egyptian Jews were smuggled to Israel in Operation Goshen. Nearly the entire Jewish population of Libya left for Israel around this time, and clandestine aliyah from Syria took place, as the Syrian government prohibited Jewish emigration, in a process that was to last decades. Israel also saw significant immigration of Jews from non-Arab Muslim countries such as Iran, Turkey, and Afghanistan in this period.[citation needed]

This resulted in a period of austerity. To ensure that Israel, which at that time had a small economy and scant foreign currency reserves, could provide for the immigrants, a strict regime of rationing was put in place. Measures were enacted to ensure that all Israeli citizens had access to adequate food, housing, and clothing. Austerity was very restrictive until 1953; the previous year, Israel had signed a reparations agreement with West Germany, in which the West German government would pay Israel as compensation for the Holocaust, due to Israel's taking in a large number of Holocaust survivors. The resulting influx of foreign capital boosted the Israeli economy and allowed for the relaxing of most restrictions. The remaining austerity measures were gradually phased out throughout the following years.[citation needed] When new immigrants arrived in Israel, they were sprayed with DDT, underwent a medical examination, were inoculated against diseases, and were given food. The earliest immigrants received desirable homes in established urban areas, but most of the immigrants were then sent to transit camps, known initially as immigrant camps, and later as Ma'abarot. Many were also initially housed in reception centers in military barracks. By the end of 1950, some 93,000 immigrants were housed in 62 transit camps. The Israeli government's goal was to get the immigrants out of refugee housing and into society as speedily as possible. Immigrants who left the camps received a ration card, an identity card, a mattress, a pair of blankets, and $21 to $36 in cash. They settled either in established cities and towns, or in kibbutzim and moshavim.[42][43] Many others stayed in the Ma'abarot as they were gradually turned into permanent cities and towns, which became known as development towns, or were absorbed as neighborhoods of the towns they were attached to, and the tin dwellings were replaced with permanent housing.[citation needed]

In the early 1950s, the immigration wave subsided, and emigration increased; ultimately, some 10% of the immigrants would leave Israel for other countries in the following years. In 1953, immigration to Israel averaged 1,200 a month, while emigration averaged 700 a month. The end of the period of mass immigration gave Israel a critical opportunity to more rapidly absorb the immigrants still living in transit camps.[44] The Israeli government built 260 new settlements and 78,000 housing units to accommodate the immigrants, and by the mid-1950s, almost all were in permanent housing.[45] The last ma'abarot closed in 1963.

In the mid-1950s, a smaller wave of immigration began from North African countries such as Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, and Egypt, many of which were in the midst of nationalist struggles. Between 1952 and 1964, some 240,000 North African Jews came to Israel. During this period, smaller but significant numbers arrived from other places such as Europe, Iran, India, and Latin America.[45] In particular, a small immigration wave from then communist Poland, known as the "Gomulka Aliyah", took place during this period. From 1956 to 1960, Poland permitted free Jewish emigration, and some 50,000 Polish Jews immigrated to Israel.[46]

Since the founding of the State of Israel, the Jewish Agency for Israel was mandated as the organization responsible for aliyah in the diaspora.[47]

From Arab countries

From 1948 until the early 1970s, around 900,000 Jews from Arab lands left, fled, or were expelled from various Arab nations, of which an estimated 650,000 settled in Israel.[48] In the course of Operation Magic Carpet (1949–1950), nearly the entire community of Yemenite Jews (about 49,000) immigrated to Israel. Its other name, Operation On Wings of Eagles (Hebrew: כנפי נשרים, Kanfei Nesharim), was inspired by

Exodus 19:4 - Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bare you on eagles' wings, and brought you unto myself.[49] and
Isaiah 40:31 - But they that wait upon the LORD shall renew their strength; they shall mount up with wings as eagles; they shall run, and not be weary; and they shall walk, and not faint.[50] Some 120,000 Iraqi Jews were airlifted to Israel in Operation Ezra and Nehemiah.

From Iran

Following the establishment of Israel, about one-third of Iranian Jews, most of them poor, immigrated to Israel, and immigration from Iran continued throughout the following decades. An estimated 70,000 Iranian Jews immigrated to Israel between 1948 and 1978. Following the Islamic Revolution in 1979, most of the Iranian Jewish community left, with some 20,000 Iranian Jews immigrating to Israel. Many Iranian Jews also settled in the United States (especially in New York City and Los Angeles).[51]

From Ethiopia

The first major wave of aliyah from Ethiopia took place in the mid-1970s. The massive airlift known as Operation Moses began to bring Ethiopian Jews to Israel on November 18, 1984, and ended on January 5, 1985. During those six weeks, some 6,500–8,000 Ethiopian Jews were flown from Sudan to Israel. An estimated 2,000–4,000 Jews died en route to Sudan or in Sudanese refugee camps. In 1991 Operation Solomon was launched to bring the Beta Israel Jews of Ethiopia. In one day, May 24, 34 aircraft landed at Addis Ababa and brought 14,325 Jews from Ethiopia to Israel. Since that time, Ethiopian Jews have continued to immigrate to Israel bringing the number of Ethiopian-Israelis today to over 100,000.[citation needed]

From Romania

After the war, Romania had second-largest Jewish population in Europe, of around 350,000 or higher. In 1949, 118,939 Romanian Jews had emigrated to Israel since the war ended.[52]

Romanian Jews were, under their own will, "sold" or "exchanged" to Israel in the 1950s with the help of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee for about 8,000 lei (about 420 dollars). The price of these Jews usually varied according to their "worth". This practice continued at a slower pace from 1965 under Nicolae Ceaușescu, a Romanian communist leader. During the 1950s, West Germany had been also paying Romania an amount of money in exchange for some Germans of Romania, and, just like the Jews (both of which were regarded as "co-nationals"), their price was "calculated". Ceaușescu, happy with these policies, even declared that "oil, Germans, and Jews are our most important export commodities".[53]

Israeli government paid to facilitate aliyah, and around 235,000 people emigrated from Romania to Israel under this agreement.[54] When Romania was under control of Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, he received 10 million dollars per year, and only he had the access to the money transferred to the secret account. Israel also bought Romanian goods and invested into Romania's economy. After his death, Ceauşescu practically sold the Jews to Israel, and received between 4,000 and 6,000$ per person.[55] Israel could have transferred nearly 60 million dollars for the aliyah.[56] Another estimation is higher - according to Radu Ioanid, "Ceausescu sold 40,577 Jews to Israel for $112,498,800, at a price of $2,500 and later at $3,300 per head."[57]

From the Soviet Union and post-Soviet states

Soviet authorities break up a demonstration of Jewish refuseniks in front of the Ministry of Internal Affairs for the right to immigrate to Israel, January 10, 1973[58]

A mass emigration was politically undesirable for the Soviet regime. The only acceptable ground was family reunification, and a formal petition ("вызов", vyzov) from a relative from abroad was required for the processing to begin. Often, the result was a formal refusal. The risks to apply for an exit visa compounded because the entire family had to quit their jobs, which in turn would make them vulnerable to charges of social parasitism, a criminal offense. Because of these hardships, Israel set up the group Lishkat Hakesher in the early 1950s to maintain contact and promote aliyah with Jews behind the Iron Curtain.[citation needed]

From Israel's establishment in 1948 to the Six-Day War in 1967, Soviet aliyah remained minimal. Those who made aliyah during this period were mainly elderly people granted clearance to leave for family reunification purposes. Only about 22,000 Soviet Jews managed to reach Israel. In the wake of the Six-Day War, the USSR broke off the diplomatic relations with the Jewish state. An Anti-Zionist propaganda campaign in the state-controlled mass media and the rise of Zionology were accompanied by harsher discrimination of the Soviet Jews. By the end of the 1960s, Jewish cultural and religious life in the Soviet Union had become practically impossible, and the majority of Soviet Jews were assimilated and non-religious, but this new wave of state-sponsored anti-Semitism on one hand, and the sense of pride for victorious Jewish nation over Soviet-armed Arab armies on the other, stirred up Zionist feelings.[citation needed]

After the Dymshits-Kuznetsov hijacking affair and the crackdown that followed, strong international condemnations caused the Soviet authorities to increase the emigration quota. In the years 1960–1970, the USSR let only 4,000 people leave; in the following decade, the number rose to 250,000.[59] The exodus of Soviet Jews began in 1968.[60]

Year Exit visas
to Israel
Immigrants from
the USSR[59]
1968 231 231
1969 3,033 3,033
1970 999 999
1971 12,897 12,893
1972 31,903 31,652
1973 34,733 33,277
1974 20,767 16,888
1975 13,363 8,435
1976 14,254 7,250
1977 16,833 8,350
1978 28,956 12,090
1979 51,331 17,278
1980 21,648 7,570
1981 9,448 1,762
1982 2,692 731
1983 1,314 861
1984 896 340
1985 1,140 348
1986 904 201

Between 1968 and 1973, almost all Soviet Jews allowed to leave settled in Israel, and only a small minority moved to other Western countries. However, in the following years, the number of those moving to other Western nations increased.[60] Soviet Jews granted permission to leave were taken by train to Austria to be processed and then flown to Israel. There, the ones who chose not to go to Israel, called "dropouts", exchanged their immigrant invitations to Israel for refugee status in a Western country, especially the United States. Eventually, most Soviet Jews granted permission to leave became dropouts. Overall, between 1970 and 1988, some 291,000 Soviet Jews were granted exit visas, of whom 165,000 moved to Israel and 126,000 moved to the United States.[61] In 1989 a record 71,000 Soviet Jews were granted exodus from the USSR, of whom only 12,117 immigrated to Israel.

In 1989 the United States changed its immigration policy of unconditionally granting Soviet Jews refugee status. That same year, Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev ended restrictions on Jewish immigration, and the Soviet Union itself collapsed in 1991. Since then, about a million people from the former Soviet Union immigrated to Israel,[62] including approximately 240,000 who were not Jewish according to rabbinical law, but were eligible for Israeli citizenship under the Law of Return.

The number of immigrants counted as halachically non-Jewish from the former USSR has been constantly rising ever since 1989. For example, in 1990 around 96% of the immigrants were halachically Jewish and only 4% were non-Jewish family members. However, in 2000, the proportion was: Jews (includes children from non-Jewish father and Jewish mother) - 47%, Non-Jewish spouses of Jews - 14%, children from Jewish father and non-Jewish mother - 17%, Non-Jewish spouses of children from Jewish father and non-Jewish mother - 6%, non-Jews with a Jewish grandparent - 14% & Non-Jewish spouses of non-Jews with a Jewish grandparent - 2%.[63]

Following the beginning of the Russo-Ukrainian War, Ukrainian Jews making aliyah from Ukraine reached 142% higher during the first four months of 2014 compared to the previous year.[64][65] In 2014, aliyah from the former Soviet Union went up 50% from the previous year with some 11,430 people or approximately 43% of all Jewish immigrants arrived from the former Soviet Union, propelled from the increase from Ukraine with some 5,840 new immigrants have come from Ukraine over the course of the year.[66][67]

The wave of aliyah from Russia since 2014 has been called "Putin's aliyah", "Putin's exodus", and "cheese aliyah" (foreign cheese was one of the first products to disappear from Russian shops because of anti-sanctions imposed by the Russian government).[68][69][70][71][72] The number of repatriants in this wave is comparable with that coming from the USSR between 1970 and 1988.[73]

Following 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, Israel announced "Immigrants Come Home" operation. As of June 2022, more than 25,000 people arrived in Israel from Ukraine, Russia, Belarus and Moldova.[74]

From Latin America

In the 1999–2002 Argentine political and economic crisis that caused a run on the banks, wiped out billions of dollars in deposits and decimated Argentina's middle class, most of the country's estimated 200,000 Jews were directly affected. Some 4,400 chose to start over and move to Israel, where they saw opportunity.[citation needed]

More than 10,000 Argentine Jews have immigrated to Israel since 2000, joining the thousands of previous Argentine immigrants already there. The crisis in Argentina also affected its neighbour country Uruguay, from which about half of its 40,000-strong Jewish community left, mainly to Israel, in the same period. During 2002 and 2003 the Jewish Agency for Israel launched an intensive public campaign to promote aliyah from the region, and offered additional economic aid for immigrants from Argentina. Although the economy of Argentina improved, and some who had immigrated to Israel from Argentina moved back following South American country's economic growth from 2003 onwards, Argentine Jews continue to immigrate to Israel, albeit in smaller numbers than before. The Argentine community in Israel is about 50,000-70,000 people, the largest Latin American group in the country.[citation needed]

There has also been immigration from other Latin American countries that have experienced crises, though they have come in smaller numbers and are not eligible for the same economic benefits as immigrants to Israel from Argentina.[citation needed]

In Venezuela, growing antisemitism in the country, including antisemitic violence, caused an increasing number of Jews to move to Israel during the 2000s. For the first time in Venezuelan history, Jews began leaving for Israel in the hundreds. By November 2010, more than half of Venezuela's 20,000-strong Jewish community had left the country.[75][76]

From France

From 2000 to 2009, more than 13,000 French Jews immigrated to Israel, largely as a result of growing anti-semitism in the country. A peak was reached in 2005, with 2,951 immigrants. However, between 20 and 30% eventually returned to France.[77]

In 2012, some 200,000 French citizens lived in Israel.[78] During the same year, following the election of François Hollande and the Jewish school shooting in Toulouse, as well as ongoing acts of anti-semitism and the European economic crisis, an increasing number of French Jews began buying property in Israel.[79] In August 2012, it was reported that anti-semitic attacks had risen by 40% in the five months following the Toulouse shooting, and that many French Jews were seriously considering immigrating to Israel.[80] In 2013, 3,120 French Jews immigrated to Israel, marking a 63% increase over the previous year.[81] In the first two months of 2014, French Jewish aliyah increased precipitously by 312% with 854 French Jews making aliyah over the first two months. Immigration from France throughout 2014 has been attributed to several factors, of which includes increasing antisemitism, in which many Jews have been harassed and attacked by a fusillade of local thugs and gangs, a stagnant European economy and concomitant high youth unemployment rates.[82][83][84][85]

During the first few months of 2014, The Jewish Agency of Israel continued to encourage an increase of French aliyah through aliyah fairs, Hebrew language courses, sessions which help potential immigrants to find jobs in Israel, and immigrant absorption in Israel.[86] A May 2014 survey revealed that 74 percent of French Jews considered leaving France for Israel; of those considering leaving, 29.9 percent cited anti-Semitism. Another 24.4 cited their desire to “preserve their Judaism,” while 12.4 percent said they were attracted by other countries. “Economic considerations” was cited by 7.5 percent of the respondents.[87] By June 2014, it was estimated by the end of 2014 a full 1 percent of the French Jewish community will have made aliyah to Israel, the largest in a single year. Many Jewish leaders stated the emigration is being driven by a combination of factors, including the cultural gravitation towards Israel and France's economic woes, especially for the younger generation drawn by the possibility of other socioeconomic opportunities in the more vibrant Israeli economy.[88][89] During the Hebrew year 5774 (September 2013 - September 2014) for the first time ever, more Jews made aliyah from France than any other country, numbering approximately 6,000 and fleeing antisemitism, pro-Palestinian and anti-Zionist violence, as well as and economic malaise.[90][91]

In January 2015, events such as the Charlie Hebdo shooting and Porte de Vincennes hostage crisis created a shock wave of fear across the French Jewish community. As a result of these events, the Jewish Agency planned an aliyah plan for 120,000 French Jews who wished to make aliyah.[92][93] In addition, with Europe's stagnant economy, many affluent French Jewish skilled professionals, businesspeople and investors sought Israel as a start-up haven for international investments, as well as for job and new business opportunities.[94] In addition, Dov Maimon, a French Jewish émigré who studies migration as a senior fellow at the Jewish People Policy Institute, expects as many as 250,000 French Jews to make aliyah by 2030.[94]

Hours after an attack and an ISIS flag was raised on a gas factory near Lyon where the severed head of a local businessman was pinned to the gates on June 26, 2015, Immigration and Absorption Minister Ze’ev Elkin strongly urged the French Jewish community to move to Israel and made it a national priority for Israel to welcome French Jews with open arms.[95][96] Immigration from France increased: in the first half of 2015, approximately 5,100 French Jews made aliyah to Israel, or 25% more than in the same period during the previous year.[97][98]

Following the November 2015 Paris attacks committed by suspected ISIS affiliates in retaliation for Opération Chammal, one source reported that 80 percent of French Jews were considering making aliyah.[99][100][101] According to the Jewish Agency, nearly 6,500 French Jews made aliyah between January and November 2015.[102][103][104]

From North America

Nefesh B'Nefesh group welcomes North American immigrants to Israel

More than 200,000 North American immigrants live in Israel. There has been a steady flow of immigration from North America since Israel's inception in 1948.[105][106]

Several thousand American Jews moved to Mandate Palestine before the State of Israel was established. From Israel's establishment in 1948 to the Six-Day War in 1967, aliyah from the United States and Canada was minimal. In 1959, a former President of the Association of Americans and Canadians in Israel estimated that out of the 35,000 American and Canadian Jews who had made aliyah, only 6,000 remained.[107]

Following the Six-Day War in 1967, and the subsequent euphoria among world Jewry, significant numbers arrived in the late 1960s and 1970s, whereas it had been a mere trickle before. Between 1967 and 1973, 60,000 North American Jews immigrated to Israel. However, many of them later returned to their original countries. An estimated 58% of American Jews who immigrated to Israel between 1961 and 1972 ended up returning to the United States.[108][109]

Like Western European immigrants, North Americans tend to immigrate to Israel more for religious, ideological, and political purposes, and not financial or security ones.[110] Many immigrants began arriving in Israel after the First and Second Intifada, with a total of 3,052 arriving in 2005 — the highest number since 1983.[111]

Nefesh B'Nefesh, founded in 2002 by Rabbi Yehoshua Fass and Tony Gelbart, works to encourage aliyah from North America and the UK by providing financial assistance, employment services and streamlined governmental procedures. Nefesh B’Nefesh works in cooperation with the Jewish Agency and the Israeli Government in increasing the numbers of North American and British immigrants.[citation needed]

Following the financial crisis of 2007–2008, American Jewish immigration to Israel rose. This wave of immigration was triggered by Israel's lower unemployment rate, combined with financial incentives offered to new Jewish immigrants. In 2009, aliyah was at its highest in 36 years, with 3,324 North American Jews making aliyah.[112]

Since the 1990s

New immigrants in Ben Gurion airport in Israel, 2007

Since the mid-1990s, there has been a steady stream of South African, American and French Jews who have either made aliyah, or purchased property in Israel for potential future immigration. Over 2,000 French Jews moved to Israel each year between 2000 and 2004 due to anti-Semitism in France.[113] The Bnei Menashe Jews from India, whose recent discovery and recognition by mainstream Judaism as descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes is subject to some controversy, slowly started their aliyah in the early 1990s and continue arriving in slow numbers.[114] Organizations such as Nefesh B'Nefesh and Shavei Israel help with aliyah by supporting financial aid and guidance on a variety of topics such as finding work, learning Hebrew, and assimilation into Israeli culture.

In early 2007 Haaretz reported that aliyah for the year of 2006 was down approximately 9% from 2005, "the lowest number of immigrants recorded since 1988".[115] The number of new immigrants in 2007 was 18,127, the lowest since 1988. Only 36% of these new immigrants came from the former Soviet Union (close to 90% in the 1990s) while the number of immigrants from countries like France and the United States was stable.[116] Some 15,452 immigrants arrived in Israel in 2008 and 16,465 in 2009.[117] On October 20, 2009, the first group of Kaifeng Jews arrived in Israel, in an aliyah operation coordinated by Shavei Israel.[118][119][120] Shalom Life reported that over 19,000 new immigrants arrived in Israel in 2010, an increase of 16 percent over 2009.[121]

Paternity testing

In 2013, the office of the Prime Minister of Israel announced that some people born out of wedlock, "wishing to immigrate to Israel could be subjected to DNA testing" to prove their paternity is as they claim. A Foreign Ministry spokesman said the genetic paternity testing idea is based on the recommendations of Nativ, an Israeli government organization that has helped Soviet and post-Soviet Jews with aliyah since the 1950s.[122]


Joshua passing the River Jordan with the Ark of the Covenant, by Benjamin West, Benjamin West, 1800

Yom HaAliyah (Aliyah Day) (Hebrew: יום העלייה) is an Israeli national holiday celebrated annually according to the Jewish calendar on the tenth of the Hebrew month of Nisan to commemorate the Jewish people entering the Land of Israel as written in the Hebrew Bible, which happened on the tenth of the Hebrew month of Nisan (Hebrew: י' ניסן).[123] The holiday was also established to acknowledge Aliyah, immigration to the Jewish state, as a core value of the State of Israel, and honor the ongoing contributions of Olim, Jewish immigrants, to Israeli society. Yom HaAliyah is also observed in Israeli schools on the seventh of the Hebrew month of Cheshvan.[124]

The opening clause of the Yom HaAliyah Law states in Hebrew:

מטרתו של חוק זה לקבוע יום ציון שנתי להכרה בחשיבותה של העלייה לארץ ישראל כבסיס לקיומה של מדינת ישראל, להתפתחותה ולעיצובה כחברה רב־תרבותית, ולציון מועד הכניסה לארץ ישראל שאירע ביום י׳ בניסן.[125]

English translation:

The purpose of this law is to set an annual holiday to recognize the importance of Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel as the basis for the existence of the State of Israel, its development and design as a multicultural society, and to mark the date of entry into the Land of Israel that happened on the tenth of Nisan.

The original day chosen for Yom HaAliyah, the tenth of Nisan, is laden with symbolism. Although a modern holiday created by the Knesset of Israel, the tenth of Nisan is a date of religious significance for the Jewish People as recounted in the Hebrew Bible and in traditional Jewish thought.[126]

On the tenth of Nisan, according to the biblical narrative in the Book of Joshua, Joshua and the Israelites crossed the Jordan River at Gilgal into the Promised Land while carrying the Ark of the Covenant. It was thus the first documented "mass aliyah." On that day, God commanded the Israelites to commemorate and celebrate the occasion by erecting twelve stones with the text of the Torah engraved upon them. The stones represented the entirety of the Jewish nation's twelve tribes and their gratitude for God's gift of the Land of Israel (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, Modern: Eretz Yisrael, Tiberian: ʼÉreṣ Yiśrāʼēl) to them.[127]

Yom HaAliyah, as a modern holiday celebration, began in 2009 as a grassroots community initiative and young Olim self-initiated movement in Tel Aviv, spearheaded by the TLV Internationals organization of the Am Yisrael Foundation.[128] On June 21, 2016, the Twentieth Knesset voted in favor of codifying the grassroots initiative into law by officially adding Yom HaAliyah to the Israeli national calendar.[129] The Yom HaAliyah bill[130] was co-sponsored by Knesset members from different parties in a rare instance of cooperation across the political spectrum of the opposition and coalition.[131]


Recent trends

Top aliyah sending countries:
Country 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Russia Russia 10,673 16,060 6,507 7,500 43,685
Ukraine Ukraine 6,561 6,329 2,917 2,123 15,213
United States United States 3,052 3,141 2,661 4,000 3,261
France France 2,723 2,470 2,351 2,819 2,049[b]
Ethiopia Ethiopia 1,467 665 712 1,589 1,498[c]
Belarus Belarus 969 945 586 780 1,993[d]
Brazil Brazil 693 673 438 356[e]
United Kingdom United Kingdom 523 490 526[f]
Canada Canada 347
Argentina Argentina 286 340 633 985[g]
South Africa South Africa 332 442 280 373 426[h]
Turkey Turkey 401 203 318
Germany Germany 185
Venezuela Venezuela 152 174
Belgium Belgium 121
Mexico Mexico 110
Switzerland Switzerland 91
Italy Italy 86
Hungary Hungary 43
Total 29,509 30,403 35,651 21,120 28,601 74,915

Historic data

The number of immigrants since 1882 by period, continent of birth, and country of birth is given in the table below. Continent of birth and country of birth data is almost always unavailable or nonexistent for before 1919.[145][146][134]

Region/Country 1882–
Africa 4,033 93,282 143,485 164,885 19,273 28,664 55,619 31,558 20,843 561,642
Algeria Algeria 994 3,810 3,433 12,857 2,137 1,830 1,682 1,967 324 29,034
Sudan Egypt and Sudan 0 16,028 17,521 2,963 535 372 202 166 21 37,808
Ethiopian Empire AbyssiniaEthiopia Ethiopia and Eritrea Eritrea 0 10 59 98 309 16,971 45,131 23,613 10,500 96,691
Libya Libya 873 30,972 2,079 2,466 219 67 94 36 5 36,811
Morocco Morocco 0 28,263 95,945 130,507 7,780 3,809 3,276 2,113 384 272,077
South Africa South Africa 259 666 774 3,783 5,604 3,575 3,283 1,693 2,560 22,197
Tunisia Tunisia 0 13,293 23,569 11,566 2,148 1,942 1,607 1,871 398 56,394
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 0 37 22 145 393 82 26 14 719
Other (Africa) 1,907 203 83 500 148 16 318 85 24 3,284
Americas and Oceania 7,579 3,822 6,922 42,400 45,040 39,369 39,662 36,209 51,370 272,373
Argentina Argentina 238 904 2,888 11,701 13,158 10,582 11,248 9,450 3,150 63,319
Australia Australia 0 116 107 742 1,146 835 977 524 4,447
Bolivia Bolivia 0 0 0 199 94 80 53 84 510
Brazil Brazil 0 304 763 2,601 1,763 1,763 2,356 2,037 4,320 15,907
Canada Canada 316 236 276 2,169 2,178 1,867 1,963 1,700 6,340 17,045
Chile Chile 0 48 401 1,790 1,180 1,040 683 589 5,731
Colombia Colombia 0 0 0 415 552 475 657 965 3,064
Cuba Cuba 0 14 88 405 79 42 629 606 1,863
Ecuador Ecuador 0 0 0 40 38 44 67 69 258
Mexico Mexico 0 48 168 736 861 993 1,049 697 4,552
New Zealand New Zealand 70 0 13 91 129 124 142 42 611
Panama Panama 0 0 0 64 43 48 50 40 245
Peru Peru 0 0 0 269 243 358 612 1,539 3,021
United States United States 2,000[147] 6,635 1,711 1,553 18,671 20,963 18,904 17,512 15,445 32,000 135,394
Uruguay Uruguay 0 66 425 1,844 2,199 2,014 983 1,555 9,086
Venezuela Venezuela 0 0 0 297 245 180 418 602 1,742
Other (Central America) 0 17 43 129 104 8 153 157 611
Other (South America) 0 42 194 89 62 0 66 96 549
Other (Americas/Oceania) 318 313 0 148 3 8 44 12 846
Asia 40,776 237,704 37,119 56,208 19,456 14,433 75,687 17,300 1,370 500,053
Afghanistan Afghanistan 0 2,303 1,106 516 132 57 21 13 4,148
Myanmar Burma 0 0 0 147 83 383 138 33 784
China China 0 504 217 96 43 78 277 74 190 1,479
Cyprus Cyprus 0 21 35 28 21 12 32 0 149
India India, Pakistan Pakistan, Bangladesh Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 0 2,176 5,380 13,110 3,497 1,539 2,055 961 1,180 29,898
Indonesia Indonesia, Malaysia Malaysia and the Philippines Philippines 0 101 46 54 40 60 205 42 548
Pahlavi dynasty PersiaIran Iran 3,536 21,910 15,699 19,502 9,550 8,487 4,326 1,097 84,107
Iraq Iraq 0 123,371 2,989 2,129 939 111 1,325 130 130,994
Israel Israel 0 411 868 1,021 507 288 1,148 1,448 5,691
Japan Japan 0 0 9 25 34 57 98 32 255
Jordan Jordan 0 6 9 23 6 9 15 0 68
Lebanon Lebanon 0 235 846 2,208 564 179 96 34 4,162
Mongolia Mongolia, South Korea South Korea, and North Korea North Korea 0 0 0 4 5 10 100 36 155
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 0 177 0 4 0 5 0 0 186
Russia Russian EmpireSoviet Union Soviet UnionRussia Russia (Asia)[i] 61,988 12,422 74,410
Syria Syria 0 2,678 1,870 0 0 0 1,664 23 6,235
Turkey Turkey 8,277 34,547 6,871 14,073 3,118 2,088 1,311 817 71,102
Yemen Yemen 2,600[148] 15,838 48,315 1,170 1,066 51 17 683 103 69,843
Other (Asia) 13,125 947 0 60 21 45 205 30 14,433
Europe 377,487 332,802 106,305 162,070 183,419 70,898 888,603 96,165 162,320 2,380,069
Albania Albania 0 0 5 8 0 0 376 0 389
Austria Austria 7,748 2,632 610 1,021 595 356 368 150 13,480
Belarus Belarus 5,530 5,530
Belgium Belgium 0 291 394 1,112 847 788 1,053 873 5,358
Bulgaria Bulgaria 7,057 37,260 1,680 794 118 180 3,999 341 51,429
Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia 16,794 18,788 783 2,754 888 462 527 217 41,213
Denmark Denmark 0 27 46 298 292 411 389 85 1,548
Finland Finland 0 9 20 172 184 222 212 33 852
France France 1,637 3,050 1,662 8,050 5,399 7,538 11,986 13,062 38,000 90,384
Weimar Republic Weimar RepublicNazi Germany Nazi GermanyGermany Germany 52,951 8,210 1,386 3,175 2,080 1,759 2,442 866 72,869
Greece Greece 8,767 2,131 676 514 326 147 127 48 12,736
Hungary Hungary 10,342 14,324 9,819 2,601 1,100 1,005 2,444 730 42,365
Republic of Ireland Ireland 0 14 46 145 157 233 136 54 785
Italy Italy 1,554 1,305 414 940 713 510 656 389 6,481
Luxembourg Luxembourg 0 30 15 15 7 12 0 4 83
Netherlands Netherlands 1,208 1,077 646 1,470 1,170 1,239 997 365 8,172
Norway Norway 0 17 14 36 55 126 120 19 387
Poland Poland 170,127 106,414 39,618 14,706 6,218 2,807 3,064 764 343,718
Portugal Portugal 0 16 22 66 56 55 47 28 290
Romania Romania ??? 41,105 117,950 32,462 86,184 18,418 14,607 6,254 711 317,691
Russia Russian EmpireSoviet Union Soviet UnionRussia Russia (Europe) 47,500[149][j] 52,350 8,163 13,743 29,376 137,134 29,754 844,139 72,520 66,800 1,301,479
Spain Spain 0 80 169 406 327 321 269 178 1,750
Sweden Sweden 0 32 51 378 372 419 424 160 1,836
Switzerland Switzerland 0 131 253 886 634 706 981 585 4,176
United Kingdom United Kingdom 1,574 1,907 1,448 6,461 6,171 7,098 5,365 3,725 6,320 40,069
Ukraine Ukraine 45,670 45,670
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia YugoslaviaSerbia Serbia and the former Yugoslavia 1,944 7,661 320 322 126 140 2,029 162 12,704
Other (Europe) 2,329 1,281 3 173 32 0 198 93 4,109
Not known 52,982 20,014 3,307 2,265 392 469 422 0 0 79,851
Total 62,500[150][k] 482,857 687,624 297,138 427,828 267,580 153,833 1,059,993 181,233 236,903 3,857,489

See also



  1. ^ Jewish influx into Palestine. Between 1880 and 1907, the number of Jews in Palestine grew from 23,000 to 80,000. Most of the community resided in Jerusalem, which already had a Jewish majority at the beginning of the influx. [Footnote: Mordecai Elia, Ahavar Tziyon ve-Kolel Hod (Tel Aviv, 1971), appendix A. Between 1840 and 1880 the Jewish settlement in Palestine grew in numbers from 9,000 to 23,000.] The First Aliyah accounted for only a few thousand of the new-comers, and the number of the Biluim among them was no more than a few dozen. Jewish immigration to Palestine had begun to swell in the 1840s, following the liberalization of Ottoman domestic policy (the Tanzimat Reforms) and as a result of the protection extended to immigrants by the European consulates set up at the time in Jerusalem and Jaffa. The majority of immigrants came from Eastern and Central Europe - the Russian Empire, Romania, and Hungary - and were not inspired by modern Zionist ideology. Many were motivated by a blend of traditional ideology (e.g., belief in the sanctity of the land of Israel and in the redemption of the Jewish people through the return to Zion) and practical considerations (e.g., desire to escape the worsening conditions in their lands of origin and to improve their lot in Palestine). The proto-Zionist ideas which had already crystallized in Western Europe during the late 1850s and early 1860s were gaining currency in Eastern Europe.[23]
  2. ^ Between January 1 and December 1, 2022[142]
  3. ^ Part of Operation Tzur Israel[142]
  4. ^ Between January 1 and December 1, 2022[142]
  5. ^ Between January 1 and December 1, 2022[142]
  6. ^ Between January 1 and December 1, 2022[142]
  7. ^ Between January 1 and December 1, 2022[142]
  8. ^ Between January 1 and December 1, 2022[142]
  9. ^ Before 1995 the aliyah from the Asian parts of the former Soviet Union were counted in the total of the aliyah from the European part of the former Soviet Union.
  10. ^ This number is an average of two different estimates from page 93 of this book.
  11. ^ This number is an average of two different estimates.


  1. ^ ""Aliyah": The Word and Its Meaning". 2005-05-15. Archived from the original on 2009-12-19. Retrieved 2013-04-29.
  2. ^ a b On, Raphael R. Bar (1969). "Israel's Next Census of Population as a Source of Data on Jews". Proceedings of the World Congress of Jewish Studies / דברי הקונגרס העולמי למדעי היהדות. ה: 31*–41*. JSTOR 23524099The estimated 24,000 Jews in Palestine in 1882 represented just 0.3% of the world's Jewish population{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  3. ^ a b Mendel, Yonatan (5 October 2014). The Creation of Israeli Arabic: Security and Politics in Arabic Studies in Israel. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 188. ISBN 978-1-137-33737-5Note 28: The exact percentage of Jews in Palestine prior to the rise of Zionism is unknown. However, it probably ranged from 2 to 5 per cent. According to Ottoman records, a total population of 462,465 resided in 1878 in what is today Israel/Palestine. Of this number, 403,795 (87 per cent) were Muslim, 43,659 (10 per cent) were Christian and 15,011 (3 per cent) were Jewish (quoted in Alan Dowty, Israel/Palestine, Cambridge: Polity, 2008, p. 13). See also Mark Tessler, A History of the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1994), pp. 43 and 124.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  4. ^ Rosenzweig, Rafael N. (1989). The Economic Consequences of Zionism. E.J. Brill. p. 1. ISBN 978-90-04-09147-4. Zionism, the urge of the Jewish people to return to Palestine, is almost as ancient as the Jewish diaspora itself. Some Talmudic statements ... Almost a millennium later, the poet and philosopher Yehuda Halevi ... In the 19th century ...
  5. ^ Schneider, Jan (June 2008). "Israel". Focus Migration. 13. Hamburg Institute of International Economics. ISSN 1864-6220. Archived from the original on 2019-05-14. Retrieved 2013-04-29.
  6. ^ a b Branovsky, Yael (6 May 2008). "400 olim arrive in Israel ahead of Independence Day - Israel Jewish Scene, Ynetnews". Ynetnews. Archived from the original on 2017-06-30. Retrieved 2013-04-29.
  7. ^ DellaPergola, Sergio (2014). Dashefsky, Arnold; Sheskin, Ira (eds.). "World Jewish Population, 2014". Current Jewish Population Reports. 11. The American Jewish Year Book (Dordrecht: Springer): 5–9, 16–17. Archived from the original on December 25, 2018. Retrieved January 3, 2016. Israel's Jewish population (not including about 348,000 persons not recorded as Jews in the Population Register and belonging to families initially admitted to the country within the framework of the Law of Return) surpassed six million in 2014 (42.9% of world Jewry).
  8. ^ "Move On Up". The Forward. Archived from the original on 2011-10-18. Retrieved 2013-04-29.
  9. ^ Alroey 2015, p. 110: "The sweeping and uncritical use of the two terms, "aliyah" and "immigration" is one of the major factors in the emergence of the divergent treatment of similar data. In the Zionist ethos, aliyah has nothing in common with the migration of other peoples. Zionist historiography takes it as axiomatic that the Jews who came to the country as part of the pioneering early waves were "olim" and not simply "immigrants." The latent ideological charge of the term "aliyah" is so deeply rooted in the Hebrew language that it is almost impossible to distinguish between Jews who "merely" immigrated to Palestine and those who made aliyah to the Land of Israel. Jewish social scientists of the early twentieth century were the first to distinguish aliyah from general Jewish migration. The use of "aliyah" as a typological phenomenon came into vogue with the publication of Arthur Ruppin's Soziologie der Juden in 1930 (English: The Jews in the Modern World, 1934)… in the eighth chapter, which looks at migration, Ruppin seems to have found it difficult to free himself of the Zionist terminology that was dominant in that period. [Ruppin wrote that whereas] Jewish immigration to the United States was propelled by economic hardship and pogroms, the olim (not immigrants) came to Palestine with the support of the Hoveve Tsiyon, with whom they felt a high degree of ideological conformity."
  10. ^ Alroey 2015, pp. 115–116.
  11. ^ Golinkin, David. "Is It A Mitzvah To Make Aliyah?". Responsa in a Moment. Schechter Institute of Jewish Studies. Archived from the original on 13 June 2017. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  12. ^ Leff, Barry. "The Mitzvah of Aliyah". Archived from the original on 27 December 2013. Retrieved 26 December 2013.
  13. ^ "עליית החסידים ההמונית לא"י". ץראב םתושרתשהו א"רגה ידימלת. Daat. 2008-08-02. Archived from the original on 2021-10-23. Retrieved 2021-09-18.
  14. ^ Munayyer, Youssef (23 May 2012). "Not All Citizens Are Equal". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 July 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  15. ^ Shoham 2013.
  16. ^ Horovitz, Greenberg, and Zilberg, Al Naharot Bavel (Bible Lands Museum press, 2015), inscription 15
  17. ^ Hahistoriya shel Eretz Israel - Shilton Romi, Yisrael Levine, p. 47, ed. Menahem Stern, 1984, Yad Izhak Ben Zvi - Keter
  18. ^ The Jerusalem Cathedra: Studies in the History, Archaeology, Geography and Ethnography of the Land of Israel, "Aliya from Babylonia During the Amoraic Period (200–500 AD)", Joshua Schwartz, pp.58–69, ed. Lee Levine, 1983, Yad Izhak Ben Zvi & Wayne State University Press
  19. ^ The Jerusalem Cathedra: Studies in the History, Archaeology, Geography and Ethnography of the Land of Israel, "Aliya and Pilgrimage in the Early Arab Period (634–1009)", Moshe Gil, 1983, Yad Izhak Ben Zvi & Wayne State University Press
  20. ^ "יהדות הגולה והכמיהה לציון, 1840–1240". Tchelet. 2008-08-02. Archived from the original on 2022-04-07. Retrieved 2012-03-19.
  21. ^ Ilani, Ofri (2008-01-06). "The Messiah brought the first immigrants". Archived from the original on 2012-05-27. Retrieved 2013-04-29.
  22. ^ Morgenstern, Arie: Hastening Redemption: Messianism and the Resettlement of the Land of Israel Published in Hebrew, 1997, Jerusalem, Ma’or; Published in English, 2006, Oxford University Press
  23. ^ Salmon 1978.
  24. ^ Shoham 2013, p. 35-37: "The term Aliya as defining historical periods appeared only when talking about Jewish history on the long-durée, when looking back to thousands of years. In 1914, the Zionist activist Shemaryahu Levin [wrote]: “Now at the time of the Third Aliya we can witness the fulfillment of the vision of the Second Aliya, in the days of Nehemiah.” Levin based this remark on a contemporaneous historiographical convention, according to which Jewish history knew two main aliyot to the Land of Israel in biblical times: “the First Aliya” took place in the time of biblical Zerubavel, after Cyrus’ declaration, while “the Second Aliya” took place in the days of Ezra and Nehemiah, about 80 years later… Levin’s periodization was not circulated in public, including among practical Zionists. It achieved dominance only after the WW I, in a way different from both Levin’s intention and counting...Along with analogies of the Balfour Declaration to Cyrus, 2,500 years earlier, many leaders began to write and talk about the forthcoming immigration as “the Third Aliya”, which would continue the previous two, those that departed from Babylonia to establish the second temple. About two months after the Balfour Declaration, Isaac Nissenbaum from the Mizrachi (Zionist-religious) movement published an optimis- tic article in which he anticipated a Hebrew majority in Palestine soon."
  25. ^ Shoham 2013, p. 42: "The first text in which the periodization as we know it today may be found was an article surveying historical immigrations to and from Palestine, written by the widely recognized writer Y.H. Brenner, and published in October 1919…"
  26. ^ Alroey 2015, p. 111: "The declaration by Ruppin, the dean of Jewish sociologists, that one "makes aliyah” to the Land of Israel but "immigrates" to the United States laid the terminological and scholarly foundations for turning immigration to Palestine into a unique variety of Jewish migration. During the 1940s and 1950s, demographers and sociologists, including Jacob Lestschinsky, Arieh Tartakower, David Gurevich, Roberto Bachi, and Shmuel Noah Eisenstadt, followed the trail blazed by Ruppin in the 1930s, spinning a Zionist narrative that both created and presumed the unique traits of aliyah and the Zionist enterprise."
  27. ^ a b c Alroey 2015, p. 114: "In his work, Gurevich divided the immigration to Palestine into five separate waves, although he was not the first to do so. He dated the First Aliyah to 1881-1903 and the Second Aliyah to 1904-14 - a periodization that became accepted in the historiography of the Yishuv; few questioned it. Although, as a demographer and statistician, Gurevich had the tools to examine aliyah to Palestine as immigration and to focus on the majority of those who entered the country, he chose to highlight the ideologically-inclined minority who were unrepresentative of the immigrants as a whole."
  28. ^ Alroey 2015, p. 113: "Gurevich's 1944 book The Jewish Population of Palestine: Immigration, Demographic Structure and Natural Growth (in Hebrew) examined immigration to Palestine from a local and Zionist standpoint. Like Ruppin and Lestschinsky, Gurevich stressed the magnetic pull of the country and especially Zionist ideology as the main factors motivating immigration to Palestine in the years 1881 to 1914. He described the First Aliyah as the aliyah of the Bilu'im and saw the pioneering agricultural workers of the Second Aliyah as representative of that aliyah as a whole, because they left their mark on the Yishuv at the beginning of the twentieth century."
  29. ^ Hizky Shoham (2012). "From "Great History" to "Small History": The Genesis of the Zionist Periodization". Israel Studies. 18 (1): 31–55. doi:10.2979/israelstudies.18.1.31. S2CID 144978084.
  30. ^ a b Motta, Giuseppe (2020). Aleksandar Rastović; Andrea Carteny; Biljana Vučetić (eds.). Charity in Time of War. The JOINT Distribution Committee in Russia in the Context of Humanitarian Internationalism. Collection of Works / The Institute of History Belgrade. Vol. 43. Belgrade: The Institute of History Belgrade with Sapienza University of Rome. p. 269-283 [271]. ISBN 978-86-7743-140-2. Retrieved 23 February 2021. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  31. ^ Engel, David (2013-09-13). Zionism. Routledge. pp. 32–35. ISBN 978-1-317-86548-3.
  32. ^ M., Akiva. "The Real Aliyah". Archived from the original on 4 October 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  33. ^ "How Kurdish Jews made their way to Jerusalem, shocked Herzl, began to thrive". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 2020-12-15. Retrieved 2021-01-14.
  34. ^ The Origins of Israel, 1882–1948: A Documentary History, eds. Eran Kaplan, Derek J. Penslar. University of Wisconsin Press. December 2011. ISBN 978-0-299-28493-0. Retrieved 2013-04-29.
  35. ^ Segev, Tom (2018 - 2019 translation Haim Watzman) A State at Any Cost. The Life of David Ben-Gurion. Apollo. ISBN 978-1-78954-463-3. p.61
  36. ^ "Moving to Israel?". Jacob Richman. 2008-08-02. Archived from the original on 2005-09-20. Retrieved 2005-10-06.
  37. ^ "Transfer Agreement". Transfer Agreement. Archived from the original on 2013-05-14. Retrieved 2013-04-29.
  38. ^ Yoav Gelber, "The Historical Role of Central European Immigration to Israel", Leo Baeck Institute Year Book 38 (1993), p. 326 n. 6.
  39. ^ Hakohen, Devorah (2003). Immigration from Poland. Syracuse University Press, 325 pages. ISBN 978-0-8156-2969-6. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  40. ^ Arieh J. Kochavi, Post-Holocaust politics: Britain, the United States & Jewish refugees, 1945-1948. Page 15. The University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-2620-1 Accessed June 20, 2011.
  41. ^ Hacohen, Dvora (2003). "Aliyah to Israel by Country of Origin and Year of Aliyah, 14 May 1948-31 December 1953". Immigrants in Turmoil: Mass Immigration to Israel and Its Repercussions in the 1950s and After. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-2969-6. Retrieved 8 December 2023.
  42. ^ a b c "The Mass Migration of the 1950s". The Jewish Agency. April 27, 2015. Archived from the original on February 6, 2020. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  43. ^ Israel Hard Pressed to Handle Immigration Flood Archived 2015-12-22 at the Wayback Machine - The Portsmouth Times. 27 April 1949
  44. ^ "The Canadian Jewish Review - Google News Archive Search". Archived from the original on 2022-05-06. Retrieved 2020-10-14.
  45. ^ a b Aliyah Archived 2014-02-22 at the Wayback Machine - Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  46. ^ Lori, Aviva (March 3, 2013). "Tribute to an Aliyah Like No Other". Haaretz. Archived from the original on February 3, 2020. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  47. ^ "Knesset Rules of Procedure - PART A (2)". Archived from the original on 2013-07-19. Retrieved 2013-04-29.
  48. ^ Beker 2005, p. 4.
  49. ^ "MLibrary Digital Collections: King James Bible: Exodus 19:4: Retrieved 23 June 2012". Archived from the original on 2012-01-06. Retrieved 2013-04-29.
  50. ^ "MLibrary Digital Collections: King James Bible: Isaiah 40:31: Retrieved 23 June 2012". Archived from the original on 2013-11-27. Retrieved 2013-04-29.
  51. ^ Littman (1979), p. 5.
  52. ^ Babeș, Adina (2014). "Alyiah of Romanian Jews – socio-statistical facts (historical approach)". Sfera Politicii. 22 (180–181): 247–254.
  53. ^ Koranyi, James (1 March 2017). "People have been used as bargaining chips before – by Romania's Nicolae Ceaușescu". The Conversation.
  54. ^ Gasparini, Amedeo (24 May 2023). ""Our most important export commodities": independence, money, and ethnic purity in the Jewry policy during the Ceaușescu years". Journal of Modern Jewish Studies: 1–9. doi:10.1080/14725886.2023.2212283. ISSN 1472-5886. Retrieved 15 January 2024.
  55. ^ Petrescu, Dragoq (2008). "The Ransom of the Jews: The Story of the Extraordinary Secret Bargain Between Romania and Israel (review)". Journal of Cold War Studies. 10 (1): 127–128. doi:10.1162/jcws.2008.10.1.127. ISSN 1531-3298. Retrieved 15 January 2024.
  56. ^ Melman, Yossi; Raviv, Dan (14 January 1990). "BUYING ROMANIA'S JEWS". Washington Post. Retrieved 15 January 2024.
  57. ^ Beckerman, Gal (11 February 2005). "The Cold War's Strangest Bedfellows How Romania Sold Its Jews to Israel, and What It Got in Return". The Forward. Retrieved 15 January 2024.
  58. ^ "Aliyah". mfa. 2008-08-02. Archived from the original on 2012-12-18. Retrieved 2008-08-10.
  59. ^ a b Alexeyeva, Lyudmila (1992). История инакомыслия в СССР [The History of Dissident Movement in the USSR] (in Russian). Vilnius: Vest'. OCLC 489831449. Archived from the original on March 9, 2017. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
  60. ^ a b Lazin, Fred A. (July 2005). "Refugee Resettlement and 'Freedom of Choice': The Case of Soviet Jewry". Center for Immigration Studies. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  61. ^ "Post-Soviet Aliyah and Jewish Demographic Transformation". Archived from the original on 2013-11-05. Retrieved 2021-01-16.
  62. ^ Levy, Tracy (10 September 2009). "After 20 years, why has Russian immigration to Israel stagnated?". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 22 August 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
  63. ^ Reinharz, Shulamit; Dellapergola, Sergio (2011-12-31). Jewish Intermarriage Around the World - Shulamit Reinharz, Sergio Della Pergola. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4128-1544-4. Retrieved 2013-04-29.
  64. ^ "Ukrainian Jews immigrate to Israel amid growing unrest". The Times of Israel. May 4, 2014. Archived from the original on 21 April 2015. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
  65. ^ "Ukrainian Aliyah to Israel Up Significantly". Shalom Life. May 5, 2014. Archived from the original on 17 May 2014. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
  66. ^ "Aliyah Hits Ten-Year High: Approximately 26,500 New Immigrants Arrived in Israel in 2014". The Jewish Agency. Jan 2, 2015. Archived from the original on 2 July 2015. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
  67. ^ "Aliyah Figures at Highest in a Decade; France Leads the Way". Arutz Sheva. December 31, 2014. Archived from the original on 1 June 2015. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
  68. ^ "Why Members of the 'Putin Aliyah' Are Abandoning Israel". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 20 March 2022. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  69. ^ "Putin's Aliyah: Russian Jews leave Israel". Middle East Monitor. 14 April 2017. Archived from the original on 20 March 2022. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  70. ^ Galily, Lily (September 2020). THE OTHER TRIBE: ISRAEL'S RUSSIANSPEAKING COMMUNIT Y AND HOW IT IS CHANGING THE COUNTRY (PDF). The Brookings Institution. p. 16. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 March 2022. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  71. ^ Rudnitsky, Anna. "On the banks of the Yarkon River lies a little piece of Moscow". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 20 March 2022. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  72. ^ Dubinets, Elena (5 October 2021). Russian Composers Abroad: How They Left, Stayed, Returned. Indiana University Press. p. 183. ISBN 978-0-253-05779-2. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  73. ^ "UAWire - Putin's exodus: Number of Jews leaving Russia for Israel reaches Soviet levels". Archived from the original on 6 May 2022. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  74. ^ "Over 25,000 olim in 'Immigrants Come Home' operation arrived in Israel". The Jerusalem Post | 13 June 2022. Archived from the original on 22 July 2022. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  75. ^ Mozgovaya, Natasha; Papirblat, Shlomo (20 November 2010). "In Venezuela, remarks like 'Hitler didn't finish the job' are routine". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 10 October 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
  76. ^ Shefler, Gil (1 September 2010). "Jewish community in Venezuela shrinks by half". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 4 September 2010. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
  77. ^ "Le chiffre de l'alya des Juifs de France ne décolle pas!" (in French). Archived from the original on 5 May 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  78. ^ Podolsky, Philip (2012-08-10). "France reportedly draws up plans to evacuate 200,000 Franco-Israelis in case of war". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 2019-05-29. Retrieved 2013-04-29.
  79. ^ Petersberg, Ofer (23 May 2012). "Is crisis bringing French Jews to Israel?". Ynetnews. Archived from the original on 26 May 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
  80. ^ "French Anti-Semitic Attacks Up by 40 Percent". CBN. 30 August 2012. Archived from the original on 1 November 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
  81. ^ "Immigration to Israel Rises by 7% — Led by French". Forward. December 29, 2013. Archived from the original on 11 March 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
  82. ^ Sam Sokol (2014-03-30). "Jewish Agency touts French aliyah increase". Archived from the original on 2014-04-05. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
  83. ^ "2014 Sees Sharp Rise in French Immigration to Israel". The Forward Association, Inc. 31 March 2014. Archived from the original on 9 July 2014. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
  84. ^ Yaakov Levi (30 March 2014). "312% Rise in French Aliyah in First Months of 2014". Archived from the original on 4 April 2014. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
  85. ^ Marcus Dysch (March 31, 2014). "Hate fears push French aliyah to new high".
  86. ^ Josh Hasten (April 7, 2014). "French anti-Semitism and French aliyah skyrocket on parallel tracks". Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  87. ^ "74% of French Jews Consider Leaving Country". Forward. 19 May 2014. Archived from the original on 22 May 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  88. ^ Moshe Cohen (2014-06-22). "Jewish Agency: 'Dramatic' Rise in French, Ukraine Aliyah". Arutz Sheva. Archived from the original on 2014-07-02. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
  89. ^ Dan Bilefsky (June 20, 2014). "Number of French Jews Emigrating to Israel Rises". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2 July 2014. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
  90. ^ Ronen, Gil (22 September 2014). "Ahead of New Year, Aliyah Hits 5-Year High". Israel National News. Archived from the original on 23 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
  91. ^ 24,800 new immigrants arrive in Israel in 5774 Archived 2014-09-22 at the Wayback Machine - Retrieved 22 September 2014
  92. ^ "Jewish Agency-affiliated think tank composes aliyah plan for 120,000 French Jews". JTA News. January 25, 2015.
  93. ^ "Aliyah plan prepares for 120,000 French Jews". J. JWeekly. January 29, 2015. Archived from the original on 14 February 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  94. ^ a b "Israel Gains With Influx of French Jewish Entrepreneurs". Bloomberg. January 22, 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-02-16. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  95. ^ Raziye Akkoc, and Henry Samuel (26 June 2015). "Grenoble attack: Man found beheaded and Islamist flag raised above factory in France - latest". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2022-01-11. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
  96. ^ "Come home!' Israeli minister urges French Jews amid terror wave". Times of Israel. June 26, 2015. Archived from the original on 28 June 2015. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
  97. ^ "Israel's Absorption Ministry Plans for Influx of French Jews". Algemeiner. 21 June 2015. Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
  98. ^ "Does a gritty ex-cop's move to Israel symbolize the end for France's Jews?". The Times of Israel. 28 October 2015. Archived from the original on 29 October 2015. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
  99. ^ Cohen, Shimon (16 November 2015). "80% of French Jews considering aliyah". Arutz Sheva. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
  100. ^ Amanda Borschel-Dan (15 November 2015). "French now realizing they, and not just Jews, are targets". Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 16 November 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
  101. ^ Shitbon, Shirli (14 November 2015). "For French Jews, a New Reality: Under Attack for Being French, Not Jewish". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 16 November 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
  102. ^ Bassist, Rina (17 November 2015). "Steady increase in number of French Jews making aliya". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 18 November 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
  103. ^ "French Jews head to Israel in the wake of Paris terror attacks". IB Business Times. 17 November 2015. Archived from the original on 18 November 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
  104. ^ "Dozens of French Jews immigrate to Israel after Paris attacks". Times of Israel. 17 November 2015. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
  105. ^ Daphna Berman (January 23, 2008). "Need an appointment at the U.S. Embassy? Get on line!". Haaretz. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved December 11, 2012. According to estimates, some 200,000 American citizens live in Israel and the Palestinian territories.
  106. ^ Michele Chabin (March 19, 2012). "In vitro babies denied U.S. citizenship". USA Today. Jerusalem. Archived from the original on June 29, 2020. Retrieved December 11, 2012. Most of the 200,000 U.S. citizens in Israel have dual citizenship, and fertility treatments are common because they are free.
  107. ^ Troen S., Ilan and Lucas, Noah: Israel: The First Decade of Independence
  108. ^ "Six-day War Anniversary: North American Olim Who Came After 1967 War Maintain Idealism". May 27, 1997. Archived from the original on February 3, 2020. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  109. ^ Berman, Daphna (2007-06-01). "The 40th anniversary of the Six-Day War / Rate of return - Israel News | Haaretz Daily Newspaper". Archived from the original on 2015-10-16. Retrieved 2013-04-29.
  110. ^ Waxman, Chaim. American Aliyah, Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1989. pg. 131-135
  111. ^ "U.S. aliyah highest in 36 years". JTA Article. 2009-12-29. Archived from the original on 2012-05-31. Retrieved 2013-04-29.
  112. ^ Schwartzapfel, Beth (2 March 2010). "Not just Zionism: Lousy economy pushes more U.S. Jews to move to Israel". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
  113. ^ Stone, Andrea (22 November 2004). "As attacks rise in France, Jews flock to Israel". USA Today. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  114. ^ "Nefesh B. Nefesh". 2008-08-02. Archived from the original on 2005-10-03. Retrieved 2005-10-12.
  115. ^ Bassok, Moti (21 February 2007). "Aliyah sees 9% dip from 2005". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  116. ^ "הודעות לעיתונות". Archived from the original on 2013-07-19. Retrieved 2013-04-29.
  117. ^ "2010 Was a Very Good Year for Making Aliyah". Archived from the original on 2013-10-06. Retrieved 2013-04-29.
  118. ^ From Kaifeng to kibbutzim Archived 2013-05-06 at the Wayback Machine. The Jerusalem Post
  119. ^ Oster, Marcy (26 October 2009). "Descendants of Chinese Jews arrive in Israel". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Archived from the original on 23 April 2023. Retrieved 23 April 2023.
  120. ^ Bitton, Rebecca (24 August 2010). "Kaifeng Jews study in Israeli yeshiva". Ynetnews. Archived from the original on 24 April 2023. Retrieved 23 April 2023.
  121. ^ "Immigration to Israel increases by 17 percent in 2009". Archived from the original on 2013-10-06. Retrieved 2013-04-29.
  122. ^ Zeiger, Asher. "Russian-speakers who want to make aliya could need DNA test". Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 3 February 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  123. ^ "Government to pass new holiday: 'Aliyah Day'". Ynetnews. Archived from the original on 2022-11-01. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  124. ^ "Knesset Proposes Aliyah Holiday Bill". Israel National News. 24 March 2014. Archived from the original on 2021-10-22. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  125. ^ "חוק יום העלייה – ויקיטקסט" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2020-10-01. Retrieved 2019-10-21.
  126. ^ "Bill seeks to establish national Aliya Day". The Jerusalem Post | 18 March 2014. Archived from the original on 27 September 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  127. ^ "Yehoshua - Joshua - Chapter 4". Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  128. ^ "Yom HaAliyah: They made a day for us!". Archived from the original on 2017-07-16. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  129. ^ "New national holiday in Israel". J-Wire. 2016-06-21. Archived from the original on 2017-07-29. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  130. ^ "חוק יום העלייה – ויקיטקסט". Archived from the original on 2021-03-08. Retrieved 2016-11-08.
  131. ^ Klein, Steven (2016-06-24). "Rank and File: Aliyah Day Becomes Official Holiday". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 2018-09-16. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  132. ^ "День Алии-2019: репатрианты в Израиле – некоторые данные" (PDF). Исследовательско-аналитический Центр Кнессета. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 November 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  133. ^ During 2018, 30,124 people made Aliyah, 2% more than during 2017. Not including Ethiopian immigrants, 30,087 Olim arrived, as compared to 28,192 in 2017, an increase of 7%. Archived 2019-12-12 at the Wayback Machine at
  134. ^ a b "The Jewish Agency Summarizes a Decade of Aliyah | The Jewish Agency". 22 December 2019. Archived from the original on 27 June 2022. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  135. ^ "Israel Aliyah Statistics 2020". Anglo-List. 28 October 2019. Archived from the original on 6 May 2022. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  136. ^ "Jewish Agency: 250,000 expected to immigrate to Israel in the next 3-5 years". Archived from the original on 6 May 2022. Retrieved 20 March 2022. Jewish Agency CEO Amira Ahronoviz presented the official Aliyah statistics for 2019: 35,000 immigrants, including 24,651 from the Commonwealth of Independent States; 3,963 from European countries; 3,539 from North America; 1,746 from Latin America; 663 from Ethiopia; 442 from South Africa; 318 from Turkey and other Middle Eastern countries; and 189 from Australia and New Zealand.
  137. ^ "There was an 18% Increase in Aliyah in 2019". TPS / Tazpit News. 9 August 2020. Archived from the original on 21 March 2022. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  138. ^ "20,000 make Aliyah in 2020 | The Jewish Agency". Archived from the original on 6 May 2022. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  139. ^ "Статистика: в 2020 году заметно сократилась алия из России и Украины". (in Russian). 28 December 2020. Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  140. ^ "Aliyah to Israel Increased by 31% in 2021 | The Jewish Agency". Archived from the original on 2 March 2022. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  141. ^ "Aliyah recovers from COVID-19 slump in 2021, new record of US olim". The Jerusalem Post. 22 December 2021. Archived from the original on 19 March 2022. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  142. ^ a b c d e f g h Bybelezer, Charles (22 December 2022). "70,000 people from 95 countries make aliyah in 2022". Archived from the original on 6 February 2023. Retrieved 6 February 2023.
  143. ^ Druckman, Yaron (29 December 2022). "Israel's population nears 10 million as 2022 coming to a warp, report says". Ynetnews. Archived from the original on 6 February 2023. Retrieved 6 February 2023.
  144. ^ "Five-fold Increase in Immigration to Israel From Russia, Ukraine in 2022". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 2023-02-01. Retrieved 6 July 2023.
  145. ^ "Oops, Something is wrong" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-22. Retrieved 2013-03-29.
  146. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-11-13. Retrieved 2013-09-17.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  147. ^ Goldsceider, Calvin (January 1974). "American Aliya / Sociological and Demographic Perspectives". Berman Jewish Policy Archive. Behrman House Publishers. Archived from the original on 15 December 2014. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
  148. ^ "First Aliya". Archived from the original on October 14, 2013. Retrieved September 9, 2013.
  149. ^ Goldberg, David J. (2011-03-15). The Divided Self: Israel and the Jewish Psyche Today - David J. Goldberg - Google Books. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-1-84885-674-5. Retrieved 2013-04-29.
  150. ^ "Statistical Abstract of Israel 2012 - No. 63 Subject 4 - Table No. 2". Archived from the original on 2013-10-06. Retrieved 2013-04-29.


  • Salmon, Yosef (1978). "Ideology and Reality in the Bilu "Aliyah"". Harvard Ukrainian Studies. 2 (4). [President and Fellows of Harvard College, Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute]: 430–466. ISSN 0363-5570. JSTOR 41035804.

Further reading

External links